The Virgin of Guadalupe: Symbol of Conquest or Liberation?
The Virgin of Guadalupe: Symbol of Conquest or Liberation? Article by Jeanette Peterson, Ph.D. in Latin American art history from UCLA, Associate Professor of Art History, UC Santa Barbara and author of The Paradise Garden Murals of Malinalco: Utopia and Imperial Policy in Sixteenth-century Mexico
Virgin of Guadalupe, 16th century, oil and tempera (?) on maguey cactus cloth and cotton, 69 x 41 inches, Basilica of Guadalupe, Mexico City Samuel Stradanus, Indulgence for Alms toward the Erection of a
Church Dedicated to the Virgin of Guadalupe, ca. 1615-20, copper engraving, c.13 x 8 inches, Metropolitan MA, NYC Ex votos represent miracles performed by the Virgin on behalf
of the creole white ruling class Yolanda Lopez, Self-Portrait as a Jogger with Symbols of Guadalupe, 1978, oil and pastel on paper, 26 x 22
inches Eyeing the Other The Indigenous Response 16th-18th Centuries From Gauvin Bailey, Art of Colonial Latin America, 2005
Juan Baptiste Cuiris, Feather Picture of the Virgin Mary, Mexico, Michoacn (Ptzcuaro) c. 1550/80, hummingbird and parrot feathers on paper, wood; signed
Aztec feather shield, pre-Conquest, detail Shows gold work, Vienna (left) The Miraculous Mass of Saint Gregory, Mexico City, 1539, feather on wood, 26 x 22 Commissioned by the first colonial governor of Tenochtitlan as a gift for Pope Paul III (center) Giovani Pietro Birago, Mass of Saint Gregory, painting, Milan, Italy, c. 1490 ,
typical source for feather painting (corner right) Pre-Conquest Aztec feathered shield, c. 1500 CE Anonymous Nahua muralists, The Garden of Paradise, mid-16th century, Augustinian mission church of San Salvador, Malinalco, Mexico; compare (right) artistic restoration of Teotihuacan mural detail, Garden of Paradise (Tlaloc Rain God), c. 600 AD
Faade of Santiago (Church of Saint James), Angahuan, Michoacn, Mexico, 16th century. Decorative carving has a probable source in Spanish and Flemish pattern books [planimetricism] but also Zapotec (right) stone mosaic, Mitla, Late Post Classic (750-1521 CE)
Tequitqui (Aztec colonial hybrid) style (deep carving, rounded edges, flatness; tequitqui subject, Aztec eagle Tequitqui implies a racial connection, and that the artists were fullblooded Nahua, which was not always the case. Left: Aztec Eagle Warrior, foundation date stone, mission church, Tecamachalco, Puebla, Mexico, 1589-90 shows date in Arabic numerals and Nahua glyphs Right: Upright drum, Aztec, pre-Conquest, c.1500, wood
The Franciscans arrived in Tecamachalco, in the eastern Mexico state of Puebla, in 1541 Juan Gerson, Noahs Ark, and (right) Apocalypse, pigment on traditional brown amate (bark) paper, 1562, two of 28 images pasted to the walls of the church of Tecamachalco, (now near Puebla) Mexico http://home.earthlink.net/~kering/amate.html How is this a syncretic work?
Vaulting with paintings by Juan Gersn, 1562; in the Franciscan church at Tecamachalco, Puebla, Mexico. Spanish Baroque, western faade of Cathedral at Santiago de Compostela, Spain faade begun in 1715 and completed mid-19th century (right) Cathedral of Mexico City, 1572-1813
Mestizo faade of the church of Santiago, Arequipa, Peru, 1698; detail right compare (below left) Gate of the Sun, Tiahuanaco, Bolivia, 500-700 AD acculturation theory
Mestizo faade of the church of Santiago, Arequipa, Peru, 1698; detail right compare, below left, Inca period woven tunic, c. 1476-1534 Compare (right) the church of Santiago, Arequipa, Peru, 1698, with (left) Leon Battista Alberti, Sant Andrea, Mantua, Italy, designed 1470 CE, Italian Renaissance derived from antique Roman triumphal arch (below center)
Forum of Rome, Arch of Septimius Severus, 203 CE, Archangel with Gun, Circle of the Master of Calamarca, late 17th century, oil on cotton, 18 in H, Cuzco School (Peru, Bolivia and Equador). New Orleans Museum of Art
Do such images renew, translate or appropriate Catholic iconography? (left) Angel with a Harquebus by the Master of Calamarca,one of a series of 35 anonymous paintings for a Catholic mission (Santiago Parrish) in Calamarca, Bolivia, c.1684. Oil on canvas, 63 X 46
The angels are androgynous Virgin of Carmel Saving Souls in Purgatory, Circle of Diego Quispe Tito, Cuzco School, 17th century, collection of the Brooklyn Museum,
New York. Beginning in the 16th century decades after the conquest of the Inca empire, Cuzco (Inca capital) was considered the first artistic center that systematically taught
European artistic techniques in the Americas (left), Luis Nio (active 1716-1758), Our Lady of the Victory of Mlaga, 59 x 43 in, 1730s, Potosi, Peru. oil on canvas with gold stamping, Denver Museum. The new moon and vertical stripes on the skirt refer to the Inca tumi ceremonial knife and a pin worn by
an Inca princess, pearls and flowers at feet may allude to Andean ritual offerings, Red feathered wings on angelic musicians is also Inca; red feathers were worn by nobility. details Inca tumi
The Virgin Mary of the Cerro Rico of Potosi, 18th century, 53 x 41in, Casa Nacional de Moneda, Potosi, What are the Andean references? Cero Rico is the mountain that yielded enormous wealth for the Spanish. By 1600 Potos was the largest metropolis in the Americas and a mercantile power of international renown.
Does the ancient Andean practice of human sacrifice have some bearing on this early17th-century Peruvian polychrome wood sculpture of the child Jesus as a dark-haired child wearing a red tunic and gravely presenting a human heart in his right hand while holding half a heart in his left? Church of San Pedro, Lima, Peru
(right) Pre-Columbian Inca Tunic, alpaca, c.1400-1532 AD. (left) 16th to early 17th century Andean womans tunic, cotton and wool. Blend of European organic motifs with Andean geometrics. Communicated indigenous history and social rank. How were colonial Andean tunics potentially subversive? Francisco Tito Yupanqui (Andean), Our Lady of Copacabana (the Dark Virgin), 1583,
Bolivia, plaster and fiber from the maguey plant, gold leaf, the garments reproduce the colors and dress of an Inca princess. The original shape is permanently hidden by rich robes and cloaks, and the carved hair has been covered by a wig. The image of the Virgin measures over four feet with the features of the inhabitants of the region. Powerful Catholic cults were generated by native Andeans.
Colonial Andean Kero, late 17th-18th century, wood and pigment inlay 8 in. How could a kero be subversive? (right) Pre-conquest Kero, A.D. 1000-1200, Moquegua, Peru. Batea (flat wooden tray), 17th century, inlaid lacquer, wood, 49 inches Michoacn and Guerrero, Asian influence
Mexican lacquered gourd Manuel de la Cerda, Japanned writing desk, c. 1760, lacquered and painted wood 61 high, Japanese lacquer, The Hispanic Society of America, NYC
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