The Cabinet The Presidents Advisers and Administrations We call them Secretaries Secretary of State (1789) Leader of the State Department Represents the U.S. at the UN Staffs U.S. Embassies abroad Protects citizens traveling abroad John Kerry Secretary of the Treasury (1789)
Leader of the Treasury Department Collects taxes Manufactures coins and paper money Includes the Secret Service Responsible for borrowing money to operate the federal government Jacob Lew Attorney General (1789) Leads the Department of Justice (which was established in 1870)
Includes the FBI, U.S. Marshals Service, and the Drug Enforcement Administration Eric Holder Secretary of Defense (1789/1949) Originally the War Departmentmerged with Department of the Navy in 1949 now the Defense Department Includes the Joint Chiefs of Staff (leaders of the military branches)
Is the largest department, with its headquarters in the Pentagon Ashton Carter Secretary of the Interior (1849) Leader of the Interior Department Manages the mining of natural resources Protects national parks Manages historic sites, national monuments Sally Jewell
Secretary of Agriculture (1889) Leads the Department of Agriculture Safeguards the nations food supply Extends financial credit to farmers Tom Vilsack Secretary of Commerce (1913) Leads the Commerce Department Coordinates the Census Promotes international trade Issues patents and registers trademarks
Provides uniform standards for weights and measures Penny Pritzker Secretary of Labor (1913) Leads the Labor Department Ensures safe working conditions Protects the minimum wage Analyzes data on employment, wages, and compensation Thomas Perez
Secretary of Health and Human Services (1953) Leads the Health and Human Services Department Ensures the safety of food and drugs Manages (Mismanages?) Medicare/Medicaid, and, now, the Affordable Care Act Funds medical research Sylvia Mathews Burwell
Secretary of Housing and Urban Development (1966) Leads the Housing and Urban Development Department Provides block grants to develop communities Helps make mortgage money available for people to buy homes Julian Castro Secretary of Transportation
(1966) Leads the Transportation Department Maintains and regulates national highways, air travel, railroads, and mass transit Anthony Foxx Secretary of Energy (1977) Leads the Energy Department Provides transmission of electricity and natural gas between states Works to develop clean coal technology
Ernest Moniz Secretary of Education (1980) Leads the Education Department Oversees programs to promote equal opportunities among students Creates programs to promote literacy, science and math, and the involvement of girls in athletics Arne Duncan
Secretary of Veterans Affairs (1988) Leads the Department of Veterans Affaris Provides educational programs to benefit former soldiers and their families Administers national cemeteries and hospitals Robert McDonald Secretary of Homeland Security (2003) Leads the Homeland Security Department Secures and manages U.S. borders
Secures cyberspace Created in response to the 9/11 attacks Controls the Coast Guard, Border Patrol, FEMA, and the Customs Service Jeh Johnson The Federal Bureaucracy The Cabinet is just part of what has become the federal bureaucracy. What is a bureaucracy? Three features distinguish bureaucracies:
Hierarchical authority. Bureaucracies are based on a pyramid structure with a chain of command running from top to bottom. Job specialization. Each bureaucrat, or person who works for the organization, has certain defined duties and responsibilities. Formalized rules. The bureaucracy does its work according to a set of established regulations and procedures. Major Elements of the Federal Bureacracy The federal bureaucracy is all of the agencies,
people, and procedures through which the Federal Government operates. The President is the chief administrator of the Federal Government. In order to enact and enforce policy, Congress and the President have created an administrationthe governments many administrators and agencies. The chief organizational feature of the federal
bureaucracy is its division into areas of specialization. The Name Game The name department is reserved for agencies of the Cabinet rank. Outside of department, there is little standardization of names throughout the agencies. Common titles include agency,
administration, commission, corporation, and authority. The Executive Departments The executive departments, often called the Cabinet departments, are the traditional units of federal administration. Each department is headed by a secretary, except for the Department of Justice, whose work is directed by the attorney general.
Each department is made up of a number of subunits (bureaus, agencies, commissions, etc.). Today, the executive departments vary a great deal in terms of visibility, size, and importance. Independent Agencies The independent agencies are created by Congress and located outside the executive departments.
Independent agencies have been formed for numerous reasons, including: being assigned a task or function that does not fit well within the existing departmental structure; protecting the agencys purposes from the influence of both partisan and pressure politics; being created outside the departmental
Independent Executive Agencies The independent executive agencies include most of the independent agencies. The most important difference between the independent
executive agencies and the 14 executive departments is that Examples of independent executive agencies include NASA, the General Services Administration, and the EPA.
Some independent executive agencies are far from wellknown, such as the Citizens Stamp Advisory Committee. Independent Regulatory Commissions The independent regulatory commissions stand out among the independent agencies because they are largely beyond the reach of
presidential direction and control. Term length of members and staggering of member appointments keep these commissions from falling under control of one party. The regulatory commissions are quasilegislative and quasi-judicial, meaning that Congress has given them certain legislativelike and judicial-like powers. Government Corporations Government corporations are also within the executive branch and subject to the Presidents direction and control.
Government corporations were established by Congress to carry out certain business-like activities. There are now over 50 government corporations, including the U.S. Postal Service, Amtrak, and the Tennessee Valley Authority. Development of the Civil Service The civil service is that group of public employees who perform the administrative
work of government, excluding the armed forces. The use of patronagethe practice of giving government jobs to supporters and friendswas in use throughout most of the nineteenth century. The Pendleton Act, also known as the Civil Service Act of 1883, laid the foundation of the present federal civil service system, and set merit as the basis for hiring in most
The Civil Service Today The Office of Personnel Management is the central clearinghouse in the federal recruiting, examining, and hiring process. The Merit Systems Protection Board enforces the merit principle in the federal bureaucracy. Congress sets the pay and other job conditions for
everyone who works for the Federal Government, except for postal employees. Political Activities Several laws and a number of OPM regulations place restrictions on the political activities of federal civil servants: The Hatch Act of 1939 allows federal workers to vote in elections, but forbids them from taking part in partisan
political activities. The Federal Employees Political Activities Act of 1993 relaxes many of the restrictions of the Hatch Act. It still forbids federal workers from: (1) running in partisan elections; (2) engaging in party work on government property or while on the job; (3) collecting political contributions from subordinates or the general public; or (4) using a government position to influence an election.
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