World War I: The War to End All Wars

World War I: The War to End All Wars

Unit 6: World Wars and Revolutions Chapters 26-29 Chapter 26 WORLD WAR I: THE WAR TO END ALL WARS 1914: Europe is pretty peaceful? First modern Olympic games 1899

French economist The future belongs to peace. Otto von Bismarck Great War will start in the East. Alliances Form Purpose: To keep peace creates powerful combinations so no one attacks Treaties signed so countries protect one another Reality? Opposite effect. Two major alliances formed in Europe

Major Alliances The Triple Alliance (Central Powers) Formed in 1882 Germany Austria Italy The Triple Entente (The Allies)

Formed in 1904 Russia France Britain Other alliances: Germany signed a treaty with Ottoman Turkey Britain developed relations with Japan Tensions Rise (Read: Causes) Nationalism: Old empires fall apart; people want

independence Competition: Economic and military want to protect their status Militarism: Glorification of the military Arms race Imperialism: Countries compete for overseas colonies War Begins Archduke Francis Ferdinand (Austria-Hungary)

visited Sarajevo, Bosnia. Serbian nationalists (under Austrian-Hungarian rule) were angry Member of Serbian terrorist group (Black Hand), Gavrilo Princip, assassinated the archduke and his wife, Sophie. Austria Strikes Back Francis Joseph (Ferdinands uncle) is still hesitant of war

Kaiser William II (Germany) gave Austria unlimited support no matter the cost. Austria sends Serbia an ultimatum, final set of demands End anti-Austrian agitation and punish the conspirators July 28, 1914, Austria declares war on Serbia Alliances Kick In Russia and France back Serbia Germany declares war on Russia France wants to avenge the Franco-Prussian War

Germany declares war on France Italy chose neutrality for as long as possible Germany = two-front war (France & Russia) Schlieffen Plan: defeat France first Needed to get through neutral Belgium Belgium was guaranteed neutrality Britain declares war on Germany on August 4 Initial Reactionsmay surprise you Prior to 1914, many countries had domestic

troubles Ex. Imperialism, social unrest, revolutions, etc. Renewed sense of patriotism Exciting adventure Fighting for a better world

British diplomat: The lamps are going out all over Europe. We shall not see them lit again in our lifetime. Think (on LT sheet)/Pair Share On the Western Front Stalemate long deadlock in which neither side is able to defeat the other Schlieffen Plan failed Russia mobilized quickly

British & French troops pushed back (Battle of Marne) Battle lines unchanged for almost four years Map. Technology of Modern Warfare Rapid-fire machine gun Long-range artillery gun Poison gas Blinded or choked victims

Caused burns and blisters Uncertainty/risky Tanks Airplanes Zeppelins (gas-filled balloons used in bombing) Submarines (U-boats)

Trench Warfare Complex system of fighting from underground Lying in wait for attack followed by counterattacks Unsanitary conditions

Rats Maggots Disease Lice On the Eastern Front Battle lines shifted More casualties than the Western Front

Russia poorly equipped; forced to retreat Bulgaria joined Central Powers; helped defeat Serbia 1915 Italy declares war on Austria-Hungary Italy retreats; protected by Britain and France

Elsewhere in Europe Romania joined Allies; crushed by Central Powers Ottoman Empire joins Central Powers Ottoman Turks fought on three fronts: Dardanelles Caucasus

Middle East Lost much of their empire to Arabs, including Baghdad (Iraq) What about the European colonies? Provided troops, supplies, laborers Mixed feelings Some did not want to serve their ruling countries Some joined eagerly Hoped for independence for their service

Waging Total War Morale was low due to casualties (millions!) Modern wars take ALL of a countrys resources: Total war Universal military conscription the draft Raised taxes, rationed food & other products Forced civilian labor Economic Warfare Britain blocked ships in the North Sea from getting

to Germany Confiscated contraband (military supplies & materials to make them) Violated international law German and Austrian people couldnt find food Turnip winter The Lusitania Germanys retaliation their own blockade of Uboats Sank all ships carrying goods to Britain

May 15, 1915, Germany torpedoed the British liner Lusitania 1,200 dead; 128 Americans Wilson threatened to cut ties with Germany if they did not give warning and allow neutral parties through Propaganda Controlling public opinion Keep discouraging

news from the public Motivate military mobilization Loan money to government bonds Negative stories of other countries Women Join War Effort Took over mens jobs Crucial to economy

War Industries Nurses Womens Land Army Sense of pride and confidence Challenged idea that women could not hold dangerous jobsor vote? United States Declares War

Split sides Cultural history with GB & France German/Irish Americans favored Central Powers Germany resumed unrestricted submarine warfare British intercepted Zimmerman Note Germany offered to help Mexico reclaim New Mexico, Texas, and Arizona US declared war on Germany in April

1917 Boosted morale for Allies Victory for the Allies Wilsons Fourteen points Freedom of seas

Free trade Reduction of arms End secret treaties Armistice agreement to end fighting November 11, 1918 The original Veterans Day Costs of War Flu pandemic

Killed over 20 million people worldwide Financial Toll Countries in rubble; had to rebuild Bitterness Allies force reparation payment for war damages US in best financial shape Political Turmoil

Paris Peace Conference Allies met to discuss the fate of Europe and Ottoman empire Central Powers & Russia were not allowed to attend Conflicting goals Wilson: Fourteen Points peace without victory David Lloyd George: Expensive post-war Britain Georges Clemenceau: Weaken Germany *League of Nations created *Collective security nations act as one to preserve the peace of all

*United States never joined Treaty of Versailles Forced Germany to assume all blame for war Huge reparations Destruction to Allied countries Pensions for Allied soldiers and families $30 billion ($2.7 trillion today) Weakened Germany Loss of land

German resentment would poison climates for 20 years. WWII??? Other Settlements with Central Powers Mandate system Designed to divide up German and Ottoman lands after WWI New Independent Nations

Poland Latvia

Lithuania Estonia Czechoslvakia Austria Hungary Yugolslavia Chapter 26 Section 5 THE RUSSIAN REVOLUTION AND CIVIL WAR

The Bolsheviks small Marxist group wanted to change life in Russia leader = Vladimir Lenin goal = overthrow czar the Bolsheviks if czar was overthrown, industrial workers could govern Russia

Russia & WWI Czar Nicholas II hoped war would unite Russia & stop talk of revolution patriotism increased rapidly Russia & WWI Russia was not ready for war Russia lacked:

factories/supplies transportation system modern equipment competent military leaders Conditions Worsen 1915 Nicholas II took command of Russian military if Russia failed in WWI, so would Nicholas II

Conditions Worsen food & other goods grew scarce peasants grew desperate Nicholas II went to war left Czarina Alexandra in charge (unpopular) Alexandra took advice from Grigory Rasputin (corrupt/immoral) Revolution Begins

March 8, 1917 Petrograd, Russia unhappy citizens marched police & soldiers were sympathetic the Duma (Russias legislature) defied Nicholas II March 15, 1917 Nicholas II forced to abdicate Temporary Government Duma established temporary government Aleksandr Kerensky was leader

many Russians didnt like this government Bolsheviks wanted basic changes Lenin was still leader Bolshevik Revolution mid-1917 Kerenskys government still fighting Central Powers in WWI Russian army was weak & collapsed November 1917 Bolshevik Red Guard attacked Kerenskys government

Bolshevik Revolution Kerenskys government didnt put up much of a fight Lenin established radical communist program private ownership = illegal land redistributed to peasants After the Revolution Lenin wanted to end involvement in war Leon Trotsky was sent to negotiate with Central Powers

Russia lost a lot of land to Central Powers because of lack of strong military Civil War some Russians disliked the negotiations & their results opponents of Bolsheviks = White Army army leaders political opponents wealthy Russians *France & United States supported White Army

Civil War Ends Red Army vs. White Army fighting & famine cost millions of lives late 1920 Bolsheviks triumph 1921 New Economic Policy: plan permitting some capitalist activity The Soviet Union 1922 economy began to improve

1922 Russia reunited with neighboring lands that had belonged to Russian Empire Became Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) or Soviet Union Chapter 27 Nationalism and Revolution 1: Each person is assigned a section and competes the quiz 2: Like groups will join together, compare their information, and create a brief presentation highlighting the main points for the class.

3: Each group will present their information while the other groups record the information 4: Section 5 will be done individually Chapter 28 THE RISE OF TOTALITARIANISM Section One

POSTWAR SOCIAL CHANGES Changes in Society Entire generation wiped out Shattered optimism The Roaring Twenties (in United States) Jazz Age Flappers: liberated young women Rejected old traditions

Labor-saving devices Washing machines, vacuum cleaners, canned food Women pursued careers & leisure activities Reactions to Jazz Age Prohibition: ban on manufacture & sale of alcohol Eighteenth Amendment: 1919 Purpose: keep people from negative effects of alcohol Reality: Explosion of organized crime Speakeasies: illegal bars

Repealed in 1933 Christian fundamentalist movement Scopes trial (teaching evolution) New Literature Grim horrors of warfare (All Quiet on Western Front) Loss of faith T.S. Eliot, The Waste Land Ernest Hemingway, The Sun Also Rises

F. Scott Fitzgerald (The Great Gatsby) Harlem Renaissance African-American cultural awakening New Scientific Theories Marie Curie & radioactivity Einsteins theory of relativity Atomic fission (think A-bomb) Unsettling sense of a universe beyond human understanding

Penicillin Alexander Fleming Psychoanalysis (studying the mind) Section Two STRUGGLES FOR WESTERN DEMOCRACIES Politics

Party struggles in Britain (Labour vs. Conservatives) Irish independence from Britain Power struggle in France The Red Scare and isolationism in U.S. Fear of radicals and immigrants Postwar Foreign Policy

Maginot Line Military line between France & Germany Kellogg-Briand Pact Outlawed war Disarmament: reduction of armed forces and weapons Weakness of League of Nations Many countries built armies anyway Economics

Britains economic problems Frequent labor strikes Low wages France recovered quickly Peacetime manufacturing German reparations U.S. boom, until. The Great Depression

Failing demand; low production Goods exceed the demand Stock prices at all-time high High interested rates from Federal Reserve (central banking system of the U.S.) Fear caused people to sell stocks all at once 1929- Stock prices crashed, causing global economic collapse Democracies React

France & Britain search for solutions Some unemployment benefits Lack of strong leadership F.D.R. & The New Deal Government needed to take active role Economic and social programs Eased some suffering Many people lost faith in democracies to solve modern problems misery & hopelessness ensued

Section 3 FASCISM IN ITALY Benito Mussolini Broken promises = chaos in Italy Mussolini steps up to reform Forms the Fascist Party Intense nationalism Unity & organization

Charismatic speaker Black Shirts Mussolinis supporters party militants Wore black shirts to signify revolt Intimidation and terror March on Rome Fascists swarmed the capitol Demanded Mussolini be appointed prime minister Mussolinis Rule The Leader Economy under state rule

Loyalty to the state was demanded Strong military Totalitarian state: one-party dictatorship regulates every aspect of citizens lives Fascism: centralized, authoritarian government that is NOT communist

Section 4 STALIN AND THE SOVIET UNION A Totalitarian State Command economy: government made all economic decisions Forced collectives in agriculture: large, state-owned farms run by peasants Peasants resisted Terror Famine

5-8 million people died in Ukraine alone Stalins Terror Tactics Gulag brutal labor camps where critics were sent Attempted to control thought Propaganda Russification Making nationalitys culture more Russian

Atheism, belief there is no god, official state policy Military powerhouse Section Five HITLER AND NAZI GERMANY Who is Adolf Hitler? Born in Austria in 1889 Felt superior to other ethnic groups, especially Jews Anti-Semitism

Fought for Germany in WWI Lead National Socialist German Workers (Nazi) Storm troopers Arrested for treason Mein Kampf Released from prison becomes dictator of Germany To conquer a nation, first disarm its citizens. -Hitler Third Reich Controls Germany Hitlers reign master race to control Germany

Totalitarian state system of terror & repression Gustapo: secret police Indoctrination of youth Purifying German culture Nuremberg Laws: plan to drive Jews out of Germany Final solution mass extermination of all Jews What are we left with? Three powerhouse totalitarian states

Strong dictators Strong militaries Oppressed people Extreme terror tactics Chapter 29


Western powers pleaded for peace Dictators felt peace = weakness Japan overruns Manchuria & China Italy invades Ethiopia Hitler violates Treaty of Versailles

Appeasement: giving into aggressor to keep peace Keeping the Peace Pacifism: opposition to all war France couldnt fight Germany without Britain Some felt Hitler was stopping Soviet communism

United States passes Neutrality Acts forbidding: Sale of arms to any nation at war Loans to warring nations American travel to nations at war Axis Powers Rome-Berlin-Tokyo Axis: Alliance between Germany, Italy, and Japan Believed in the

weakness of Britain, France, and the United States Outlook = War Spanish Civil War Unrest causes king to leave Francisco Franco turns Spain into dictatorship Germany annexes Austria and parts of Czechoslovakia

Nazi-Soviet Pact bound Hitler and Stalin to peaceful relations and it begins Hitler and Stalin secretly agree not to fight and divide up Poland between them Both had something to fear (Communism/Fascism) September 1, 1939, Germany invades Poland Two days later: Britain and France declare war on Germany

Axis Attacks Blitzkrieg: lightning war Tank and airpower technology Takes Norway and Denmark France surrenders in June of 1940 August 1940 Operation Sea Lion Hitler invades Britain with air raids The Blitz September 7, 1940 57 nights

--London did not fall to Germans Germany invades the Soviet Union Nullified the Nazi-Soviet Pact Freezing cold temperatures September 1941 Siege of Leningrad Two-and-a-half-years later. Leningrad did not fall to Germans Significance: Mistake for Germany; advance stalled

Hitlers New Order Obsession with master race Aryans, lightskinned Europeans Jewish people and political opponents sent to concentration camps, detention centers & labor camps where many worked to death The Holocaust Hitlers final solution By 1945, Nazis commit genocide with the mass murder of nearly 12 million people Unequaled in history

Japan attacks the United States U.S. declared neutrality in 1939 Lend-Lease Act allowed arms to be sold when it is vital to the defense of the United States Arsenal of democracy supplying to those fighting for freedom December 7, 1941 attack on Pearl Harbor a date which will live in infamy --President Roosevelt asks Congress to declare war on Japan.

--December 11, 1941 Germany and Italy declare war on U.S. Turning Point in WWII The Big Three begin strategizing for the end Roosevelt, Churchill & Stalin D-Day June 6, 1944 Allied invasion of France Yalta Conference: agreement to enter Japan after Germanys surrender & divide up Germany Mistrust between leaders causes a later split in Allies

Nazi Defeat Italian guerrillas captured and executed Mussolini Hitler committed suicide in his underground bunker Germany surrendered May 7, 1945 May 8, 1945 V-E Day (Victory in Europe)

on the Pacific front Bloody battles in Iwo Jima Feb.-July 1945 Manhattan Project July 1945 first test of atomic bomb Truman issued a warning to Japan August 6, 1945 US drops atomic bomb on Hiroshima Soviet Union declares war; no response from Japan August 9 Second atomic bomb on Nagasaki August 10 Emperor Hirohito forces a surrender

Aftermath Eisenhower: face to face with indisputable evidence of Nazi brutality and ruthless disregard for every sense of decency. Nuremburg Trials Axis leaders tried for crimes against humanity Showed leaders must take responsibility Questioned why ordinary citizens accepted final solution Formation of the United Nations

Peacekeeping organization and world aid The Alliance Breaks Apart Conflicting ideas and distrust among the Allies Cold War: State of tension and hostility between nations aligned with the US vs. Soviet Union without armed conflict Stalin wanted to spread Communism and create a buffer between the Soviet Union and Germany Roosevelt and Churchill request free elections in Eastern Europe

Stalin ignores By 1948, pro-Soviet communist governments were in place in Eastern Europe New Conflicts Develop Truman Doctrine containment of communism Marshall Plan food and aid to Europe Germany divided with the Iron Curtain West Germany is democratic East Germany was under Stalin

North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) formed Military alliance between 11 countries Warsaw Pact signed opposing treaty

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