What Did We Learn from 70 Years of Research on Instructional ...
Your Gut Sense Does technology (and associated media) affect how you think? Instructional Television History of Ed Tech EDC&I 510 TV
First big communication technology to arrive with lots of fanfare, predictions Initial predictions were grand: People will watch theatre performances in their living rooms.
Rapid Spread of TV Quick adoption by most US households Reshapes entertainment industry Many cultural
artifacts generated very swiftly Merging into Everyday Life Developing a Visual Esthetic Pervasive and Long-Term Cultural
Consequences Removing previous barriers between Mens and womens spheres of activity Political elites and the masses (elimination of the smoky room) Adults and children Joshua Meyrowitz, No Sense of Place (1986) McLuhans Ideas
Canadian professor of Renaissance rhetoric Most active in 1950s-70s Famous for the medium is the message and the global village But what does that mean? Understanding Media (1964) Hot and Cool media
Hot and Cool HOT Extend one sense in high definition User doesnt have to work so hard to extract meaning (so: less mental engagement)
Film Novels Radio Photography
COOL Extend several senses in lower definition Takes effort for user to extract meaning (so: more mental engagement) TV Comics
McLuhans Legacy At death (1980), seen as something of a crank, media hypester, faux celebrity Often not taken seriously as a communication, culture scholar More recently, a rebound in interest (probably connected with Internets perceived effects) Scholars with an education bent: Gavriel
Salomon, David Olson, Michael Cole Thinking about Instructional Uses TV came into classroom at nearly same time it won wide acceptance in homes Variety of different purposes for use Regular instruction, as teacher substitute, in distance ed, for ed in non-school settings, etc.
Fairly rapid evolution over 30 years (1950-80) Hardware costs, development of cheap VCRs, etc. Big government programs pushed development Sesame Street, etc. Uses in Classroom Early efforts at distance learning in higher ed
E.g.: Sunrise Semester Popular, but very basic K-12 Classroom Use Teacher shortage in early 1960s (baby boom) led to many experiments with using TV to substitute for the teacher Typically closed-circuit from one room of a building to another
Not highly successful parents were suspicious Distance Education More successful, esp. in Great Britain with advent of Open University (1969) Design, creation and distribution of materials
(not just TV) was key Worked best in situations with widely dispersed populations over big areas (Canada, Australia, USSR) Sesame Street Part of Great Society efforts to improve
education, lift kids from poverty Backed by serious research efforts Active employment of visual effects in service of learning Distinctive Characters, Settings
The Count What Mattered Careful design (attention to prior learning, developmental stages, etc.) Capitalization on associations already made via entertainment TV (pixilation, etc.) Constant comparison and contrast with highproduction-value shows (commercials, etc.) Value of self-confrontation
E.g., in teacher ed or any performance venue TV & Violence Big national debate in 60s-70s Surgeon Generals Report in 1972 attempted to settle question (But still debated today) What Didnt Matter So Much
Exposure to negative stimuli in entertainment TV (ads, violence, etc.) Standard production values (color, animation, etc.) Physical arrangement of viewing environments Questions that Faded with Time Video as delivery vehicle for distance learning Was very hardware-intensive in cf. to online
Complexity of delivering video signals Spread of CCTV, then VCRs Video as direct teacher substitute Teacher supply and demand now better understood and monitored What Was Left Unanswered
Impact of long term exposure to mediated materials (attention span, etc.) Cf. wide use of Channel One & what kids recall Print is hard, TV is easy Are they? Visual literacy What is it? Cf. current interest in Digital Storytelling Is the Medium the Message?
Discussion Questions for Readings Chu & Schramm Compared with the research on film, where does the research on TV match up? Where is it different? What was conventional instruction in the studies summarized? What were some of the underlying
motivations for using TV in instruction? Clark (83, 94) Mere vehicles Do you agree with this position (83, p. 445)? Why or why not? Media attribute research (p. 451) Are we still doing this sort of research today? Examples? Invested mental effort (IME) work (p. 455) Interaction with student ability levels implications?
Efficiency vs. effectiveness (94, pp. 25-27) Do you agree with Clarks views? Cf.: McLuhans ideas Clark (01) Cognitive load and mental effort (267-279) Implications for other applications, subjects How to design to prevent Overconfidence default (280-82)?
Motivation processes (yin and yang) picture of learners and their motivations that emerges? Salomon & Perkins Effects with, of, and through technology Examples of each? Learning benefits of each? Effects through and notion of activity
systems: How does this match with current uses of social media? With support for learning ? Games and Learning (for next week, 11/2) If you play games, what are the instructional qualities or value that you see in your favorite games? What do you learn when you play?
If you don't play games, research or find a game that you are interested in and play it (or think of a game you used to play). What are/were the instructional qualities that you experienced, if any? What did you learn while playing?
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