Chapter 20 Lecture Outline Luminous Moss Introduction to the Plant Kingdom: Bryophytes Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. REVIEW Binomial System of Nomenclature?
Largest Group? Smallest Group? Species being defined most by what? Outline Introduction Plant Characteristics Alternation of Generation
Introduction to the Bryophytes Phylum Bryophyta Mosses Human and Ecological Relevance of Bryophytes INTRODUCTION PLANTS = Land Plants & Green Algae
Plant Characteristics Green Algae Photosyntheic Pigments: ________________ Energy stored as ______________ Cell walls made of ______________
Mitosis w/ phragmoplasts & _________ Introduction Green Algae vs. Land Plants primitiveness? Land Plants evolved from _____________ in water. LAND PLANTS 1st land plant fossils = 400 Million years ago
so Evolved earlier Introduction-Land Plants TYPES BRYOPHYTES: Primitive Have No: ________________ 23,000 FERNS & RELATIVES: Less
Primitive: Have ________ 12,000 GYMNOSPERMS: Complex Have: ________________ 700 ANGIOSPERMS: Most Complex Have: _____________ 250,000 Introduction LAND PLANTS 1st Land Survival Characteristics
Leaves with: Multicellular organs for making reproductive cells: Gametangia: make __________ o Antheridia o Archegonia
Archegonia of moss Antheridia of moss 1st Land Characteristics Multicellular organs - _________ Sporangia Egg + Sperm = Zygote = 1st cell of embryo
Develops into ___________ while held within ___________ Alternation of Generation: Sexual Reproduction in plants Sexual Reproduction Mitosis & Meiosis
Sexual Reproduction Criteria: parents: type cell division: meiosis fertilization: 1N cells: have the normal # of DNA 2N cells: have normal # of DNA HUMAN LIFE CYCLE ADULT HUMAN = 2N OVARY
ZYGOTE TESTES MEIOSIS 1N EGGS 1N SPERM FERTILIZATION Alternation of Generation 1N generation alternates with the 2N generation Characteristics 1. Sporophyte: o
2N Adult o Produces: o Organ used = o Cell division type = 2. Gametophyte o 1N Adult
o Produces: o Organ used = o cell division type Alternation of Generation Characteristics 3. Spores grow into what adult plant? ______________ 4. Eggs & Sperm do what process? ______________ o
Creating = _____________ o The ______ grows ___________ 5. Primitive Plants have Gametophyte generation Dominant 6. Primitive Plants are mostly Monecious: HUMAN LIFE CYCLE ADULT HUMAN = 2N OVARY ZYGOTE TESTES MEIOSIS
1N Sperm 1N Spores MITOSIS Archegonia Antheridia 1N Gametophyte Introduction to the Bryophytes Bryophytes = Group which includes 3 Phyla: Mosses, Liverworts, and Hornworts Phylum Bryophyta = moss Introduction to the Bryophytes
Need for Water: Moss Sperm Vascular Tissue: NONE Most water absorbed: Specialized Cells to move fluids Hydroids:
Rock moss Peat Moss A true moss Rock Moss Phylum Bryophyta Mosses Structure Gametophytes
Blades: o Cells with chloroplasts. Axis: o - Often with central strand of hydroids Rhizoids: Gametophyte Structure
Reproductive Structures: Gametangia Location Archegonium o o o Shape Venter in
swollen base contains egg Neck w/ narrow canal. - To attract sperm: Paraphyses multicellular filaments scattered among archegonia. Antheridia on short stalks, surrounded by walls one cell thick.
Sperm Paraphyses Phylum Bryophyta Mosses Sexual reproduction: Sperm forced out top. Archegonia release:
Sperm swim: Fertilization Zygote = 1st cell of Sporophyte SPOROPHYTE Embryonic Sporophyte grows into spindle-shaped embryo. Mature sporophyte Seta Foot Capsule Capsule of Sporophyte
Function: Calyptra: Top of archegonium splits off and stays on top of sporophyte Operculum Peristome, composed of one or two rows of teeth, under operculum at tip of capsule. Function: Spores Spores develop into filamentous protonema that produces buds that develop into leafy gametophytes. Phylum Bryophyta Mosses Sexual reproduction: Human and Ecological Relevance of
Bryophytes Pioneer species: Example: bare rock after volcanic eruptions Help form organic matter in soil Ground Cover: Indicators of surface water
Packing material Peat mosses most important Soil conditioner Poultice material: is antiseptic Fuel Review Introduction
Introduction to the Bryophytes Phylum Bryophyta Mosses Human and Ecological Relevance of Bryophytes END Phylum Hepaticophyta Liverworts 8,000 species
Structure and form: Most common and widespread liverworts have flattened, lobed thalli (singular: thallus). Phylum Anthocerophyta Hornworts Structure and form 100 species
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