The Science of Improving Patient Safety

The Science of Improving Patient Safety

Learning Objectives Describe the historical and contemporary context of the Science of Safety Explain how system design affects

system results List the principles of safe design and identify how they apply to technical work and teamwork

Indicate how teams make wise decisions when there is diverse and independent input 2 Putting Safety in Context

Advances in medicine have led to positive outcomes: Most childhood cancers are curable AIDS is now a chronic disease Life expectancy has increased 10 years since the 1950s However, sponges are still found inside patients bodies after operations. 3

Health Care Defects In the U.S. health care system: 7 percent of patients suffer a medication error2 On average, every patient admitted to an intensive care unit suffers an adverse event3,4 44,000 to 99,000 people die in hospitals each year as the result of medical errors5 Over half a million patients develop catheter-associated urinary tract infections resulting in 13,000 deaths a year6 Nearly 100,000 patients die from health care-associated infections (HAIs) each year, and the cost of HAIs is $28 to $33 billion per year7

Estimated 30,000 to 62,000 deaths from central line-associated blood stream infections per year8 4 How Can These Errors Happen? People are fallible Medicine is still treated as an art, not a science Systems do not catch mistakes before they reach the patient 5 The Science of Safety

Every system is perfectly designed to achieve its end results Safe design principles must be applied to technical work and teamwork Teams make wise decisions when there is diverse and independent input 6 System-Level Factors Affect Safety9 7

Safety is a Property of the System 8 System-Level Factors Can Predict Performance Examples of Impact of System-Level Factors System Factor Effect When ICUs are staffed with a Daily rounds with an

multidisciplinary team, including daily rounds intensivist with an intensivist, mortality is reduced When nurses are responsible for more than Nurses responsible for two patients, there is an increased risk of more than two patients pulmonary complications in the ICU patient population Point-of-care A point-of-care pharmacist or one who pharmacist or participates in rounds reduces prescribing

pharmacist who errors participates in rounds 9 Three Principles of Safe Design Standardize Create independent checks

Learn from defects 10 Standardize When You Can 11 Create Independent Checks

12 Learn From Defects 13 Exercise Think about a recent safety issue in your unit and answer the four Learning from Defects questions: What happened? Why did it happen? How will you reduce the risk of recurrence?

How will you know it worked? 14 Principles of Safe Design Apply to Technical Work and Teamwork 15 Technical Work and Teamwork

16 Exercise How do you see technical and adaptive work fitting in your unit? 17 Teams Make Wise Decisions When There is Diverse and Independent Input 18

How To Ensure Diverse and Independent Input Appreciate the wisdom of crowds Emphasize that health care is a team effort Develop an environment where frontline providers can voice concerns, and are acknowledged when they express concerns Gather as many viewpoints as possible Alternate between convergent and divergent thinking Divergent thinking occurs on rounds, during brainstorming sessions, and when trying to understand what might be occurring10

Convergent thinking occurs while formulating a treatment plan or focusing on a specific task10 19 Basic Components and Process of Communication11 20 Diverse and Independent Input HRET will insert chunked vignette still

21 Reduced CRBSI By Applying Principles of Safe Design12 Time period Median Catheter Related Blood Stream Infection (CRBSI) rate Incidence

rate ratio Baseline 2.7 1 Pre-intervention 1.6

0.76 0-3 months 0 0.62 4-6 months 0

0.56 7-9 months 0 0.47 10-12 months 0

0.42 13-15 months 0 0.37 16-18 months 0

0.34 22 Understand the Science of Safety: What the Team Must Do Develop a plan so all staff on your unit view the Understand the Science of Safety video Video screening should be mandatory for all unit staff Create a list of who has watched the video Describe the three principles of safe design: 1. Standardize

2. Create independent checks 3. Learn from defects 23 Summary Every system is designed to achieve its anticipated results The principles of safe design are standardize when you can, create independent checks, and learn from defects The principles of safe design apply to technical work and teamwork Teams make wise decisions when there is diverse input

24 CUSP Tools Daily Goals Checklist Morning Briefing Shadowing Another Professional Tool Observing Patient Care Rounds Team Check-Up Tool 25 TeamSTEPPS Tools1

Brief Huddle Debrief SBAR Check Back Call Out Hand Off I PASS the BATON DESC Script *Please refer to the Implement Teamwork and Communication module for additional information* 26

As seen in TeamSTEPPS References 1. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Department of Defense. TeamSTEPPS. Available at www.ahrq.gov/teamsteppstools/instructor/index.html 2. Bates DW, Cullen DJ, Laird N, et al. Incidence of adverse drug events and potential adverse drug events. JAMA. 1995;274(1):29 34. 3. Donchin Y, Gopher D, Olin M, et al. A look into the nature and causes of human errors in the intensive care unit. Crit Care Med.

1995;23:294300. 4. Andrews LB, Stocking C, Krizek T, et al. An alternative strategy for studying adverse events in medical care. Lancet. 349:309 313,1997. 27 References 5. Kohn L, Corrigan J, Donaldson M. To err is human: building a safer health system. Washington, DC: National Academy Press; 1999. 6. Scott, RD. The Direct Medical Costs of Healthcare-Associated Infections in U.S. Hospitals and the Benefits of Prevention. March 2009. http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dhqp/pdf/Scott_CostPaper.pdf

7. Klevens M, Edwards J, Richards C, et al. Estimating Health CareAssociated Infections and Deaths in U.S. Hospitals, 2002. PHR. 2007;122:160166. 8. Ending health care-associated infections, AHRQ, Rockville, MD; 2009. http://www.ahrq.gov/qual/haicusp.htm. 9. Vincent C, Taylor-Adams S, Stanhope N. Framework for analysing risk and safety in clinical medicine. BMJ. 1998;316:115457. 28 References 10. Heifetz R. Leadership without easy answers, president and fellows of Harvard College. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press;1994.

11. Dayton E, Henriksen K. Communication failure: basic components, contributing factors, and the call for structure. Jt Comm J Qual Patient Saf. 2007;33(1): 3447. 12. Pronovost P, Needham D, Berenholtz S, et al. An intervention to decrease catheter-related bloodstream infections in the ICU. New Engl J Med. 2006;355(26):272532. 29

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