THE PARABLES OF JESUS: Learning from the Master Teacher

THE PARABLES OF JESUS: Learning from the Master Teacher

THE PARABLES OF JESUS: Learning from the Master Teacher Yezdi Bhada, Ph.D., CMA Trinity Church Adult Bible Study Jan. Mar. 2014 THE PARABLES OF JESUS Introduction to the Study Who? When? Where? What will we be doing? Why study these parables?

How should I approach the study? What is a parable? Interpreting parables A sample study of a familiar parable THE PARABLES OF JESUS Introduction to the Study Why study the parables of Jesus? Christ Jesus, The Son of God, is the most credible source for truth, the Kingdom of God, and righteous living He has the authority (Matt. 7:28) He teaches us what we need to know (Matt. 13:34-35) Opens door for the Holy Spirit to continue our sanctification He has the attributes of a Master Teacher: has a powerful and relevant message has the ability to communicate in a brief, simple, thoughtprovoking, instructive, and intelligent way to help us learn. This method of instruction demands active learning: Sows seeds to produce fruit

THE PARABLES OF JESUS Introduction to the Study How should we approach the study? 1. Read the parable carefully: Focus on the message data May need to read several times and/or more than one translation Capture (describe) the scenario 2. Research the context What prompted Jesus to tell this parable? Consider the cultural and historical setting for that time To whom is this parable addressed?

3. Process transference to real issue(s) Make the connection between the data and the desired meaning 4. Recognize the message and other items of interest What is the message of truth and Gods Kingdom that He is projecting? Are there other lessons that can be learned? 5. Remember this message as it impacts you personally How does this message improve my understanding of Gods Word? How can I apply what I have learned to my life?

THE PARABLES OF JESUS Introduction to the Study What is a parable? Derivation: Parabole (Greek); Mashal/Mathla (Hebrew) A method of communicating an idea from speaker to hearer Building a bridge from the natural to the spiritual Pictorial stories with definite learning objectives Videoing a familiar image to project truth In NT, used as a figure of speech in many different forms: Simile =emphatic and vivid similarity between two situations Similitude = image with distinctive familiarity Metaphor = implied characteristic likeness between situations Analogy = resemblance between two otherwise unlike situations Story = specific incident to evoke interest and motivate attention Allegory = fictional story that needs subjective use of imagination Other variations: illustration, proverb, fable, vignette, case Our usage: Parable = Jesus word pictures that illustrate a

profound truth for our learning and edification THE PARABLES OF JESUS Introduction to the Study Interpreting parables: Parables are not mere words from Jesus; they are meant to make a real difference in our lives It is up to each one to personally understand the parable, make the proper transference, and perceive the truth Be cognizant of the gap between the time of Christ and today: Parables were never spoken in a vacuum Consider the historical, cultural, religious, literary and linguistic contexts Do not let your imagination run wild Do not force a meaning that is not meant to be there Call on the Holy Spirit to reveal the meaning for you

THE PARABLES OF JESUS The Sower and the Soils Reason for selecting this as the first parable: It begins with the origins of Gods Kingdom Jesus said it was easy to understand (Mark 4:13) Jesus Himself explains it (Matt.13:18-23; Mark 4:14-20; Luke 8:11-15) Learning from the parable: 1. Read the parable: describe the scenario Matt. 13:3-9; Mark 4:2-9; Luke 8:4-8 2. Research the context 3. Process transference to real issue(s) 4. State the message and additional items of interest 5. What did I learn from the message? THE PARABLES OF JESUS The Sower and the Soils 2. Research the context

What prompted Jesus to tell this parable? Multitudes were coming to Him opportunity to clarify His ministry He had recently rebuked Pharisees and hinted on His role (Matt 12) Consider the cultural and historical setting for that time First Century Palestine was a predominantly agricultural society Israelites were familiar with sowing for wheat (staple diet) crops All objects included in the parable had been used in the OT Israelites could relate to image of God as sower and people as soil Form of the parable is a classic pattern in oral folklore To whom is this parable addressed? The huge crowds that had gathered; i.e., people seeking Him those from various cities were journeying to Him (Luke 8:4); i.e., variety of backgrounds with different needs To all mankind seeking the truth; i.e., us included

THE PARABLES OF JESUS The Sower and the Soils 3. Process transference to real issue(s) Significant components: Sower, seeds and 4 types of soil sower sowed = Jesus, God, preachers/teachers, YOU/ME

seeds = the Word, life-giving wisdom, thoughts, deeds besides the road = non-receptive, hardened heart, callous hearers birds ate them = the evil one, naysayers, unholy friends/family rocky places; not much soil; no depth of soil = ready to buy whatever is sold; no strength of character; shallow heart immediately sprang up = emotional response; superficial acceptance sun--- scorched; no root --- withered = lose interest fast; retreat under challenging circumstances; no courage of conviction thorns --- choked = worldly temptations; social pressures, weak faith; materialistic desires; strangled heart good soil = open heart, receptive; seekers of truth; Believers yielded crop 100, 60, 30 fold = bring others to receive salvation; work for the Kingdom of God; produce Fruit of the Spirit; THE PARABLES OF JESUS The Sower and the Soils Jesus/God; preachers/teachers; us Sower The Word; Kingdom of God; thoughts, deeds

Seeds besides road Hardened heart; non-receptive; callous hearers Satan & followers; misguided friends/family/media birds rocky places, Shallow- heart; seemingly good, but no depth not much soil Superficial; short-term emotional acceptance sun-scorched Easily lost; retreat under challenging conditions Strangled heart; worry-warts; worldly influenced thorns Temporal desires; social pressures, materialistic choked Receptive heart; willing to accept spiritual truth good soil yielded crop Spiritually obedient; work for the Kingdom Productive in varying degrees 100,60,30 fold THE PARABLES OF JESUS The Sower and the Soils

4. The message and additional items of interest Jesus is spreading the message of new life and Gods kingdom on earth He recognizes that the message will not be accepted by all. There will be those who will not respond appropriately to the message: the hardened hearts, weak characters and/or temporally influenced individuals But, there will be those who will choose His gift of salvation / eternal rewards and be spiritually productive As Believers, our duty is to continue His work by spreading the Word throughout the world, and let he who has ears, let him hear. Caveat: Our own plot of land may have road-sides, rocky places, and thorn bushes alongside our fertile soil THE PARABLES OF JESUS The Sower and the Soils 5. What did I learn from this parable (my take-aways)?

God has given me His Word and I should be willing to receive it with an spiritually open heart I am also expected to be a sower of His Word I can not expect all seeds to fall on good soil, and it is not for me to judge how others respond My own field can have road-sides, rocky places and thorn bushes, along with my good soil I need ears to hear; i.e., I need to make a conscious effort to learn from His teaching THE PARABLES OF JESUS: Pertaining to The Kingdom of God Read Parable of the Seed Growing [Mark 4:26 29] Description of Jesus word-picture: Man casts seeds on soil -> rests -> crops grow secretly through stages -> harvested when ready Context: Jesus teaching The Kingdom of God concepts to followers

Continuing on foundation laid for parable of Sower/Seeds There may have been some zealots who wanted to push their will with revolutionary tactics Same cultural and historical setting as with previous parable Israelites were familiar with Gods sickle (Joel 3:12-13) Clarifying the roles of God and man for multitudes / us THE PARABLES OF JESUS: Parable of the Growing Seed Item pictured

Kingdom of God Sower Seeds goes to bed gets up Seed sprouts -> grows himself not know produces crop by itself blade head grain crop permits puts in the sickle Projected image

Spiritual reality; Gods truth Man, preachers/teachers, us The Word; wisdom; thoughts; deeds Rests; completes phase; waits Conscious; perceiving Productive process of conversion Secretive; incomprehensible Unexplainable process; mysterious

Progression: germinate, grow, fruit Ready for producing positive results Judges the outcome with action THE PARABLES OF JESUS: Parable of the Growing Seed The Message and additional items of interest: We are to faithfully spread the wisdom that Jesus has provided with complete dependence on God to produce the harvest. Be fishers of men: you catch em, hell clean em The harvest does not depend on our secular wisdom, skills or zeal, but on Gods miraculous process of growth. We need to be patient since the growth process may take time and go through various stages Growth of the Kingdom is promised, harvest is inevitable, and will be fulfilled at the right time [Matt.24:14] What did I learn from this lesson? I am to do His will and He will take my participation to fruition

His miraculous work is beyond my comprehension and control, but I need to have faith (confidence, comfort) in His infinite power There will be a final day of judgment RETENTION OF LEARNING 10 % of what we read. 26 % of what we hear. 30 % of what we see. 50 % of what we see and hear. 70 % of what we discuss with others. 80 % of personal experience. 90 % of what we say as we do it. 95 % of what we teach. Source: Jenny Johnson, Individualization of Instruction, Faculty Focus, Fall 1996. 16 THE PARABLES OF JESUS: Parable of the Tares among Wheat

Read the parable of Tares among Wheat: Matthew 13:24 30 Description of word-picture (tell the story to someone): Context: Jesus continuing on foundation for multitudes Cultural/ historical considerations as in previous parables Significant OT connections, particularly Book of Daniel Sabotaging a neighbors field by spreading weeds was not uncommon. In fact, there were Roman laws against sowing tares in someone elses field The weed mentioned in Matthew was darnel, a poisonous fungus found mainly in the Middle-East, which looked similar to wheat as the two plants matured Trying to uproot weeds before the grain is ripe leads to substantive loss of wheat crop Israelites knew that it takes patience and courage to let darnel grow alongside the wheat until harvest time THE PARABLES OF JESUS: Parable of the Tares among Wheat

From data to desired image: Explained in Matt. 13:37-42 man who sowed = Son of Man = belongs to man = Jesus his field = the world; the Church good seed = sons of the kingdom = belongs to Jesus = us men were sleeping = resting from their labor; not staying alert the enemy = the devil, Satan tares = darnel; sons of the evil one = non-believers/opponents slaves = servants; Believers; the righteous [v.43] harvest = final judgment; end of the age [Daniel 12:2-3] reapers = His angels gather them -- bind them -- burn them = suffer consequence righteous will shine --- = glorious reward into my barn = eternity in Heaven THE PARABLES OF JESUS: Parable of the Tares among Wheat The message and additional items of interest: The evil one does exist and will make every effort to

sabotage Gods work Satan will be active until the end of the ages Good and evil exist today, but will be separated in the end We need to be patient and faithful; let God take over Be fishers of men: you catch em, Hell clean em We are called to be witnesses, not lawyers or judges. It is difficult to distinguish between believers and nonbelievers and our actions could result in non-intended consequences There is a reward for the righteous and punishment for the wicked THE PARABLES OF JESUS: Parable of the Tares among Wheat What did I learn from this parable? I need to stay alert at all times since the evil one is lurking to deceive me I have to accept the fact that there are evil ones on this earth

It is not for me to judge whether someone is a Believer or not It is my duty to pray, worship, witness, wait; and have faith in God to achieve ultimate results I am assured a place in Gods Kingdom. THE PARABLES OF JESUS Parables Regarding Lamps LAMP 1 : Read Matt. 5:14-16; Mark 4:21-22; Luke 8:16-18 Description: Context: Part of Sermon on the Mount Clarification of discipleship responsibilities Jesus often used image of light / lamps; common items Lamp (with floating wick) usual form of lighting, even in daytime

Lampstand: usually niche in wall of house Jesus addressing multitudes (disciples and followers) THE PARABLES OF JESUS Parables Regarding Lamps Transference from word picture to meaning: You are the light of the world = personal responsibility to carry the Gospel message City set on a hill cannot be hidden = Jesus standing atop the mountain; His message can not be buried V.15: enlightenment is not to be kept unused, but is given for edification of all those who need the wisdom V.16: people who have the true knowledge of God are to enlighten others through their walk Glorify your Father = Bless, exalt, love God by doing His will [Mark & Luke] nothing hidden to be revealed no secret should come to light = truth/Gospel will & should be revealed; could also refer to sins that may be concealed, but will be made known at time of final judgment

[Luke v.8:18] emphasizes importance of learning reward is proportionate to obedience THE PARABLES OF JESUS Parables Regarding Lamps Message and other points The world is in spiritual darkness and Jesus is the light-giver The sinful nature of man can clearly be seen in light of Jesus message Jesus message of salvation should be openly spread to the world We are to be light-bearers by proclaiming the Gospel It is every Believers responsibility to convey His message Being a Believer should not be a secret, but should be used for furtherance of His Kingdom Our lives need to reflect His sinless character We may try to hide our sins, but we can not hide them from God

THE PARABLES OF JESUS Parables Regarding Lamps What did I learn? I have the responsibility to project Jesus message to the world I can serve Gods Kingdom through my walk and my talk The presence of sin darkens my life and should be avoided at all cost There is the need for learning from His Word to be effective in spreading the Gospel I show my love for God by doing His will THE PARABLES OF JESUS Parables Regarding Lamps LAMP 2 : Read Luke 11:33-36 Reiterates start of previous parable, but moves to new input Context: Starts with familiar picture, then changes direction

Responding to blaspheming Pharisees and other opponents Cast out demon claimed it was work of devil [v.14-26] Reference to wicked generation [v.29] Challenging Him to prove Himself [v.29 para.] Transference: lamp of body is eye = eye is gate to perception of reality clear eye = receptive heart to comprehend truth bad eye = sinful desires darkness = sin blocking the ability to live a full life THE PARABLES OF JESUS Parables Regarding Lamps Message and other inputs: Jesus is telling non-believers that He has illuminated the world with The Word that can save them However, to receive the truth, one needs an open heart A receptive heart permits life to receive Gods blessings Those who have seen the light need to be careful and

not permit sin to blur perception of righteousness Sin inhibits us from incorporating Gods truth in our lives What did I learn? If I want to enjoy Gods blessings, I need to take in (learn) His Word, and avoid sin with a passion. THE PARABLES OF JESUS A Pair of Parables: The Mustard Seed & The Leaven READ : Parable of the Mustard Seed Mark 4:30-32; Matt.13:31-32; Luke 13:18-19 CONTEXT: Jesus knows Israelites concept of kingdom More like earlier warrior kings, as in King Saul, David; Solomon, etc. They expected a massive, powerful, king to overthrow Romans Jesus was fond of using mustard seed in His illustrations Mustard seed was the smallest seed known to Israelites Jesus was using a popular Jewish idiom for something really small Smallest measurable and smallest amount that could be weighed One type comes in a pod; when seed is crushed it spews a dust that

becomes the mustard seed May be black mustard, an herb used as condiment and for m.s. oil OT has references to trees as mighty kingdoms [Ezk. 17, 31; Dan.4] THE PARABLES OF JESUS Parable of The Mustard Seed TRANSFERENCE : Kingdom of God = main theme: Gods message of salvation Presented / compared with: signifies important concept mustard seed = main item to illustrate spiritual reality Essential implications noted in Context section smallest of all = insignificant, inconsequential (important attribute for comparison) when planted = necessary condition for further action grows becomes large = miraculous transformation becomes a tree = implies growth beyond normal birds can nest = provides peaceful shelter; or could mean attracts non-desirable infiltrators

THE PARABLES OF JESUS Parable of The Mustard Seed MESSAGE: Jesus wants disciples to shift their concept of His Kingship He wants to replace their pre-conceived notion of kingdom To adjust perspective and focus on eternal values His is not a temporal/earthly (social, political, economic) kingdom, but is a spiritual Kingdom of God Communicates that His ministry starts in an unimpressive form However, it will miraculously continue to grow to blossom and provide refuge to many The beginning is tiny, but the end is beyond normal bounds Born a babe, 12 followers, 3.5 years of ministry, death on a Cross; 120 at Pentecost, 3,000 in Acts 2; Acts 4:4 up to 5,000; continuous persecution of followers; today 2 Billion+; at time of harvest ??? Out of the most insignificant beginnings, God provides the means for all those who seek salvation to be in His Kingdom THE PARABLES OF JESUS

Parable of The Mustard Seed WHAT DID I LEARN? God can start with the insignificant / inconsequential and yet produce the unimaginable triumph Gods ways are contrary to the ways of the world I need to plant seeds, however small they may appear I am not to be discouraged at small or slow beginnings Dont fall for the I want it, and I want it now culture Leads me to consider issues of size and success I can be rest assured that Gods Kingdom will eventually attain significant results, irrespective of its inauspicious start or its apparently slow progress THE PARABLES OF JESUS Parable of The Leaven READ : Matt.13:33; Luke 13:20-21 CONTEXT: Partner to the Mustard Seed parable (reinforces concepts)

Israelites familiar with bread baking process leaven = yeast; fungus used as agent for baking / brewing They used fermented dough from previous baking Alien to natural constitution of flour Leaven and flour need each other for reaction /result Properties: it is pervasive, persistent, strong; an irreversible, mysterious process; when in flour, it yields a delicious aroma leaven as ingredient was used in OT (Exo.12, Lev.7) Israelite mindset emphasizes beginning / ending in situation Contemporary mindset emphasizes process THE PARABLES OF JESUS Parable of The Leaven TRANFERENCE: Kingdom of God: as discussed previously; Godly wisdom like leaven = possible opposite interpretations: Used in Bible with positive and negative connotations Related to individual, church, or all humanity Other transformational implications: discussed in Context

hid = term for common baking practice; infused, incorporated 3 pecks of meal = sata (Greek) = dough Large quantity; approx. 50 lbs.; can feed 100 people 3 relates to Gen. 18:6; Abrahams bread for the Lord until it was = represents inward transformation all leavened = spread throughout; expanded greatly Process implication: little leaven, big effect Emphasis on conclusion of process THE PARABLES OF JESUS Parable of The Leaven MESSAGE: Christ has introduced an element in humanity that will work persistently, pervasively, irreversibly His power (The Holy Spirit) will work from within the temporal body: individually, corporately and universally The Holy Spirit is the necessary essential for transformation The Kingdom of God will spread throughout the nations Results come not from military might , but through quite effort

The Great Commission is process for achieving results Gods influence will continue to grow and be felt worldwide WHAT DID I LEARN? Jesus has sown the Word for all mankind The Holy Spirit is mysteriously establishing the Kingdom of God through me and other Believers I need the Word and the Spirit in my life to grow spiritually THE PARABLES OF JESUS A Pair of Parables: Similarities and Differences The Mustard Seed & The Leaven SIMILARITIES: Both clarify the Kingdom of God Gospel Both start with unimpressive credentials, but continue on path to impressive completion Both deal with familiar items that people can relate to Both require insertion and a miraculous creative process Both end in substantive growth for significant results DIFFERENCES

M.S. sown by MAN; Leaven inserted by WOMAN M.S. -> EXTERNAL growth; L. -> INTERNAL transformation Elements have different PROPERTIES Leaven has been used with OPPOSITE connotations in Bible Leaven parable implies need for HOLY SPIRIT and THE GREAT COMMISSION THE PARABLES OF JESUS Parable of Vineyard Owner, Son and Tenants READ: Mark 12:1-12; Matt. 21:33-45; Luke 20:9-19 CONTEXT: Parable follows His dramatic entry into the temple Directs His message to Jewish religious authorities Addressed to Sanhedrin (chief priests, scribes, Pharisees) vineyard well recognized as symbol of Gods Israel Several OT references to the vine (Jer.2:21; Ezk.19:10; Ps.80:8-10) Structures message using Israeli history to make His point Appears to answer question that was left unanswered: by what authority are you doing these things?

Background to this parable: Isaiah 5:1-7 (Song of the Vineyard) Another important connection: PS.118:22-23; Historical note: Galileans had mistreated foreign landowners Used squatters rights after 3 years of land rental THE PARABLES OF JESUS Parable of Vineyard Owner, Son and Tenants TRANSFERENCE: [v.1] God created earth and all that is in it (connect with Isaiah) Made covenant with His people so they could be productive [v.2] arranged through His prophets to receive faithful service as return for His trust in providing them with livelihood [v.3-5] His people acted defiantly, irresponsibly, and rejected His authority by shamefully attacking His appointed emissaries [v.6] His last-ditch effort was to send his Beloved Son Jesus, with expectation of their relenting on seeing how special He is [v.7] leaders decide on evil action to willfully disobey, usurp authority, and repudiate Gods right to His Kingdom [v.8] Jesus prophesies His own ignoble death

THE PARABLES OF JESUS Parable of Vineyard Owner, Son and Tenants TRANSFERENCE (contd.) [v.9] question based on righteous indignation: Answer: reject those who denied Gods authority (Jewish religious authorities), and channel blessings to a group that is willing to be faithful (Christs followers, gentiles and Jews) [v.10-11] quotes Psalm 118:22-23 stone reference in Dan.2:34-35 Jesus is the chief corner stone rejected by Jewish leaders He brings the marvelous gift of salvation through Gods Grace [v.12] they = Jewish religious leaders (Chief Priests, Pharisees) Note: they knew He was addressing the parable to them, but did not heed His warning In fact, they fulfilled His prophesy THE PARABLES OF JESUS Parable of Vineyard Owner, Son and Tenants

MESSAGE: Jesus confirms the past (history of Israel); the present (His earthly mission); and the future (His Church/Believers) Claims religious leaders to be greedy, disobedient, dishonorable Provides insight into Gods character: patient, long-suffering, compassionate, noble After repeated rejection of His messengers, God is willing to sacrifice His Son to provide one more opportunity for salvation Demonstrates that His righteous anger, frustration, anguish, and desire for retributive justice are all repressed by His Grace Judgment is not on all Jews, but on those who reject Him (Jews and gentiles) He prophesies His own death THE PARABLES OF JESUS Parable of Vineyard Owner, Son and Tenants WHAT DID I LEARN? Solidifies my understanding of why God had to send

His only Begotten son to save me/us The lesson from this parable is just as applicable today as it was when Jesus presented it Helps me explain why we need to follow Jesus As His new tenant, it is imperative that I/we do not replicate the Jewish model of behavior Makes me appreciate Gods Grace more than ever. THE PARABLES OF JESUS Parable of The TALENTS READ : Matt.25:14-30 (Similar parable in Luke 19:12-27) CONTEXT: Jesus had instructed on faithfulness before this parable He is about to go on The Cross So, this one is part of His last important body of teaching There is a cumulative effect if parable is studied with the Foolish Virgins and the parable of the Sheep and Goats talents = talanta (Greek) = large sum of money 1 talent = approx. $200,000 -$250,000 = 10 years wages

Concepts of judgment, reward, punishment important to Jesus Most likely, He presented a variation on this parable as the Parable of Minas detailed in Lukes Gospel THE PARABLES OF JESUS Parable of The TALENTS TRANSFERENCE: It is just like = Kingdom of Heaven (v.25:1) a man = Jesus go on a journey = absence from earth; time between First and Second Coming own slaves = disciples; Believers entrusted = God bestowed stewardship possessions = Gospel; message of Salvation talents = Can mean resources, skills, gifts, talents, money 5, 2, 1 = different degrees, magnitude variation according to ability = different levels of inherent resources NT evidence: Paul in Rom.12:6-8; Christs gifts in Eph. 4:7-8

THE PARABLES OF JESUS Parable of The TALENTS TRANSFERENCE (continued) :went and traded = worked with intent to produce results hid his masters money = did not use resource gainfully after a long time = time till Second Coming settled accounts = required accountability I have gained = reporting results of work [v.21-23] accomplishment judged as faithful, rewarded accordingly, bestowed with masters favor and friendship the one who received the one talent starts with his personal assessment of masters negative character attributes I was afraid = lack of faith; cowardly reaction hid talent = did not use gift; spiritual atrophy you have what is yours = excuse for callous handling THE PARABLES OF JESUS Parable of The TALENTS TRANSFERENCE (continued)

Master answered = judgment; response to inaction wicked, lazy = irresponsible slanderer, slothful, callous [v.26-27] If this is what you believed, then you knew your responsibility and should have acted accordingly take away = consequence of shirking responsibility give it to = heap reward on the faithful [v.29] magnitude of reward is directly related to accomplishment; serious consequence for non-compliance worthless slave = lacking value in Gods Kingdom outer darkness = apart from Gods light; hell weeping / gnashing of teeth = uncomfortable existence THE PARABLES OF JESUS Parable of The TALENTS MESSAGE: God provides disciples with resources / abilities Each one is bestowed specific abilities at defined magnitudes We have the responsibility to use our resources effectively Resources are to be used to serve the Kingdom of God

We need to work productively and not be timid or lazy We are accountable for how we use our unique resources Ability + responsibility -> accountability There will be a day of reckoning when our works will be judged God will be the judge and His judgment is final No excuses will prevail, for the truth will be known by Him God is a good and benevolent Father to the faithful, but a stern disciplinarian to the rebellious, lazy, faithless THE PARABLES OF JESUS Parable of The TALENTS WHAT DID I LEARN? I have been blessed with unique resources by God There is the corresponding responsibility to use these resources effectively for Gods Kingdom My abilities plus this responsibility makes me accountable to God There will be a day when I will stand in front of God to

receive His judgment I want to hear the words: well done, good and faithful servant Hence, I have to do my very best to be faithful to His calling THE PARABLES OF JESUS Parable of THE RICH FOOL READ : Luke 12:16-21 CONTEXT: Addressing multitude / disciples (12:1) Implication for Pharisees coveting material possessions they believed God blesses those who pursue wealth Responding to issue brought up by someone in crowd [v13] Wants to clarify His role they want him to be a civil judge Jesus uses agricultural setting familiar to followers Knows that money is a major item of interest (Jesus refers to money more than most other items to make His point) Continues distinction between body and soul (temporal/eternal)

Jesus wants to reiterates the principle from Ecclesiastes that seems to have been ignored by the rich THE PARABLES OF JESUS Parable of THE RICH FOOL TRANSFERENCE: [V.16] God blesses man with productive resources Concept of divine favor or common grace Note: man is already rich; his needs have been met [v.17] Man, as steward, has the opportunity to choose his action [v18] Man worldly reasoning encourages gluttonous desire Temporal success sprouts covetous decision [v.19] Pride/self-aggrandizing promote foolish desires False sense of security and self-promotion create disillusionment Action rationalized by misuse of Gods word (Eccl. 8:15 out of context) Violates Gods First Commandment; first love is himself [v.20] God is sovereign over life and resources Man does not have permanent rights to anything Biblically fool refers to practical atheist [Ps.14:1; 53:1]

[v.21] Worldly pleasures are temporal and not spiritually rich here today, gone tomorrow THE PARABLES OF JESUS Parable of THE RICH FOOL MESSAGE: Seek spiritual blessings, not worldly pleasures and acquisitions Do not covet or be preoccupied with riches God considers pursuit of wealth for selfish desires to be foolish God is the source for life and satisfaction; we have little control Life is not a right, but a loaned gift Rich is not defined by acquired wealth, but by the attitude toward usage of wealth We are responsible stewards, not owners of wealth Possessions are temporal, but can be invested for eternal riches Wealth can be a dangerous obstacle for eternal life [Matt.19:24] The love of money is the root of all evil You cant serve God and mammon [Matt.6:24]

THE PARABLES OF JESUS Parable of THE RICH FOOL WHAT DID I LEARN? God is sovereign over my life; I must trust and obey I need to continuously question my priorities Put Gods commandments ahead of my personal wants / desires I am accountable for how I use God-given resources I am a privileged steward, not an owner of my resources I need to invest in eternal rewards, not temporal pursuits I should not covet material possessions; however, I can enjoy blessings God has bestowed on me Be rich toward God should be my goal Detailed in 1 Tim.6:17-19 Never forget Matt.6:31-34; Luke12:29-31 But seek first His kingdom and His righteousness, and all these things shall be added to you THE PARABLES OF JESUS Parable of THE UNRIGHTEOUS, SHREWD STEWARD

The insights one can draw from this parable are both profound and exciting. At the same time it is one of the most difficult parables of all to understand. It has taken me 40 years to begin to grasp what the parable is teaching, and I have talked about it with many great Bible teachers and theologians. R.T. Kendall, The Parables of Jesus, 2004 The parable of the unjust steward has always been disturbing. Preachers, writers, interpreters, and teachers of the Bible often avoid it like the plague. Kenneth E. Bailey, Jesus Through Middle Eastern Eyes, 2008 THE PARABLES OF JESUS Parable of THE UNRIGHTEOUS, SHREWD STEWARD Read the Parable: LUKE 16:1-9 CONTEXT: Primary focus: instruction to disciples [v.1]

Also for scoffing Pharisees [v.14]; Jesus had already addressed: their hypocrisies [12:1]; covetousness [12:15]; pride [14:11] Now, directly aiming at their attitude toward money Important to know cultural norms of that time Kenneth E. Bailey describes prevailing Eastern cultural norms To emphasize the point, Jesus intentionally uses large amounts in His illustrations, e.g., 100 measures of oil = 1,000 Denari = 3 years worker wages 20 measures of wheat = 500 Denari = 1.5 years of wages THE PARABLES OF JESUS Parable of THE UNRIGHTEOUS, SHREWD STEWARD TRANSFERENCE: rich man = person blessed by God with common grace steward = manager authorized to act on behalf of owner a powerful, responsible, lucrative position reported = by whom? Likely reliable, credible sources squandering possessions = misusing privileges give an account = turn in account books

can no longer be steward = fired? or, can be fired? [v.3] faces action choice: assesses options (note: does not consider defense, or asking for opportunity to face accusers) [v.4] Decides on a self-preservation strategy [v.5-7] implements dishonest, unscrupulous, but resolute plan Meets with debtors individually, and offers unearned reduction in debt THE PARABLES OF JESUS Parable of THE UNRIGHTEOUS, SHREWD STEWARD TRANSFERENCE (cont.) master praised the unrighteous steward. WHY would he do so? How can an obviously deceitful action be praised? Possible explanations: Master also is a dishonest person who appreciates subordinates who emulate his ways No real evidence to support this explanation; but case can be made Master is not praising dishonesty, but acknowledges shrewd action because he had acted shrewdly [v.8] I know my steward is a rascal, but a really clever rascal

Shrewd action involved: to be detailed later Master is making lemonade out of a lemon Intent may have been dishonest, but result can be turned to advantage by master Overt praise to save face by taking credit for generosity and/or avoiding criticism for dishonoring commitment THE PARABLES OF JESUS Parable of THE UNRIGHTEOUS, SHREWD STEWARD TRANSFERENCE (contd.) What constitutes shrewd behavior: clear assessment of issues knowledge of prevalent culture and/or masters character planning for the future based on above acting decisively sons of this age = worldly people who shrewdly manipulate to gain temporal advantage sons of light = people who act on basis of spiritual wisdom [v.9] PREPARE FOR THE FUTURE: use earthly wealth (mammon

of unrighteousness) to bring people (friends) who will be with you in Heaven THE PARABLES OF JESUS Parable of THE UNRIGHTEOUS, SHREWD STEWARD MESSAGE: Short-sighted desire for self-preservation leads to sinful actions Money by itself is not evil and it provides temporary value use worldly wealth with eternity in mind Specifically, be prudently generous to win souls for the Kingdom God is the master who deals with justice, mercy and integrity We have the free will to make choices: Satisfy todays desires (selfish), OR plan shrewdly for tomorrow (proactive) Take the easy way out (temporal), OR take the righteous way (spiritual) Shun God (non-believer), OR accept Christ as your Lord (Christian) Cut corners (dishonest behavior), OR live with faith (integrity) Practice situational ethics (relativism), OR submit to Gods authority (truth) Serve the pursuit of worldly wealth (mammon), OR invest in eternity (GOD) Look ahead to eternal damnation (hell), OR gain eternal rewards (Heaven)

THE PARABLES OF JESUS Parable of THE UNRIGHTEOUS, SHREWD STEWARD WHAT DID I LEARN? I will have to account for my stewardship of His resources I need to be careful in choices I make in times of crises Do not let self-preservation lead to dishonest action I should not look for the easy way out or practice situational ethics I am expected to use my money prudently for eternal blessings I will be rewarded for making the right choices THE PARABLES OF JESUS Parable of THE PRODIGAL SON Perhaps the most famous parable of them all [Luke 15:11-32] Called the pearl or crown of Jesus parables (RT Kendall)

Gospel within a gospel No equal to it in all literature The most powerful picture of a gracious God, and of the motivation behind Jesus ministry The Prodigal Son: an inadequate title There are three important characters: the prodigal son, the father and the older son Puts emphasis on one character the prodigal prodigal = extravagant, reckless, wasteful spender Prefer title: The Loving Father and Two Rebellious Sons THE PARABLES OF JESUS Parable of THE PRODIGAL SON CONTEXT: Response to Pharisees and Scribes who were sneering at Him This man receives sinners and eats with them [v.15:2b] Also for tax collectors and sinners In fact, for all mankind [14:21]; ( includes us)

Connected to 2 other parables: The Lost Sheep [15:3-7] and The Lost Coin [15:8-10] Culturally relevant items they could relate to: Sons entitlement to inheritance [Deut. 21:17] Impropriety of son asking for inheritance while father is alive Concept of far country = lost/dead for all practical purposes Jesus wants to clarify Gods attitude toward repentant sinners NT parallel to OT Book of Jonah THE PARABLES OF JESUS Parable of THE PRODIGAL SON The Prodigal Son: SINNERS NEGATIVES Rebellious The Prodigal Son: REPENTANT SINNERS POSITIVES

Awakened to true condition THE PARABLES OF JESUS Parable of THE PRODIGAL SON The Prodigal Son: SINNERS NEGATIVES

Rebellious Impatient /demanding Selfish Repudiates authority Rejects fathers love Shuns responsibility Gratifies carnal desires Wastes gifted resources Defiles himself Renounces religion Despicable, sinful character The Prodigal Son: REPENTANT SINNERS

POSITIVES Awakened to true condition Acknowledged unworthiness Confessed sins Willing to accept authority Devised a shrewd plan Swallowed pride Showed courage Was born again from villain to hero THE PARABLES OF JESUS Parable of THE PRODIGAL SON Older Son: SINNER

NEGATIVES Uncontrolled anger Judgmental, unsympathetic Rejects fathers pleas Resentful, bitter attitude Self-righteous

Inflated sense of importance Entitled to his blessings Desires temporal things Pride, superiority complex Jealous Takes himself too seriously Older Son: COMPLIANT CHILD POSITIVES Stayed with father Was faithful to father Accepted his responsibilities

Hard-working, loyal son THE PARABLES OF JESUS Parable of THE PRODIGAL SON FATHER: Attributes of Gods Character: RESPECTFUL: gives free-will to make choices HOPEFUL: was looking for sons return (still a long way away) COMPASSIONATE: ran and embraced him GRACIOUS: welcome is unexpected, undeserved and unearned LOVING: accepts son(s) unconditionally MERCIFUL: embraced him, kissed him UNDERSTANDING: did not let son complete his confession REDEEMING: robe, ring RESTORING: sandals, fattened calf FORGIVING: all actions demonstrate that son is forgiven JOYFUL: let us eat and be merry GOOD: pleads for righteousness (to older son) KIND / GENTLE: speaks affectionately to older son

THE PARABLES OF JESUS Parable of THE PRODIGAL SON MESSAGE: God offers forgiveness and salvation to all (including selfish, rebellious, self-righteous and other sinful characters) irrespective of the magnitude of the sin, so long as they repent and come willingly to HIM Our Father and Jesus love us even when we backslide We need to practice attributes of Gods character, not prodigality or self-righteousness Gods Grace supersedes The Law as in Deut.21:18-21 Pay attention to Ephesians 2:1-7

Recently Viewed Presentations

  • Plate Tectonics, Earthquakes and Volcanoes Structure of the

    Plate Tectonics, Earthquakes and Volcanoes Structure of the

    Tectonic plates move around on top of the mantle. They move very slowly at a rate of a few mm per year, (about the same rate your fingernails grow). Over millions of years the plates can end up moving around...
  • The Moon:  Geologic  History and  Future  Exploration   What

    The Moon: Geologic History and Future Exploration What

    The Orientale Basin on the western limb of the Moon was formed by a large impact. About half of this eye-catching structure is visible from the Earth. Note the concentric rings; most scientists believe that the third one is the...
  • Period 2 1607-1754 - Braly U.S. History

    Period 2 1607-1754 - Braly U.S. History

    The "Old Lights" (established religious leaders) lost some of their influence in the church. People began to realize that they didn't need the higher authority in order to learn from the Bible "New Lights" broke away and formed new denominations...
  • Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC)

    Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC)

    Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC) "You've got to be very careful if you don't know where you're going, because you might not get there." Yogi Berra Capability Maturity Model (CMM) A bench-mark for measuring the maturity of an organization's software...
  • Lesson Plans for ESL 7, 8 and 6 INCLUSIVE Students will ...

    Lesson Plans for ESL 7, 8 and 6 INCLUSIVE Students will ...

    STANDARDS AND OBJECTIVES. 7E1c.1: Discuss the purposes and characteristics of different forms of written text, such as the short story, the novel, the novella, and the essay. WE WILL BE LOOKING AT GRREK HERO MYTHS. Component: Analysis of Grade-Level-Appropriate Literary...
  • Reading, Evidence, and Argumentation in Disciplinary Instruction READI

    Reading, Evidence, and Argumentation in Disciplinary Instruction READI

    It seemed gloomy in the little cove in which she found herself. The air was damp, the silence close and deep. ... Implemented modules during SY 13/14 and 14/15 with support and feedback from members of Project READI through planning...
  • Maths on the Move Tasks Cards - Mathematics Centre

    Maths on the Move Tasks Cards - Mathematics Centre

    Maths on the Move Tasks Cards Mathematicians Model Used the problem solving task cards. Began with two lessons per week separate from maths program. After two weeks moved to three times a week. Investigations were in the form of group...
  • Inlets and Nozzles - Baylor ECS

    Inlets and Nozzles - Baylor ECS

    Inlets and Nozzles: ... Boundary Layer Control Inlet Integration Keep ducts as short as possible reduces volume, reduces viscous losses limits on turning flow without separation Keep offset ducts long enough to prevent separation Use the wing and fuselage to...