The Language of Medicine A Write-in Text Explaining Medical ...

The Language of Medicine A Write-in Text Explaining Medical ...

Chapter 5 Objectives Name the organs of the digestive system and describe their locations and functions. Define combining forms for organs and know the meaning of related terminology. Describe signs, symptoms, and disease conditions affecting the digestive system. Copyright 2017, 2014, 2011, 2007 Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 1 Digestive System Chapter 5 Pages 139 186 2 Pages 150 151 absorption Vocabulary canine teeth

duodenum amino acids cecum elimination amylase colon emulsification anus enamel

appendix common bile duct enzyme esophagus fatty acids bile bilirubin bowel defecation deglutition dentin

digestion Copyright 2017, 2014, 2011, 2007 Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 3 Page 151 Vocabulary (Contd) feces incisor mastication gallbladder insulin molar teeth glucose

jejunum premolar teeth glycogen lipase palate hydrochloric acid liver pancreas lower esophageal sphincter (LES)

papillae (singular: papilla) ileum Copyright 2017, 2014, 2011, 2007 Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 4 Pages 151 153 Vocabulary (Contd) parotid gland peristalsis pharynx portal vein

protease pulp pyloric sphincter sigmoid colon sphincter stomach triglycerides uvula villi (singular: villus) pylorus rectum

rugae saliva salivary glands Copyright 2017, 2014, 2011, 2007 Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 5 Pages 153 153 Combining Forms Combining Form Meaning an/o append/o, appendic/o anus appendix Examples perianal appendectomy, appendicitis Copyright 2017, 2014, 2011, 2007 Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 6 Pages 153 154 Combining Forms (Contd) Combining Form Meaning

Examples bucc/o cec/o celi/o cheil/o cholecyst/o choledoch/o col/o, colon/o cheek cecum belly, abdomen lip gallbladder common bile duct colon buccal mucosa cecal celiac cheilosis cholecystectomy choledochotomy colostomy, colonic, colonoscopy Copyright 2017, 2014, 2011, 2007 Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 7 Pages 154 155 Combining Forms (Contd) Combining Form Meaning

Examples dent/i duoden/o enter/o tooth duodenum intestines, usually small intestine dentibuccal duodenal enterocolitis, eneroenterostomy, mesentery, parenteral Copyright 2017, 2014, 2011, 2007 Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 8 Page 156 Combining Forms (Contd) Combining Meaning Form esophag/o faci/o gastr/o gingiv/o gloss/o hepat/o ile/o esophagus face stomach

gums tongue liver ileum jejun/o jejunum Examples esophageal facial gastrostomy gingivitis hypoglossal hepatoma, hepatomegaly ileocecal sphincter, ileitis, ileostomy choledochojejunostomy, gastrojejunostomy Copyright 2017, 2014, 2011, 2007 Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 9 Pages 156 157 Combining Forms (Contd) Combining Form Meaning labi/o lapar/o lingu/o mandibul/o odont/o

lip abdomen tongue lower jaw, mandible tooth or/o palat/o pancreat/o mouth palate pancreas Examples labial laparoscopy sublingual submandibular orthodontist, periodontist, endodontist oral palatoplasty pancreatitis Copyright 2017, 2014, 2011, 2007 Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 10 Page 157 Combining Forms (Contd) Combining Form Meaning

Examples peritone/o pharyng/o peritoneum throat proct/o pylor/o rect/o sialaden/o sigmoid/o stomat/o uvul/o anus and rectum pyloric sphincter rectum salivary gland sigmoid colon mouth uvula peritonitis pharyngeal, palatopharyngopl asty proctoglist pyloroplasty rectocele sialadenitis sigmoidoscopy stomatitis uvulectomy Copyright 2017, 2014, 2011, 2007 Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 11

Pages 157 158 Combining Forms (Contd) Combining Form Meaning amyl/o bil/I bilirubin/o starch gall, bile bilirubin (bile pigment) gall or bile hydrochloric acid sugar chol/e chlorhydr/o gluc/o, glyc/o glycogen/o Examples amylase biliary hyperbilirubinemia cholelithiasis achlorhydria gluconeogenesis, hyperglycemia glycogen, animal glycogenolysis starch Copyright 2017, 2014, 2011, 2007 Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

12 Page 158 Combining Forms (Contd) Combining Form Meaning Examples lip/o fat, lipid lipoma lith/o stone lithogenesis prote/o protein protease py/o pus pyorrhea sial/o saliva, salivary

sialolith steat/o fat steatorrhea Copyright 2017, 2014, 2011, 2007 Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 13 Page 158 Suffix Meaning Suffixes Examples -ase enzyme lipase -chezia defecation, elimination of wastes hematochezia -iasis abnormal condition choledocholithiasis

-prandial meal postprandial Copyright 2017, 2014, 2011, 2007 Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 14 Pages 159-161 Signs and Symptoms Anorexia Flatus Ascites Hematochezia Borborygmi Jaundice Constipation Melena Diarrhea Nausea Dysphagia Steatorrhea Eructation Copyright 2017, 2014, 2011, 2007 Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

15 Page 161 Pathology: Oral Cavity and Teeth Aphthous Dental caries Herpetic Oral stomatitis stomatitis leukoplakia Periodontal disease Copyright 2017, 2014, 2011, 2007 Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 16 Pages 162 163 Pathology: Upper GI Tract Achalasia Esophageal cancer Esophageal

varices Gastric carcinoma Copyright 2017, 2014, 2011, 2007 Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 17 Pages 162 163 Upper GI Tract (Contd) Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) Hernia Peptic ulcer Copyright 2017, 2014, 2011, 2007 Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 18 Pages 164 & 166 Pathology: Lower GI Tract Anal fistula Colonic polyps Colorectal

Crohn Cancer disease Diverticulosis Dysentery Copyright 2017, 2014, 2011, 2007 Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 19 Pages 164 & 166 Lower GI Tract (Contd) Hemorrhoids Ileus Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) Intussusception Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) Ulcerative Volvulus colitis Copyright 2017, 2014, 2011, 2007 Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 20 Page 167

Pathology: Liver, Gallbladder, & Pancreas Cholelithiasis Pancreatic Cirrhosis Pancreatitis Hepatocellular Viral carcinoma (HCC) cancer hepatitis Copyright 2017, 2014, 2011, 2007 Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 21

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