The FACT Method: Creative Problem Solving with General ...

The FACT Method: Creative Problem Solving with General ...

The FACT Method: Creative Problem Solving with General Semantics and Lateral Thinking If you can see the world clearly then your thinking and actions will be appropriate. Edward de Bono Earl Livings 2010 The FACT Method Slide 1 Presentation Outline

Definition Modes of Thinking Practical Example Lateral Thinking Techniques Other Techniques Conclusion ...if you can learn how to 'think' in terms of 'facts' instead of definition, we will have achieved what we wanted to achieve. Alfred Korzybski Earl Livings 2010 The FACT Method Slide 2

Theme In order to investigate problem solving, we need to distinguish between a general structure or process for the solving of problems and the techniques used within that process. These techniques will vary depending on the domain of operation and the specific problem. Earl Livings 2010 The FACT Method Slide 3 The FACT Method F = Find the problem or be found by it. Formulate/Feedback/Follow-up/Define.

Earl Livings 2010 The FACT Method Slide 4 The FACT Method F = Find the problem or be found by it. Formulate/Feedback/Follow-up. A = Acquire/Apprehend/Aware/Assumptions (gather information) Earl Livings 2010 The FACT Method Slide 5 The FACT Method

F = Find the problem or be found by it. Formulate/Feedback/Follow-up. A = Acquire/Apprehend/Aware/Assumptions (gather information) C= Consider/Cogitate/Comprehend/Change (analyse information, create, consider and change solutions) Earl Livings 2010 The FACT Method Slide 6 The FACT Method F = Find the problem or be found by it. Formulate/Feedback/Follow-up. A = Acquire/Apprehend/Aware/Assumptions (gather information)

C= Consider/Cogitate/Comprehend/Change (analyse information, create, consider and change solutions) T = Task/Tell/Transmit/Try/Test/Trial (make decision, implement, check) Earl Livings 2010 The FACT Method Slide 7 The FACT Method Earl Livings 2010 The FACT Method Slide 8

The Scientific Method 1. Identify a Problem 2. Analyse it 3. Form possible solutions 4. Experiment 5.

Observe 6. Form conclusions (From Twelve General Semantics Lessons for Middle School Students, Martin Levinson, Ph.D.) Earl Livings 2010 The FACT Method Slide 9 Different Modes of 'Thinking' 1 Edward de Bono, consultant, inventor: Vertical and Lateral

Earl Livings 2010 The FACT Method Slide 10 Different Modes of 'Thinking' 1 Edward de Bono, consultant, inventor: Vertical and Lateral Jerome Bruner, American psychologist: Paradigmatic (propositions) and Narrative (story) Earl Livings 2010

The FACT Method Slide 11 Different Modes of 'Thinking' 1 Edward de Bono, consultant, inventor: Vertical and Lateral Jerome Bruner, American psychologist: Paradigmatic (propositions) and Narrative (story) Robert Graves, English poet: Prose (logical/scientific) and Poetic (associational/mythic)

Analeptic (past) and Proleptic (future) Earl Livings 2010 The FACT Method Slide 12 Different Modes of 'Thinking' 2 Samuel Taylor Coleridge, English poet: Imagination (Primary and Secondary) and Fancy Earl Livings 2010 The FACT Method

Slide 13 Different Modes of 'Thinking' 2 Samuel Taylor Coleridge, English poet: Imagination (Primary and Secondary) and Fancy William Blake, English poet: Daughters of Imagination and Daughters of Memory Earl Livings 2010 The FACT Method Slide 14

Different Modes of 'Thinking' 2 Samuel Taylor Coleridge, English poet: Imagination (Primary and Secondary) and Fancy William Blake, English poet: Daughters of Imagination and Daughters of Memory Ships sail the sea (Keels plough the earth): Synecdoche, Metaphor and Metonymy Earl Livings 2010

The FACT Method Slide 15 Different Modes of 'Thinking' 3 Aristotelian and Non-Aristotelian Earl Livings 2010 The FACT Method Slide 16 Different Modes of 'Thinking' 3

Aristotelian and Non-Aristotelian Waking and Dream: Einstein's Thought Experiments, etc Earl Livings 2010 The FACT Method Slide 17 Different Modes of 'Thinking' 3

Aristotelian and Non-Aristotelian Waking and Dream: Einstein's Thought Experiments, etc Part and Whole (Gestalt) Earl Livings 2010 The FACT Method Slide 18 Different Modes of 'Thinking' 3 Aristotelian and Non-Aristotelian Waking and Dream: Einstein's Thought Experiments, etc

Part and Whole (Gestalt) Divergent and Convergent Thinking Earl Livings 2010 The FACT Method Slide 19 Different Modes of 'Thinking' 3

Aristotelian and Non-Aristotelian Waking and Dream: Einstein's Thought Experiments, etc Part and Whole (Gestalt) Divergent and Convergent Thinking Thesis--Antithesis--Synthesis Earl Livings 2010 The FACT Method

Slide 20 Jung's Psychological Types Judgement and Perception Earl Livings 2010 The FACT Method Slide 21 Multiple Intelligences

Visual/spatial Verbal/linguistic Logical/mathematical Bodily/kinesthetic Musical/rhythmic Interpersonal Intrapersonal (From the work of Howard Gardner.) Earl Livings 2010 The FACT Method Slide 22 A Practical FACT

Earl Livings 2010 The FACT Method Slide 23 TEC T = Target: the precise focus of the thinking Task: the thinking task that is to be performed (e.g. review, fault finding/correction, problem finding/solving E =

Expand/Explore (positive and free-flowing) C = Contract/Conclude (a narrowing down phase; trying to make sense of what was found and to find a conclusion) A very simple structure for focussing thinking and making of it a deliberate task. Can be done as a five-minute think: T (1 min), E (3 mins), C (2 mins). Earl Livings 2010 The FACT Method Slide 24

GS Principles and Techniques The map is not the territory. The map doesn't cover all the territory.

The map is self-reflexive. The word isn't the thing. Extensional/Intensional. Non-Allness. Non-Elementalism. Non-Identity. Organism-as-a-Whole-inEnvironments. Over-/Under-/Un-Defined Words. Earl Livings 2010

Dating. Delayed Evaluating. Et Cetera (Etc.). Hyphens. Indexing. Logical Fate. Multiordinality. Multi-valued Orientation. Quotes. Self-reflexiveness. Structure, Relations, Order. Structural Differential.

Time-binding. The FACT Method Slide 25 Logic bubble That bubble of perception within which a person is acting and which involves that persons beliefs, understandings, experience and their perceptions of circumstance, structure, context and relationships. Earl Livings 2010 The FACT Method Slide 26 Logical Fate

Logic bubble That bubble of perception within which a person is acting and which involves that persons beliefs, understandings, experience and their perceptions of circumstance, structure, context and relationships. Earl Livings 2010 The FACT Method Slide 27 AGO (F/A) A = Aims G = Goals O = Objectives This is an example of an attention-directing thinking tool. Although there are differences between these words,

these are ignored for the sake of doing some attentiondirecting: the task is to set up objectives or to discover the objectives that already seem to be in use. Earl Livings 2010 The FACT Method Slide 28 Multiordinality, Time-binding, Extensional Thinking AGO (F/A) A = Aims G = Goals O = Objectives This is an example of an attention-directing thinking tool. Although there are differences between these words, these are ignored for the sake of doing some attentiondirecting: the task is to set up objectives or to discover the objectives that already seem to be in use. Earl Livings 2010

The FACT Method Slide 29 FIFO (A) inFormation In, inFormation Out A deliberate survey of what is available and what is still needed. FI: the information already gathered is examined using dense reading (reading between the lines and considering the implications of what is read) and all implications and inferences are extracted. FO: the gaps in the information are then identified, and filled in as much as possible. Earl Livings 2010 The FACT Method DIV

Slide 30 Map/Territory, Multi-valued Orientation FIFO (A) inFormation In, inFormation Out A deliberate survey of what is available and what is still needed. FI: the information already gathered is examined using dense reading (reading between the lines and considering the implications of what is read) and all implications and inferences are extracted. FO: the gaps in the information are then identified, and filled in as much as possible. Earl Livings 2010 The FACT Method DIV

Slide 31 Brainstorming (A/C) Generally, a solution-generating tool. My guidelines: 1) 2) 3) The more the merrier The wilder the better No self-criticism or other-criticism Is better performed individually than in groups. Do something only you can come up withthat none of

your friends or family would think of. Earl Livings 2010 The FACT Method DIV Slide 32 Delayed Evaluating, Etc. Brainstorming (A/C) Generally, a solution-generating tool. My guidelines: 1) 2) 3) The more the

merrier The wilder the better No self-criticism or other-criticism Is better performed individually than in groups. Do something only you can come up withthat none of your friends or family would think of. Earl Livings 2010 The FACT Method DIV Slide 33 PO (A/C) HypothesisSupposePossiblePoetry

PO can stand for provocative operation, an attempt to move thinking into newer, more productive areas, a method of movement not of judgement. Three possible methods: 1) The Stepping Stone (Po cars would limit their own parking; The po factory should be downstream of itself) 2) The Escape Method (looking at things in a situation that we may take for granted) 3) The Random Stimulation Method (through the use of a random word or object or person or magazine or exhibition, and following associations) Earl Livings 2010 The FACT Method DIV Slide 34 Structure-Relations-Order, Non-Allness, Etc.

PO (A/C) HypothesisSupposePossiblePoetry PO can stand for provocative operation, an attempt to move thinking into newer, more productive areas, a method of movement not of judgement. Three possible methods: 1) The Stepping Stone (Po cars would limit their own parking; The po factory should be downstream of itself) 2) The Escape Method (looking at things in a situation that we may take for granted) 3) The Random Stimulation Method (through the use of a random word or object or person or magazine or exhibition, and following associations) Earl Livings 2010 The FACT Method DIV

Slide 35 APC (A/C) A = Alternatives P = Possibilities C = Choices This is another attention-directing tool. In different situations one or other word may seem more appropriate, but no attempt should be made to distinguish between them. Doing an APC means making a deliberate effort to generate alternatives at any particular point. Earl Livings 2010 The FACT Method DIV Slide 36

Non-Allness, Non-Elementalism, Non-Identity, Etc. APC (A/C) A = Alternatives P = Possibilities C = Choices This is another attention-directing tool. In different situations one or other word may seem more appropriate, but no attempt should be made to distinguish between them. Doing an APC means making a deliberate effort to generate alternatives at any particular point. Earl Livings 2010 The FACT Method DIV Slide 37

EBS (A/C) Examine Both Sides This type of exploration of both sides of a situation/argument is meant to be neutral and objective. The intention is to examine the territory of the situation for a constructive purpose. The tool leads easily into ADI. Earl Livings 2010 The FACT Method DIV Slide 38 Organism-as-a-Whole-in-Environments EBS (A/C) Examine Both Sides

This type of exploration of both sides of a situation/argument is meant to be neutral and objective. The intention is to examine the territory of the situation for a constructive purpose. The tool leads easily into ADI. Earl Livings 2010 The FACT Method DIV Slide 39 OPV (A/C) Other Person's Views This thinking tool overlaps with the EBS and the logic bubble. In using this tool, the thinker tries to put him/herself into the shoes of the other person, in order to be able to perceive the world as that person sees it. There are two parts: 1) identifying

the people involved and 2) putting oneself in their shoes. The tool effectively requires the thinker to be objectively trying to see the world from the other persons point of view. Earl Livings 2010 The FACT Method DIV Slide 40 Non-Allness OPV (A/C) Other Person's Views This thinking tool overlaps with the EBS and the logic bubble. In using this tool, the thinker tries to put him/herself into the shoes of the other person, in order to be able to perceive the world as that person sees it. There are two parts: 1) identifying

the people involved and 2) putting oneself in their shoes. The tool effectively requires the thinker to be objectively trying to see the world from the other persons point of view. Earl Livings 2010 The FACT Method DIV Slide 41 ADI (A/C) A = Agreement D = Disagreement I = Irrelevance Used after the EBS mapping exercise. The two maps are

compared (from the examination of both sides) and the areas of agreement are noted. Next, the areas of disagreement; finally, the areas of irrelevance. Earl Livings 2010 The FACT Method CON Slide 42 The map doesn't cover all the territory. ADI (A/C) A = Agreement D = Disagreement I = Irrelevance

Used after the EBS mapping exercise. The two maps are compared (from the examination of both sides) and the areas of agreement are noted. Next, the areas of disagreement; finally, the areas of irrelevance. Earl Livings 2010 The FACT Method CON Slide 43 CAF (A/C) Consider All Factors Another attention-directing tool. The tool means considering all the factors that are pertinent to a particular situation, without any effort to evaluate the factors. When

doing a CAF, we are trying to discover what has been left out and what we ought to consider as well. Earl Livings 2010 The FACT Method DIV/CON Slide 44 The word isn't the thing. CAF (A/C) Consider All Factors Another attention-directing tool. The tool means considering all the factors that are pertinent to a particular situation, without any effort to evaluate the factors. When

doing a CAF, we are trying to discover what has been left out and what we ought to consider as well. Earl Livings 2010 The FACT Method DIV/CON Slide 45 HV/LV (A/C) High Value/Low Value A useful attention-directing tool, to distinguish the values occurring in any situation. In general the high values are those that determine action and the low ones are those that have need to be taken into account. They can be different for different people involved in the situation.

Earl Livings 2010 The FACT Method DIV/CON Slide 46 Non-Allness HV/LV (A/C) High Value/Low Value A useful attention-directing tool, to distinguish the values occurring in any situation. In general the high values are those that determine action and the low ones are those that have need to be taken into account. They can be different for different people involved in the situation. Earl Livings 2010

The FACT Method DIV/CON Slide 47 PMI (A/C) P = Plus (the good points; the things that worked) M = Minus (the bad points; the things that may not have worked or could have work better) I = Interesting (the interesting points; It might be interesting to see if...) Another attention-directing tool, usually done over a twoor three-minute period. Earl Livings 2010

The FACT Method DIV/CON Slide 48 The map is self-reflexive. PMI (A/C) P = Plus (the good points; the things that worked) M = Minus (the bad points; the things that may not have worked or could have work better) I = Interesting (the interesting points; It might be interesting to see if...) Another attention-directing tool, usually done over a twoor three-minute period. Earl Livings 2010

The FACT Method DIV/CON Slide 49 C & S (A/C/T) Consequences and Sequels This tool is used to consider the consequences of an action or a decision. Four time zones are established (usually arbitrary): Immediate (up to one year), Short-term (one to five), Medium-term (five to 20), Long-term (over 20). Each time zone is focussed on in turn. Earl Livings 2010 The FACT Method

CON Slide 50 Logical Fate, Dating, Indexing. C & S (A/C/T) Consequences and Sequels This tool is used to consider the consequences of an action or a decision. Four time zones are established (usually arbitrary): Immediate (up to one year), Short-term (one to five), Medium-term (five to 20), Long-term (over 20). Each time zone is focussed on in turn. Earl Livings 2010 The FACT Method

CON Slide 51 PISCO 1 (FACT) P = Purpose The purpose of the thinking. The expected result. the reason for the thinking. Similar to T of TEC, but with more emphasis in why the thinking is being done. I = Input The input of information, experience and all the ingredients that need to go into the thinking. Similar to the E of TEC. Tools such as CAF, C & S, OPV can be used to develop a rich map. Earl Livings 2010 The FACT Method

Slide 52 PISCO 2 (FACT) S = Solutions The finding of alternative solutions, ideas or approaches to the matter at hand. A narrowing down similar to the C of TEC. C = Choices The choice between the alternatives on offer, using evaluations and decisions until only one alternative remains. O = Operation The action stage. The implementation of the final idea. What steps are to be taken to put the final choice into place? Extensional Earl Livings 2010 The FACT Method Slide 53

Transformations 1 One general technique, as identified by David Hewson, is to transform some aspect of the original problem to produce a version that can more easily be solved or has already been solved. Transformations can include: Korzybski Bypass: Solve the problem of the assumptions. Abstracting Bypass 1: Abstract a simpler problem and solve. Abstracting Bypass 2: Use higher semantic category to replace lower one. Abstracting Bypass 3: Abstract the problem to a map. Analogy Bypass: Solve an analogous problem in another domain. Viewpoint Bypass: Solve problem by shifting the viewpoint.

Earl Livings 2010 The FACT Method Slide 54 Transformations 2 Whether or not these transformations are made consciously or unconsciously, they can be seen as a variation of the logical fate concept: A1 would be the initial assumptions or structure of the problem, with C2 the desired outcome. A2 would then be the new assumptions or structure after the transformation operation I. The arrow II represents the solution process of the new version of the problem, plus the

inverse transformation that reveals the solution of the original problem. Earl Livings 2010 The FACT Method Slide 55 Tool and Structure Chart Earl Livings 2010 The FACT Method Slide 56 General Semantics Chart Earl Livings 2010

The FACT Method Slide 57 Solution of the Example (T) Earl Livings 2010 The FACT Method Slide 58 Solution of the Example (T) Earl Livings 2010 The FACT Method

Slide 59 Brain Rules 1 #1 Exercise boosts brain power. Walk several times a week. #2 The human brain evolved, too. Develop strong emotional environments for learning. #3 Every brain is wired differently. Customise environments for individual learning styles. #4

We don't pay attention to boring things. Do one thing at a time. Design learning as short segments, with emotional hooks. Earl Livings 2010 The FACT Method Slide 60 Brain Rules 2 #5 Repeat to remember. Reproduce the learning situation for better recall. #6

Remember to repeat. Incorporate new information gradually and repeat it in timed intervals. #7 Sleep well, think well. Match chronotypes. Promote naps. Sleep on it. #8 Stressed brains don't learn the same way. Get control back into your life. Earl Livings 2010 The FACT Method

Slide 61 Brain Rules 3 #9 Stimulate more of the senses. To learn best, stimulate several senses at once. #10 Vision trumps all other senses. We learn and remember best through pictures. #11 Male and female brains are different. Create environments where gender differences (gist and details) are both noted and celebrated. #12 We are powerful and natural explorers. Stay curious. Earl Livings 2010 The FACT Method

Slide 62 Conclusion 1 We have examined the relationships between General Semantics and Edward de Bono's 'Lateral Thinking' in regard to problem solving. We have seen how many problem solving techniques and concepts can be slotted into the FACT Method, which is primarily based on divergent and convergent thinking, as well as the recognition of different modes of thinking or evaluating: thought, intuition, feeling, sensation. As a man is, So he Sees. William Blake A person does what he does because he sees the world as he sees it. Alfred Korzybski Earl Livings 2010 The FACT Method

Slide 63 Conclusion 2 Thus, it seems to me the best way of approaching problem-solving is through an awareness of, and a combination, of processes, techniques and perceptions from a number of disciplines: General Semantics, Lateral Thinking, Narratology, Psychology, Neuroscience, etc. FAC(T)IFS Earl Livings 2010 The FACT Method Slide 64 Bibliography 1 De Bono, Edward. Edward De Bonos Thinking Course.

Harlow: BBC Active, 2007, 1985. De Bono, Edward. Serious Creativity. London: HarperCollins, 1992. Hewson, David. 'Problem Solving with General Semantics'. Etc, Summer 1996. Kodish, Susan Presby and Kodish, Bruce I. Drive Yourself Sane: Using the Uncommon Sense of General Semantics. Pasadena: Extensional Publishing, 2001. Medina, John. Brain Rules: 12 Principles for Surviving and Thriving at Work, Home, and School. Seattle: Pear Press, 2008. Earl Livings 2010 The FACT Method Slide 65 Bibliography 2 Smith, Pamela Jaye. Inner Drives: How to Write & Create

Characters Using the Eight Classic Centers of Motivation. Studio City: Michael Wise Productions, 2005. Websites: http://brilliantdreams.com/product/famousdreams.htm, 22 August 2010. http://debonothinkingsystems.com/tools/valuemedals.htm, 9 August 2010. http://ericdigests.org/1998-1/multiple.htm, 22 August 2010. http://thisisnotthat.com/learn/language-perceptualprocess.pdf, 22 August 2010. Earl Livings 2010 The FACT Method Slide 66

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