The Americas - Somerset Silver Palms

The Americas - Somerset Silver Palms

The Americas Chapter 8 Sec. 2 Early Civilization in Mesoamerica Mesoamerica=Mexico and Central America Olmec Culture

Discovered in 1940s but appeared by 1200s found in Central Mexico their oldest city was San Lorenzo, contained pyramids and stone monuments Artisans carved a series of colossal stone heads, probably to represent their gods or rulers

City of Teotihuacan- Place of the Gods Arose around 250 BC and collapsed around AD 800 Located about 30 miles northeast of MX City in a fertile valley It had a populations of 200,000/ Most were farmers Pyramid of the Sun (over 200ft) Maya & the Toltec

Yucatn Peninsula- civilization of the Maya (AD 300-900) Sophisticated civilization in the America Maya built splendid temples, pyramids and developed a calendar Around 800 the Maya civilization began to decline due to

invasion, internal revolt, or volcanic eruption Political and Social Structures

Civilization composed of city-state descended from the Gods Most people were peasants farmers Lived on tiny plots or on traced hills in the highlands Houses was similar to the Anazasi Chocolate was used as a beverage of the high class

Itzamna was the supreme god. Maya created the hieroglyphs or pictures The Spanish believed the writing were evil and of no value. Calendar Long Count was based in a belief in cycles of

creation and destruction According to them, our world was create in 3114 BC and it schedule to complete its cycle on Dec. 23 AD 2012. 1. 2. Used two different systems for measuring time Based on solar calendar of 365 days, divided into 18 month

of 20 days each, w/ extra 5 days at the end Sacred calendar of 260 days divided into 13 weeks of 20 days Toltec After the Mayas, the Toltec Empire emerged. (northern and central Mexico)

A.D 950-1150 The center of empire was at Tula Pop. b/w 40,000-60,000 + 60,000 living the surrounding territories. They were warrior people

Main God for the Toltec was Quetzalcoatl. The God of learning and culture. God of wind./ The feathered serpent. (quetzal= green feathered bird & coatl= serpent). Quetzalcoatl

One of the greatest Toltec leaders was Topiltzin, (high priest of Quetzalcoatl).

Topiltzin and his followers went into exile (trouble w/ other religious groups) but vowed to return to Tula to reclaim his throne. Topiltzin-Quetzalcoatl. Decline in around AD 1125 as a result of fighting among different groups (yrs later the city was burned) The Aztec

Origins are uncertain, around 12th century began a migration that brought them to Valley of MX. Established Tenochtitlan Legend

When the Aztecs arrived in the Valley of MX, other people drove them into a snakeinfested region They survived, strengthened by their belief in a sign that would come from their god of war and of the sun, Huitzilopochtli The god told them that when they saw an

eagle perched on a cactus growing out of a rock, their journey ended. At islands of Lake of Texcoco the legend came true Build houses, public buildings & temples Political Structures

Authoritarian the monarch had all the power Government Consisted in: A council of lords & govt officials assisted ruler Society Structure

Males in the elite society could held govt positions. They could select a career in the military service, the govt bureaucracy (administration) or the priesthood. As a reward, received large estates from the govt.

The rest of the population consisted in: commoners - most were farmers - built chinampas (canals that provided water for their crops) indentured workers (landless workers contracted to work on the nobles estates) slaves

Women could not own and inherit property and enter into contracts Work in the home, raise children etc Religion

Believed in many gods Ometeotl (Supreme God)- represented all powerful forces of the heavens Based on a belief in an unending struggle b/ w the forces of good and evil

This struggle created and destroyed 4 world or suns (living in the 5th sun) This will end w/ a earthquake To postpone they practice sacrifices to honor Huitzilopochtli Culture

Their religion had a significant effect of their art/ architecture The center was a sacred district, dominated by pyramids At the top was a platform and an altar dedicated to the gods and used for human sacrifices. Sec. 3 Early Civilizations in

South America

The Chavin and Nazca Cultures: Caral= oldest major city in the Supe River valley of Peru Inhabitants created an irrigation system Around 900 BC the Chavin in the coastal regions of Peru and Ecuador built a temple with stone. It was surrounded by 2 pyramids and stone figures depicting different gods. Unknown reasons decline in 200 bc Chavin temple

Nazca Appeared in Peru 200-600BC Built no great temples May have practice their religion outdoors, as

suggested by ancient formations known as Nazca Lines- drawings they created that can only be seen from the air Moche

Around 300 bc developed near the pacific coast near border of Ecuador Major urban center arouse with irrigated field Corn, peanuts, potatoes, and cotton They had no written language Paintings and pottery portray warriors, prisoners, and sacrificial victims. Incas (ruler)

After the collapse of the Moche civilization in the 8th century AD , the Incas empire lasted for 300 yrs A small community in the area of Cuzco (located at 11,000 feet in the mountains of

Southern Peru) Under the leadership of Pachacuti, they launched a campaign of conquest The entire region was under Inca control Political Structures

Extended boundaries from Ecuador to central Chile and the edge of the Amazon basin. Population of 12 million people Their state was built on war, so all young men were required to served in the army Cities

Pachacuti- divided the empire into 4 quarters each ruled by a governor Then were divided into provinces, each ruled by a governor Each were supposed to contain about 10,000 residents At the top of the system was an emperor, believed

to be descended by Inti (sun god) Labor All Incas were responsible for labor service for several weeks a yrs

Built a road from the border of Colombia Santiago, Chile (24,800 miles) 2 major roadways extended in north-south directions, one through the Andes and the other along the coast, with connecting routs b/w them. Social Structures

Men and women were required to select a marriage partner from within their own social group\after marriage, women were expected to care for the children and to weave cloth Some girls were chosen to serve as priestesses in temples Building and Culture

Were great builders, best engineers Built roads and monuments Had not writing system but developed a system of knotted strings called quipu

Machu Picchu- elevation 8,000 feet, built of a lofty mountain hilltop surrounded by mountain peaks far above the Urubamba River A long stairway leads to an elegant stone known as hitching post of the sun May have been used as solar observatory

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