Urban LandUse Theories 6th year Geography Three key theories Burgess Hoyt Concentric Zone Sector Model Harris
and Ullman Multiple Nuclei Urban Land-Use Theories Concentric Zone Theory Burgess (1925)
Cities grow outwards from the centre in a series of rings. Concentric Zone Theory Timeframe 1920s Class conscious society Housing segregated according to income Lack of transport infrastructure
Assumptions Older buildings in city centre
Newer buildings at edge of city Land values highest in city centre Strong economic and ethnic segregation Low income groups lack transport and live close to city centre. Cities develop on a flat plain with equal access to transport
Five Concentric Zones 1) Central Business District 2) Transition and Industry low incomes oldest housing ghettos
3) Low Income Residential 4) Middle Income Residential suburban estatesgood quality, gardens 5) High Income Residential / Commuter Small towns and villages
Problems with Burgess Model Old Doesn't consider car ownership Landscape not considered Impact that industry and transport could have on land use not considered. Zones are never as clear-cut
Hoyts Sector Model 1939 Sectors radiating out from the CBD along transport routes. Sector Theory Timeframe Late 1930s Income and status divided
society Housing areas reflect social segregation Assumptions Settlement develops along transport routes
Towns radiate out from the CBD Low-income and industrial areas lie next to each other Wealthy people choose the best sites Criticisms of Hoyts Theory Old Too
In general reality, most zones contain more than one land- use Doesn't consider the impact of urban renewal schemes
Burgess v Hoyt Hoyts theory is based on statistical data, so is less open to the criticism that Burgess received. Harris and Ullmans Multiple Nuclei Theory
1945 As an urban area grows, it develops around a number of different business centres or nuclei. Multiple Nuclei Theory Assumptions; Modern cities more complex than
suggested by other theorists Each nucleus acts as a growth point Growth occurs outwards from each nucleus, until they all merge into one large urban area Multiple Nuclei Theory Mixture Shows of Burgess and Hoyt
some land-uses attract more of the same, for example industrial areas Some land-uses may deter others from locating nearby, eg; housing is usually located away from industrial areas Criticisms of Multiple Nuclei Theory
Not an exact fit for all cities and towns Too complex Are these models relevant to todays cities?? Have
Now some relevance due to urban renewal schemes and changes in society, high income residential areas often exist close to the CBD Modern cities are expanding beyond these
models- Urban Sprawl Exam Question Examine briefly one theoretical model which attempts to explain the development of land use zones in a developed world city. (30 marks)
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