Understanding Our Environment

Understanding Our Environment

Chapter 20 Lecture Outline Luminous Moss Introduction to the Plant Kingdom: Bryophytes Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. REVIEW Binomial System of Nomenclature?

Largest Group? Smallest Group? Species being defined most by what? Outline Introduction Plant Characteristics Alternation of Generation

Introduction to the Bryophytes Phylum Bryophyta Mosses Human and Ecological Relevance of Bryophytes INTRODUCTION PLANTS = Land Plants & Green Algae

Plant Characteristics Green Algae Photosyntheic Pigments: ________________ Energy stored as ______________ Cell walls made of ______________

Mitosis w/ phragmoplasts & _________ Introduction Green Algae vs. Land Plants primitiveness? Land Plants evolved from _____________ in water. LAND PLANTS 1st land plant fossils = 400 Million years ago

so Evolved earlier Introduction-Land Plants TYPES BRYOPHYTES: Primitive Have No: ________________ 23,000 FERNS & RELATIVES: Less

Primitive: Have ________ 12,000 GYMNOSPERMS: Complex Have: ________________ 700 ANGIOSPERMS: Most Complex Have: _____________ 250,000 Introduction LAND PLANTS 1st Land Survival Characteristics

Leaves with: Multicellular organs for making reproductive cells: Gametangia: make __________ o Antheridia o Archegonia

Archegonia of moss Antheridia of moss 1st Land Characteristics Multicellular organs - _________ Sporangia Egg + Sperm = Zygote = 1st cell of embryo

Develops into ___________ while held within ___________ Alternation of Generation: Sexual Reproduction in plants Sexual Reproduction Mitosis & Meiosis

Sexual Reproduction Criteria: parents: type cell division: meiosis fertilization: 1N cells: have the normal # of DNA 2N cells: have normal # of DNA HUMAN LIFE CYCLE ADULT HUMAN = 2N OVARY

ZYGOTE TESTES MEIOSIS 1N EGGS 1N SPERM FERTILIZATION Alternation of Generation 1N generation alternates with the 2N generation Characteristics 1. Sporophyte: o

2N Adult o Produces: o Organ used = o Cell division type = 2. Gametophyte o 1N Adult

o Produces: o Organ used = o cell division type Alternation of Generation Characteristics 3. Spores grow into what adult plant? ______________ 4. Eggs & Sperm do what process? ______________ o

Creating = _____________ o The ______ grows ___________ 5. Primitive Plants have Gametophyte generation Dominant 6. Primitive Plants are mostly Monecious: HUMAN LIFE CYCLE ADULT HUMAN = 2N OVARY ZYGOTE TESTES MEIOSIS

1N EGGS 1N SPERM FERTILIZATION Diagram of Alternation of Generation 2N Sporophyte Sporangia 2N Zygote Spore Mother Cells FERTILIZATION MEIOSIS 1N Eggs

1N Sperm 1N Spores MITOSIS Archegonia Antheridia 1N Gametophyte Introduction to the Bryophytes Bryophytes = Group which includes 3 Phyla: Mosses, Liverworts, and Hornworts Phylum Bryophyta = moss Introduction to the Bryophytes

Need for Water: Moss Sperm Vascular Tissue: NONE Most water absorbed: Specialized Cells to move fluids Hydroids:

Leptoids: Phylum Bryophyta Mosses Interesting TypesLuminous Moss Classes: 3 Peat mosses True mosses

Rock moss Peat Moss A true moss Rock Moss Phylum Bryophyta Mosses Structure Gametophytes

Blades: o Cells with chloroplasts. Axis: o - Often with central strand of hydroids Rhizoids: Gametophyte Structure

Reproductive Structures: Gametangia Location Archegonium o o o Shape Venter in

swollen base contains egg Neck w/ narrow canal. - To attract sperm: Paraphyses multicellular filaments scattered among archegonia. Antheridia on short stalks, surrounded by walls one cell thick.

Sperm Paraphyses Phylum Bryophyta Mosses Sexual reproduction: Sperm forced out top. Archegonia release:

Sperm swim: Fertilization Zygote = 1st cell of Sporophyte SPOROPHYTE Embryonic Sporophyte grows into spindle-shaped embryo. Mature sporophyte Seta Foot Capsule Capsule of Sporophyte

Function: Calyptra: Top of archegonium splits off and stays on top of sporophyte Operculum Peristome, composed of one or two rows of teeth, under operculum at tip of capsule. Function: Spores Spores develop into filamentous protonema that produces buds that develop into leafy gametophytes. Phylum Bryophyta Mosses Sexual reproduction: Human and Ecological Relevance of

Bryophytes Pioneer species: Example: bare rock after volcanic eruptions Help form organic matter in soil Ground Cover: Indicators of surface water

Packing material Peat mosses most important Soil conditioner Poultice material: is antiseptic Fuel Review Introduction

Introduction to the Bryophytes Phylum Bryophyta Mosses Human and Ecological Relevance of Bryophytes END Phylum Hepaticophyta Liverworts 8,000 species

Structure and form: Most common and widespread liverworts have flattened, lobed thalli (singular: thallus). Phylum Anthocerophyta Hornworts Structure and form 100 species

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