U.S. History Unit #1: The Gilded Age

U.S. History Unit #1: The Gilded Age

U.S. HISTORY UNIT #1: THE GILDED AGE Part 1 MANIFEST DESTINY Following the Civil War, the notion of Manifest Destiny, the belief that the United States should extend to the Pacific because God willed

it, again became a popular idea. American now controlled the land, now it was time to THE GOVERNMENT MOTIVATION The government wanted to gain wealth from the natural resources and land in the West.

The Transcontinental railroad was a major motivation for the government to encourage settlement (need builders, workers, farmers, etc. out there) WHO WENT WEST AND WHY? People of all classes, race, and

background were enticed to head West in search of a new start and to increase their wealth. In particular, farmers, miners, and ranchers made up the majority of the people heading west. Why these professions?

HOMESTEAD ACT Homestead Act: This act gave away free land to individuals and family willing to migrate West and stay there. The downside was most land had few resources on it. Many settlers build their homes out of parts of their wagon and

THE RAILROADS The railroads were vital in connecting the nation economically, socially, and politically. What is an example of each one? Congress offered railroads land grants of 20 million acres as well as loans. The railroads helped settle the lands

they crossed and turned cities into major centers for transporting manufactured goods and processing THE TRANSCONTINENTAL RAILROAD Completed in 1869 at Promontory Point, Utah when the Southern

Pacific and Union Pacific railroads linked together forming the first connection from the Atlantic to Pacific. LAND DISPUTES AND NATIVE AMERICANS One major western

conflict was the dispute between Native Americans and Western settlers over the concept of property rights. Native Americans did not recognize the

LAND DISPUTES CONT. Property rights are protected by the 5th and 14th Amendments to the Constitution - no one can be deprived of their property without due process of law and the federal government cannot take private property for public use without just compensation. Also, the 14th Amendment provides that citizens within federal and state jurisdictions equal protection under the law.

Native Americans were not considered citizens and therefore, these rights did not apply to them. Most American Indians did not get citizenship rights until 1924. KEY BUSINESS TERMS Industrialization: The growth of factories and companies Entrepreneur: A business person who starts their own business. Free Enterprise: The freedom that anyone can start a business. Monopoly: When one individual or company controls an entire

Industry. Trust: Just like a monopoly but it involves multiple people working together to maintain control. Laissez-faire capitalism: French word meaning let it be and was a policy of the government not interfering/regulating the economy. THE GROWTH OF INDUSTRY AND ROBBER BARONS As Industry grew, some men came to dominate and create

monopolies in various industries. Although many of these men donated much money to charity they were still known as robber barons for being MAJOR ROBBER BARONS Andrew Carnegie: Owned U.S. Steel

John Rockefeller: Owned Standard Oil Cornelius Vanderbilt: Owned multiple railroads ANTI-TRUST Anti-Trust laws are also known as Anti-Monopoly laws and are intended to stop the growth of monopolies in various

industries. They are meant to make the business world fair for all participants. LABOR UNIONS Labor Unions are organizations of people from the same field or

profession. Labor Unions speak for their members and fight for their rights as a worker. The first unions fought for better pay and working conditions. RESULTS OF THE GROWTH OF BUSINESS Huge profit for owners of large companies/monopolies

(robber barons). The United States began to be a manufacturing giant in the world Growth of Labor Unions The trust-busting efforts and government regulations of business. One positive result was the philanthropy of the industrialists like Andrew Carnegie

NEW TECHNOLOGY OF THE GILDED AGE Telegraph: Messages for the first time did not have to be physically carried. Automobile: Many different versions but did not catch on until Ford developed the Model T and assembly line. Airplane: Changed both the

transportation and military worlds. NEW TECHNOLOGY Telephone: Made communication even faster than the telegraph. Typewriter: Allowed information and news to be

generated more quickly and to more people. Light Bulb: Helped bring electricity into homes and made the American workforce PROMINENT INVENTORS Thomas Edison invented many items and had hundreds of patents but is best known for creating the light bulb that

changed Americans lifestyles The Wright Brothers created and flew the first engine powered airplane. Alexander Graham Bell invented the telephone and he quickly controlled a monopoly over the communications industry. His company is known as AT & T today. ECONOMIC ASPECTS OF THE GILDED AGE Objects are in the picture/painting/cartoon?

People are in the picture/painting/visual? Title is there; What Time period does it represent? Inferences can you draw based on this source? Conclusions can you draw based on this source? Symbols are present [in cartoons or graphs] AND how can you Summarize the main idea? GILDED AGE RAFT Role Magazine Reporter for Gilded Age Times

Audience readers of the magazine Format Brief Editorial praising an industrialist as a Captain of Industry or condemning him as one of the Robber Barons/ Topic + strong verb - ____ [Name of the chosen Captain of Industry/Robber Baron]: Hero/Villain of the Gilded Age. _______ should be praised/condemned because

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