Visual Computation for the Operation of Distribution Systems

Visual Computation for the Operation of Distribution Systems

Visual Computation for the Operation of Distribution Systems Rao Fu Mehrdad Sheikholeslami Hyungseon Oh Spring 2017 1. Introduction Most of the research on power system was focused on developing and improving algorithms of providing data for system operators. Visualization makes it easy for the users to interpret and analyze the data, and as a consequence, decisions can be made better and faster. Over the past few years, many visualization methods were developed:

* Contouring bus data such as voltage magnitude or locational marginal price (LMP); T. J. Overbye and J. D. Weber, "New Methods for the Visualization of Electric Power System Information," presented at the Proceedings dataVizualization such as line oftheContouring IEEE Symposium online Information 2000, 2000.loading parameter or transmission line 2. Distribution System Analysis and GridLAB-D

Distribution systems are mesh networks; Operated as radial systems by keeping some of the lines offline; Network reconfiguration; GridLAB-D* is a DOE-funded, opensource, time-series simulation of all aspects of operating a smart grid from the substation level down in unprecedented detail. * D. P. Chassin, K. Schneider, and C. Gerkensmeyer, GridLAB-D: An open-source power systems modeling and simulation environment, in Transmission and distribution conference and exposition, 2008. t&d. IEEE/PES, 2008, pp. 1-5: IEEE. Four domains of GridLAB-D

Power systems Buildings Markets Control systems . Power Systems Buildings GridLAB-D Core Control Systems

Markets Fig.1 Multiple disciplines are combined in GridLAB-D Current Input and Output of GridLAB-D Fig.2 GridLAB-D using command line to run its program Fig.3 Output XML file from GridLAB-D 3. Software Design GridLAB-D Network Information Matlab

GUI System Status/ Monitoring Fig.4 Block-diagram for our software design GLM File 4. Case Study A large area of power outages occurred in the Clarence Centre and East Amherst areas on the evening of December 20, 2016; 860 local users were affected and lost power; The power outages lasted about five to six hours; Using our software package, we can quickly simulate the distribution network failure situation, and find the best solution based on different system conditions.

A. Case Description Modified IEEE 13 Node Test Feeder model; Before the fault happened, the voltage contour plot of the grid is shown in Fig.6; Assume the fault happened on Line 632-671, nearly 90 percent of the load lost the power; Local power authority would close Line 632-692 immediately in order to restore the power to the outage. However, reconnecting the disconnected area due to power outage can cause severe voltage problem.

Fig.5 Modified IEEE 13 model Fig.6 Voltage contour plot before the fault happened Fig.7 Voltage contour plot after the fault happened Fig.8 Voltage contour plot after closing Line 632-692 B. Network Reconfiguration Network reconfiguration* can be applied as a corrective mechanism when there is line overloading or voltage violations; To avoid loop connection of the network, before we close Line 630692, we should open Line 630-632; Major voltage problem has been

solved. Only voltage on Bus 634 is lower than the rest of the area yet no smaller than 0.99 per unit; Network reconfiguration operations will surely be accompanied by certain risks and costs. Installation cost: $285,000/mile Operation cost: $203/switching Fig.9 Voltage contour plot after line switching * N. Sarma, V. Prasad, K. P. Rao, and V. Sankar, "A new network reconfiguration technique for service restoration in distribution networks," IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 1936-1942, 1994 C. Back-up Generator The diesel generators are the most widely adopted form of distributed

generation.* The investment of installing this generator is much smaller; A generator with 100 kW and 165 kvar output power on Bus 611 can meet the minimum requirement to solve the voltage problem in our case; Major voltage problem has been solved on all the buses. Only voltage on Bus 675 is very close to 1 per unit; Installation cost: $20,000/300kVA diesel generator Operation cost: $35/hour Fig.10 After adding back-up generator on Bus 611 * H. A. Gil and G. Joos, "Customer-Owned Back-Up Generators for Energy Management by Distribution Utilities," IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 1044-1050, 2007.

D. Back-up Batteries Back-up batteries are now more and more popular, as are their abilities in managing peak load. Compared with back-up generator, back-up batteries may not inject as much power into the grid, yet the size is relatively smaller than a back-up generator, and the installation is easier; In our research, two batteries have been placed on Bus 611 and 675. The battery on Bus 611 has 85 percent output power of its load. Bus 675 has 20 percent of the load on it. Installation cost: $8,000/200kVA compressed air energy storage Operation cost: $320/hour when

charging Fig.11 After adding back-up batteries on Bus 611 and 675. * K. Kusakana, "Operation cost minimization of photovoltaicdieselbattery hybrid systems," Energy, vol. 85, pp. 645-653, 6/1/ 2015. E. Demand Side Management(DSM) DSM is the process of seeking balance between the power supply and the power load.* Instead of adjusting the output of the power plant, it directly adjusts or controls the load; Obviously, the more load is reduced, the better the voltage performances.

The top two figures are 1% and 5% load reduction. The bottom two figures are 10% and 15% load reduction. In our case, load reduction may not be a good option to eliminate the voltage issue. Installation cost: $300/remote load control device Operation cost: regular operation cost Fig.12 Voltage contour plot after load reduction 5. Parallel Coordinates Parallel coordinates use parallel axes as a representation of dimensions of multidimensional data set;* Dimensions are presented by vertical lines and minimum and

maximum of each dimension is scaled to the upper and lower boundaries of these vertical lines; A good visualization tool to enable the user to find trends within the system parameters. * A. Inselberg, Parallel coordinates. Springer, 2009. Fig.13 Parallel Coordinates for 13 Nodes case 6. Conclusion We analyzed a modified IEEE 13 Nodes Test Feeder model with the help of our developed visualization tool. Four different approaches were proposed to solve the voltage issue in the model, simply by adding or deleting lines, or changing bus parameters in our UI; Voltage contour plots are very intuitive to show the state of the system voltage under different conditions, contrasts are also

obvious among figures; Using parallel coordinates can also track the changes in the system and find trends. Effective outputs for decision makers. Can be easily understood without sufficient relevant knowledge.

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