Surveillance Programme (Module 14)

Surveillance Programme (Module 14)

BASIC PROFESSIONAL TRAINING COURSE Module XIV Surveillance programmes Version 1.0, May 2015 This material was prepared by the IAEA and co-funded by the European Union. 2 INTRODUCTION Learning objectives After completing this chapter, the trainee will be able to: 1. Define surveillance. 2. Define in-service inspection. 3. State what is the common objective of maintenance, surveillance and in-service inspection. Basic Professional Training Course; Module XIV Surveillance programmes 3 INTRODUCTION

Nuclear power plants endeavour to prevent unexpected critical equipment outages by: Preventing equipment failures rather than fixing broken equipment, Having proper integration of: Maintenance, Surveillance and In-service inspection programme. These programs also ensure that the stand-by safety equipment operates properly when called upon. Basic Professional Training Course; Module XIV Surveillance programmes 4 INTRODUCTION Maintenance programme covers all preventive and remedial measures (administrative and technical) to: Detect and mitigate degradation of a functioning SSC (structures, systems and components),

Restore to an acceptable level the performance of design functions of a failed SSC, and Enhance the reliability of equipment. The range of maintenance activities includes: Servicing, Overhaul, Repair and replacement of parts, Testing,

Calibration, and Inspection. Basic Professional Training Course; Module XIV Surveillance programmes 5 INTRODUCTION Surveillance: all planned activities namely monitoring, verifying, checking including in-service inspection, functional testing, calibration and performance testing performed to ensure compliance with specifications established in a facility. The abnormal conditions which are of relevance to the surveillance programme include: Deficiencies in SSCs and software performance, Procedural errors and human errors,

Trends within the accepted limits (analysis of which may indicate that the plant is deviating from the design intent). Basic Professional Training Course; Module XIV Surveillance programmes 6 INTRODUCTION Surveillance programme must verify that the SSCs important to safety are: Ready to operate at all times, and Able to perform their safety functions as intended in the design. Surveillance programme also helps to detect trends in ageing A plan for mitigating the effects of ageing can be prepared and implemented.

Basic Professional Training Course; Module XIV Surveillance programmes 7 INTRODUCTION In-service inspection: Inspection of structures, systems and components undertaken over the operating lifetime by or on behalf of the operating organization for the purpose of identifying age related degradation or conditions that, if not addressed, might lead to the failure of structures, systems or components. Emphasis is placed on examination of the pressure boundaries of the primary and secondary coolant systems, because of their importance to safety and the potentially severe consequences of their failure. Basic Professional Training Course; Module XIV Surveillance programmes 8 INTRODUCTION Baseline data is collected for future reference in the pre-service inspection carried out before the start of plant operation;

Pre-service inspection gives information on initial conditions which supplements manufacturing and construction data: Providing a basis for comparison with the data from subsequent examinations. Methods, techniques and types of equipment used are the same as those which are planned to be used for in-service inspections. Whenever an SSC is repaired or replaced, a pre-service inspection is performed before putting it into operation. Basic Professional Training Course; Module XIV Surveillance programmes Interrelationship between maintenance, surveillance and in-service inspection Common objective of maintenance, surveillance and in-service inspection is to ensure the plant is operated in accordance with the design assumptions and intent, and within the operational limits and conditions. Basic Professional Training Course; Module XIV Surveillance programmes 9

10 Questions Why are effective maintenance, surveillance and in-service inspection needed? What is included in abnormal conditions relevant to surveillance programme? What is the purpose of in-service inspection? Compare pre-service and in-service inspection! Basic Professional Training Course; Module XIV Surveillance programmes 11 SURVEILLANCE PROGRAMME Learning objectives After completing this chapter, the trainee will be able to: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. List the objectives of surveillance programme.

Describe the development of the surveillance programme. Describe the surveillance of integrity of barriers. Describe the surveillance of safety systems. List the other items that are subject of surveillance. Basic Professional Training Course; Module XIV Surveillance programmes 12 SURVEILLANCE PROGRAMME Learning objectives After completing this chapter, the trainee will be able to: 6. Explain how surveillance frequency and extent are determined. 7. List and describe different surveillance methods. 8. List different types of functional tests. 9. List general requirements for the test equipment. 10. List typical documents relating to surveillance activities. Basic Professional Training Course; Module XIV Surveillance programmes 13 Development of surveillance programme The objectives of the surveillance programme are:

To maintain and improve equipment availability, To confirm compliance with operational limits and conditions, and To detect and correct any abnormal condition before it can give rise to significant consequences for safety. The surveillance programme verifies that provisions for safe operation are: Made during the construction and commissioning, and Applicable during the plant operation. Basic Professional Training Course; Module XIV Surveillance programmes 14

Development of surveillance programme Programme verifies that the safety margins are adequate and provide a high tolerance for anticipated operational occurrences, errors and malfunctions. Following aspects need particular attention: Integrity of the barriers between radioactive materials and the environment (such as fuel cladding, primary pressure boundary and containment); Availability of safety systems (such as the protection system, the safety system actuation systems and the safety system support features); Availability of items whose failure could adversely affect safety. Basic Professional Training Course; Module XIV Surveillance programmes 15 Development of surveillance programme The surveillance programme must specify:

Sufficient scope and depth of the objectives of surveillance in accordance with operating limits and conditions and other requirements that are applicable to SSCs important to safety; Frequency of surveillance and the scheduling of surveillance activities; Standards to be applied and provide appropriate procedures to be followed in the conduct and assessment of each surveillance activity; Authorities and responsibilities assigned both to individuals and to onsite and off-site organizations involved in deciding on and carrying out surveillance activities; Qualifications of personnel performing surveillance activities; Requirements for records to be kept and for the retention and retrievability of such records.

Basic Professional Training Course; Module XIV Surveillance programmes 16 Development of surveillance programme Surveillance programme must verify that SSCs important to safety remain within the operational limits and conditions: Establish surveillance requirements for each operational limit and condition. Frequency and extent of surveillance depends on type of SSCs: Extent of the requirements is consistent with the safety functions performed by the SSCs, Into account is taken: The probability of failure to perform properly, Requirement to maintain radiation exposures as low as reasonably achievable.

Frequency with which SSCs not normally in use are tested must be optimized to: Perform their functions satisfactorily when required, Avoid possible wear-out due to overtesting. Basic Professional Training Course; Module XIV Surveillance programmes 17 Development of surveillance programme Surveillance programme must consider: Requirements established in the safety analysis report, Operational limits and conditions, and Other applicable requirements of the regulatory body, Results of commissioning programme,

As-built state of the plant, and Acceptance criteria. Basic Professional Training Course; Module XIV Surveillance programmes 18 Development of surveillance programme Surveillance programme must be developed sufficiently early to permit it to be properly implemented: Implementation must be scheduled such that the safety of the plant does not depend on untested or unmonitored SSCs. Early establishment of surveillance programme permits: Supporting procedures to be developed, reviewed and approved in a timely manner;

The surveillance procedures to be tested, to the extent practicable, in the commissioning phase; Certain parameters to be recorded for use as reference points in monitoring. Surveillance programme must ensure that whenever surveillance tests are carried out, control of the plant is maintained and sufficient redundant equipment remains operable. Basic Professional Training Course; Module XIV Surveillance programmes 19 Surveillance of integrity of barriers Surveillance measures necessary to verify the integrity of fuel cladding include, but are not necessarily limited to: Inspection of new fuel, core components and associated items such as flow restricting devices and locating devices, in accordance with an agreed schedule prior to loading into the core;

Monitoring of thermal and hydraulic conditions such as flow, temperature, pressure and gross and local power; Monitoring of the reactor coolants activity and chemical composition; Appropriate inspection of irradiated fuel before reuse, storage or transport; Monitoring of the activity and chemistry of water or gas in the irradiated fuel storage facilities; Monitoring for discharges of radioactive material to the environment. Basic Professional Training Course; Module XIV Surveillance programmes 20 Surveillance of integrity of barriers

Surveillance measures required to verify the integrity and assess the residual service life of the pressure boundary for the primary reactor coolant include, but are not necessarily limited to: Leak rate measurements, for example, by measuring the flow of makeup water to the primary coolant system or the flow to the leakage collection sump; Inspection of and hydrostatic pressure tests on the primary pressure boundary; Recording of system transients and their comparison with the assumptions made in the safety analysis report, where appropriate; Testing of the operability and tightness of closure devices that are part of the pressure boundaries; Basic Professional Training Course; Module XIV Surveillance programmes 21

Surveillance of integrity of barriers Monitoring of leak detection systems; Monitoring to ensure that transition temperature requirements are satisfied; Monitoring of the chemical quality of the primary and secondary reactor coolants as appropriate; Monitoring of samples of reactor pressure vessel components that are subject to irradiation. Basic Professional Training Course; Module XIV Surveillance programmes 22 Surveillance of integrity of barriers Surveillance measures necessary to verify the containment integrity include, but are not necessarily limited to:

Leak rate tests performed on the containment; Tests of penetration seals and closure devices such as air locks and valves that are part of the boundaries, to demonstrate their leak tightness and, where appropriate, their operability; Inspections for structural integrity; Monitoring of conditions within the containment such as temperature, pressure and atmospheric composition. Basic Professional Training Course; Module XIV Surveillance programmes 23 Surveillance of integrity of barriers Surveillance programme of systems of which parts are located outside the containment and which could contain highly radioactive liquids or gases in the event of accident include:

Periodic tightness checks, Pressure tests, and/or Leak tests. Examples of such systems are: Residual heat removal systems, Safety injection systems, Containment spray systems, Chemical and volume control systems,

Treatment systems for radioactive fluid waste, Core spray systems (for boiling water reactors). Basic Professional Training Course; Module XIV Surveillance programmes 24 Surveillance of safety systems Surveillance of safety systems covers systems and components provided to shut down the reactor and keep it shut down. Surveillance ensures that safety limits are not exceeded: Due to anticipated events, or During the initial operation of systems required to mitigate the consequences of accident conditions. Mitigating the consequences of accidents is achieved by:

Protection of the primary systems against unacceptable pressure surges (e.g. by steam dumping or safety and relief valve actuation); or Actuation of protection systems as intended. Basic Professional Training Course; Module XIV Surveillance programmes 25 Surveillance of safety systems The availability and effectiveness of SSCs that mitigate the consequences of accident conditions is demonstrated with the periodic surveillance: SSCs that mitigate the consequences of accident conditions must be available and operable at any time. Functions of this SSCs include, but are not necessarily limited to: Emergency core cooling and heat transport to the ultimate heat sink,

Containment isolation, Cooling down of the containment and pressure limitation, Control of discharges of radioactive effluents arising as a result of accident conditions, Control of combustible gases within the containment, Functioning of the standby shutdown system. Basic Professional Training Course; Module XIV Surveillance programmes 26 Surveillance of safety systems The functions associated with SSCs important to safety that are considered in surveillance program include:

Emergency power, Cooling water, Air, Cooling and lubrication, Control and instrumentation. Depending on complexity of the test, the alarming path can be subdivided into several subsections Each subsection being tested on its own, with defined overlapping of subsections. Basic Professional Training Course; Module XIV Surveillance programmes

27 Surveillance of other items Other items (subject to surveillance) are those that, if they were to fail, would be likely to give rise to or contribute to unsafe conditions or accident conditions. Such items include: Systems that are relied on for shutting down and cooling the reactor under normal plant conditions, including control systems such as those provided to control and monitor reactivity, primary water chemistry, feedwater supply, reactor pressure and temperature; Instrumentation for both operational states and accident conditions; The control room, with respect to habitability and access; High energy piping and associated piping restraints; Structural supports (stack stay wires, pipe supports);

Fire prevention, detection and fighting systems; Basic Professional Training Course; Module XIV Surveillance programmes 28 Surveillance of other items Emergency facilities and equipment; Protection systems for internal and external events; Communication systems; Storage facilities for irradiated fuel, including cleanup systems;

Fuel handling equipment and facilities; Treatment and storage facilities for radioactive waste; Turbine and generator speed control systems and their protection systems, where appropriate; Measures for physical protection. Basic Professional Training Course; Module XIV Surveillance programmes 29 Surveillance frequency and extent Determination of surveillance frequency and extent Frequency and extent of surveillance of individual SSCs is determined:

On the basis of their relative importance to safety, Access limitations, and Requirement to keep radiation doses to personnel as low as reasonably achievable. Frequency and extent of surveillance must be adequate to: Ensure that plant parameters are in accordance with prescribed operational limits and conditions; Detect incipient failures or the need for more frequent maintenance to ensure satisfactory functioning and availability. Basic Professional Training Course; Module XIV Surveillance programmes 30 Surveillance frequency and extent A surveillance frequency is determined on the basis of:

The importance to safety and the need to meet reliability objectives; Manufacturers recommendations and information such as the results of type tests, endurance tests and cycle tests; Expected mechanisms of failure, results of reliability analyses, age of the item or system, type of component and conditions of service; Experience of failure rates gained from maintenance or from experience in the plant or in similar plants; The extent of automation of the surveillance. Basic Professional Training Course; Module XIV Surveillance programmes 31

Surveillance frequency and extent Surveillance frequency may be optimized by: The extent of redundancy of the respective system, Scheduling of surveillance in conjunction with other activities (planned maintenance, shutdowns), Facilitating the performance of a number of surveillance activities during a shutdown. Optimal surveillance frequency is obtained by: Flexibility to allow the surveillance during unplanned shutdowns, and Allowing the performance of tests at the time when plant conditions are most suitable with regard to both validity of surveillance and the safety of the plant. Basic Professional Training Course; Module XIV

Surveillance programmes 32 Surveillance frequency and extent Special considerations In using calculated reliability figures to determine the surveillance frequency, the following limitations should be recognized: The difficulty of obtaining statistically meaningful data on fault events of low frequency; The difficulty of conducting sufficient testing to provide conclusive reliability figures; The difficulty of assessing the significance of common cause failures. The reliability of SSCs may be adversely affected by an excessive number of thermal, mechanical and other cycles To reduce cycling caused by testing testing of components that

provide a given safety function may be suspended during periods in which that particular function is not required. Basic Professional Training Course; Module XIV Surveillance programmes 33 Surveillance frequency and extent The reliability of SSC may be adversely affected if technological limits defined by the designer are exceeded These limits are considered in the surveillance procedures, which include acceptance criteria. The reliability of SSCs may be degraded by human induced faults Frequency of such faults may be reduced by establishing detailed procedures. Operation of redundant systems and components, kept on standby, is rotated in order to subject all components to similar operating times and similar surveillance procedures and frequencies. Basic Professional Training Course; Module XIV Surveillance programmes 34

Surveillance frequency and extent Periodic re-evaluation of surveillance frequency and extent Re-evaluation is needed to verify the effectiveness of surveillance method in maintaining the SSCs in an operational state. Following points are considered in re-evaluations: The performance of the SSCs, particularly their failure rate; The corrective action required after a failure; The performance of similar SSCs in similar plants and environments; Design changes associated with SSCs important to safety; Information on failure modes that cause abnormal occurrences or accidents;

The effects of component ageing. Basic Professional Training Course; Module XIV Surveillance programmes 35 Surveillance methods Monitoring Gives an immediate indication of the plant status. Monitored parameters are those that are most significant for safe plant operation and for the status of SSC required to operate under abnormal conditions. Monitoring is normally conducted by the operating personnel either from the main control room or on periodic tours of the plant. Monitoring may also involve sampling automatic or manual: Chemical analysis, Radiochemical analysis,

Material analysis, or Isotopic purity analysis. Basic Professional Training Course; Module XIV Surveillance programmes 36 Surveillance methods Instrument checks The availability of instrument channels that give readings are verified by means of one or both of the following: Comparing readings on channels that monitor the same variable, with an allowance for differences in the process variable between sensor locations; Comparing readings between channels that monitor different variables

and bear a known relationship to one another. Basic Professional Training Course; Module XIV Surveillance programmes 37 Surveillance methods Verification of calibration and response time Verification of calibration test is intended to check whether a known input to the instrument or channel gives the required output. Response time testing of the safety systems or subsystems are required to verify that the response times are within the specified limits. Calibration and response times need to be verified by means of tests that do not necessitate the removal of detectors from their installed locations, unless such tests are not capable of determining whether changes in response time are beyond the acceptable limits. In such cases sensors are removed for special bench test or manufactures' test results are used. Basic Professional Training Course; Module XIV Surveillance programmes 38

Functional tests Ensures that the tested system or component is capable of performing its design function SSCs are tested under the conditions in which they will operate when performing their intended functions. A functional test consists of: Manual startup, Sufficient test duration to achieve stable operating conditions. Where staring is not practicable, operating of the staring device in the test position may be acceptable At the first opportunity provided component is subsequently tested. Basic Professional Training Course; Module XIV Surveillance programmes 39

Functional tests Manually controlled electric operation of valves, with timing of the stroke: Where full stroke of the valve is not permissible, a partial stroke test or a test of the valve control system may be acceptable; Full stroke testing is done routinely during plant shutdown. Other functional tests: Activation of a test signal of an appropriate magnitude, Initiation of the actuating device and observation of the resultant operation, Testing of automatically calculated set points to verify the responses to each variable entering the computation, status and operability of interlocks, bypasses, indications, and annunciation circuits. Two important considerations during the functional test are:

Initiation of safety functions and Monitoring of the appropriate parameters during the test. Basic Professional Training Course; Module XIV Surveillance programmes 40 Functional tests Special tests Must be justified when needed Tests or experiments that are not included in the surveillance programme. A special procedure for each test is prepared and subjected to an independent review and assessment by qualified personnel To avoid violating the operational limits and the design basis. Procedure must be submitted to the regulatory body for prior

approval. Basic Professional Training Course; Module XIV Surveillance programmes 41 Functional tests Test equipment All necessary test equipment must be available, operable and calibrated. Requirements of programme for the calibration and control includes: Equipment identification: test equipment used as a calibration reference standard must be identified, to enable verification of its calibration status. Equipment verification: before test equipment is used in a surveillance test, its calibration status and operability must be verified. Calibration procedures: detailed procedures must be provided for the calibration of test equipment; the accuracy of calibration must be

commensurate with the functional requirements, and, where appropriate, reference standards must be used. Calibration records: records must be maintained for each piece of equipment in order to be able to demonstrate that established schedules and procedures for calibrating test equipment and reference standards have been followed. Basic Professional Training Course; Module XIV Surveillance programmes 42 Documentation and records of surveillance All documents and results of surveillance activities are retained in accordance with quality assurance requirements. Typical documents relating to surveillance activities are: Logs and logbooks containing the readouts of safety system parameters; Recorder charts and computer printouts;

Reports of tests, calibrations and inspections, including evaluation of results and corrective actions taken; Surveillance procedures; Records of completed surveillance activities; Reports of relevant reviews and audits; Checklists for the status of systems and components. Basic Professional Training Course; Module XIV Surveillance programmes 43 Questions List the aspects that need to be considered in establishing the surveillance programme.

What must the surveillance programme specify? How is the frequency of surveillance for SSCs not normally in use determined? Why must be the surveillance programme established before the plant starts to operate? List what measures are necessary to verify the integrity of fuel cladding. List surveillance measures required to verify the integrity of the pressure boundary for primary reactor coolant. List what measures are necessary to verify the integrity of the containment. Basic Professional Training Course; Module XIV Surveillance programmes 44 Questions Which systems need a periodic surveillance programme because of the possibility of containing radioactive material in case of accident? How are the consequences of accidents mitigated? Which are the functions of safety systems under periodic surveillance and which of its functions are included in programme?

What must be the frequency and the extent of surveillance? On what basis is surveillance frequency determined? How can be the surveillance frequency optimized? What are the limitations in using calculated reliability figures in determining the surveillance frequency? List factors that affect the reliability of SSCs. Basic Professional Training Course; Module XIV Surveillance programmes 45 Questions Why is periodic re-evaluation of surveillance frequency and extent needed? Which are the parameters surveyed by monitoring? How are instruments checked? Why is calibration verification test needed? Why are the calibration records needed? Why are documents and results of surveillance activities retained? Basic Professional Training Course; Module XIV Surveillance programmes 46

IN-SERVICE INSPECTION Learning objectives After completing this chapter, the trainee will be able to: 1. State why in-service inspection programme is needed 2. Describe the surveillance of neutron induced embrittlement. 3. Describe the extent of in-service inspection. 4. Describe how in-service inspections are scheduled. 5. Describe the pressure and leakage testing. 6. Compare different categories of examination. Basic Professional Training Course; Module XIV Surveillance programmes 47 IN-SERVICE INSPECTION Learning objectives After completing this chapter, the trainee will be able to: 7. Specify what must apply to examination and test equipment. 8. Describe the qualification of in-service inspection systems. 9. State what personal certificates are? 10. Describe the evaluation of results of in-service inspection. 11. Describe the documentation and records of in-service

inspection. Basic Professional Training Course; Module XIV Surveillance programmes 48 In-service inspection programme Components of a power plant may be exposed to influences whose single and combined effects cannot be predicted for the entire operating lifetime of a plant. The most important influences are: Stress, High temperature, Irradiation, Hydrogen absorption,

Corrosive attack, Vibration, and Fretting. Result of these influences may result in changes of material properties. Basic Professional Training Course; Module XIV Surveillance programmes 49 In-service inspection programme Emphasis must be placed on examination of the pressure boundaries of the primary and secondary coolant systems Importance to safety and the possible severity of the consequences of failure. In-service inspection programme includes those examinations and

tests that are to be performed over the operating lifetime. For successful implementation of this programme, a pre-service inspection need to be performed: To provide the baseline data with which examination and test results of the in-service inspection programme may be compared, and Against which the possible development of flaws and the acceptability of components may be assessed. Basic Professional Training Course; Module XIV Surveillance programmes 50 In-service inspection programme Surveillance of neutron induced embrittlement The main factor in the aging of the reactor pressure vessel. Embrittlement depends on: Material of the pressure vessel, and

Neutron fluence in the wall of the vessel. With regard to the design of the power plant, the material chosen, and the expected loads, an end of life fluency is estimated If the pressure vessel shell reaches the end of life fluency, the state of embrittlement still has a safety gap to a critical embrittlement. Basic Professional Training Course; Module XIV Surveillance programmes 51 In-service inspection programme Specimens are cut-off from the original material of the reactor pressure vessel shell and core weld for: Tensile test, and Charpy v-notch test.

One part of each specimen is tested directly. Two other parts are put in the pressure vessel together with monitors for temperature and neutron fluence. Specimens are tested reaching half end of life and end of life fluence. Basic Professional Training Course; Module XIV Surveillance programmes 52 Extent of in-service inspection In establishing the extent of the in-service programme, consideration is given to the following systems and components in accordance with their importance to safety: Pressure retaining parts of components in the reactor coolant system; Components connected to the primary reactor coolant system that are essential for ensuring the shutdown of the reactor and cooling of the

nuclear fuel; Components (main steam lines or feedwater lines) whose dislodgement or failure might put in jeopardy the systems mentioned above. Components are generally examined by visual, surface and volumetric methods. Pressure retaining components are checked for possible leakage by means of a leak test. Basic Professional Training Course; Module XIV Surveillance programmes 53 Inspection schedules Length of in-service inspection intervals is chosen on the basis of conservative assumption To ensure detection of deterioration of exposed components before it can lead to failure. Inspection schedule provides repetition of the inspections over the operating life time of the nuclear power plant:

Regular inspection intervals from few years to about ten years; Variably distributed inspections shorter in the early years of the plants operating lifetime and then lengthened/shortened. Inspection intervals are subdivided into inspection period in the course of which a required number of examination is completed. Examinations that necessitate the disassembly of component may be deferred until the end of each inspection interval, except where earlier inspection is needed. Basic Professional Training Course; Module XIV Surveillance programmes 54 Pressure and leakage testing Pressure retaining systems and components are subject to: System leakage and hydrostatic pressure test as part of the pre-service inspection;

System leakage test before resuming operation after a reactor outage in the course of which the leak tightness of the reactor coolant pressure boundary may have been affected; System hydrostatic pressure test at or near the end of each major inspection interval, if required. Pressure retaining components are visually examined while the system is operating under the test pressure and temperature conditions. Final system leakage test cannot always be performed at or above the specified system operating pressure unless the plant is at full temperature Duration of tests at pressure higher than design pressure is limited. Basic Professional Training Course; Module XIV Surveillance programmes 55 Methods and techniques Methods are categorized as:

Visual, Surface, and Volumetric. Visual examination: To yield information on the general condition of the part, component or surface to be examined like presence of: Scratches, Wear, Cracks, Corrosion or erosion, or Evidence of leaking. Optical aids may be used (television cameras, binoculars, mirrors). Basic Professional Training Course; Module XIV Surveillance programmes 56

Methods and techniques Surface examination: To confirm presence of or to delineate surface or near-surface flaws; May be conducted by: Magnetic particle method, Liquid penetrant method, Eddy current method, or Electrical contact method. Volumetric examination: To indicate the presence and depth or size of a surface flaw or discontinuity; Radiographic techniques using X rays, gamma rays or thermal neutrons to detect the presence and size of flaws;

Ultrasonic method to detect the length and depth of flaws. Basic Professional Training Course; Module XIV Surveillance programmes 57 Equipment Equipment used for examination and tests must be of a quality, range and accuracy that are acceptable according to standards recognized by the regulatory body. All items of equipment together with their accessories must be calibrated before they are used All equipment is identified in the calibration records; Validity of calibration is regularly verified; All items should be calibrated against standards recognized by the regulatory body. Basic Professional Training Course; Module XIV Surveillance programmes

58 Qualification of in-service inspection systems Qualification means a systematic assessment by all necessary methods in order to provide reliable confirmation that the nondestructive testing system is capable of the required performance under real inspection conditions. Details and scope of any qualification process (inspection areas, methods, etc.) are agreed upon in writing between the operating organisation and the regulatory body. Special account is taken of the safety significance of each particular case and of relevant national and international experience. Qualification body (organization managing, conducting, evaluating and certifying an in-service inspection qualification process) must be independent of any commercial or operational considerations. Basic Professional Training Course; Module XIV Surveillance programmes 59 Qualification of in-service inspection systems Written qualification procedures specify:

The number, type, geometry, materials and surface conditions of test specimens to be used in practical trials; The types and ranges of the geometrical parameters of the flaws to be detected and/or sized in practical trials; The conditions of the practical trials (open, blind); The minimum and maximum numbers of flawed and unflawed grading units; The grading criteria for the detection and sizing of flaws; The acceptance criteria for detection and sizing; Special requirements, where applicable (such as requirements on time

limitations, access restrictions, environmental conditions). Basic Professional Training Course; Module XIV Surveillance programmes 60 Qualification of in-service inspection systems Upon successful qualification of a non-destructive testing procedure and the associated equipment, certificate is issued to the licensee and/or inspection organization: Certificate identifies the aspects of the procedure and the equipment that have been qualified; Certificate is valid indefinitely, unless changes affecting essential variables are made. The responsibility for ultimate approval of an inspection system using non-destructive testing remains with the operating organization. Basic Professional Training Course; Module XIV Surveillance programmes

61 Personnel certificates Each successful candidate is issued with a personnel certificate Separately form the inspection organisation. Validity of a personnel certificate is limited in time; Certificates are revoked when: Certified individual cases to work for the inspection organisation; Inspection organisation cannot produce documentary evidence of the individuals continuous satisfactory involvement in the qualified inspection process. Personnel certificates clearly specify their scope, including applicability and scope of competence. Basic Professional Training Course; Module XIV Surveillance programmes 62 Evaluation of results of in-service inspection Examination indicating a flaw that exceeds acceptance criteria may be supplemented by other non-destructive methods and techniques

of examination: To establish the character of the flaw (size, shape and orientation), and To determine the suitability of the component for further operation. When concluded that continued operation would be unacceptable, the component in question is repaired or replaced. When a flaw exceeds the acceptance standards, additional examinations are performed. If the additional examination indicate further flaws, all the remaining analogous components must be examined. Basic Professional Training Course; Module XIV Surveillance programmes 63 Evaluation of results of in-service inspection Whenever examination of a component results in the evaluation of flaw indications but qualifies the component as acceptable for continued operation, component containing the flaws are reexamined in each of the next three inspection intervals.

In the event that the re-examinations indicate that the flaws remain essentially unchanged over three successive inspection intervals, the schedule for examinations of that component may revert to the original schedule for the subsequent inspections. Basic Professional Training Course; Module XIV Surveillance programmes Documentation and records of in-service inspection The documentation necessary for proper implementation of the inservice inspection programme includes the following items: Specifications and as-built drawings, Samples of materials used, Records of personnel qualification, Pre-service inspection data and reports,

The in-service inspection programme and detailed examination and test procedures (including relevant codes and standards), Reports and charts from examinations and tests, Calibration records, Acceptance standards, Evaluations. Basic Professional Training Course; Module XIV Surveillance programmes 64 Documentation and records of in-service inspection The specifications and as-built drawings include component

drawings, material specifications, heat treatment records, records of the manufacturing process, specifications and drawings for fabrication and installation, and records of any acceptance of deviations from the specifications. The records of each activity include the following: Information on the identification of components, the location and size of the inspection area, work technique, type of equipment, type of sensor, calibration equipment and sensitivity standards; All relevant indications that are in excess of the minimum recording level, and all pertinent information concerning these indications ; All recordings; Comparisons with previous results and evaluations; Evaluations and reports;

Radiation doses received, as appropriate. Basic Professional Training Course; Module XIV Surveillance programmes 65 66 Questions List the most important influences on components that may influence the nuclear safety. Why it is important to control the neutron induced embrittlement of reactor pressure vessel? What is the purpose of Charpy specimens in a reactor pressure vessel and where are they located? Which systems and components are highly important for safety of power plant? What has the greatest impact on the length of inspection intervals? To which tests are pressure retaining systems and components subjected?

What are the methods and techniques used for the examination? Basic Professional Training Course; Module XIV Surveillance programmes 67 Questions What standards apply to calibration blocks? What must apply for the qualification body? What is specified in written qualification procedures? What must be done when the evaluation leads to the conclusion that the continued operation is unacceptable? What is to be done when a flaw exceeds the acceptance standards? What is the next step on the analogues components, when additional examinations indicate further flaws? What is included in the in-service inspection documentation? What is included in the in-service inspection reports? Basic Professional Training Course; Module XIV Surveillance programmes 68 IAEA SAFETY REQUIREMENTS Learning objectives After completing this chapter, the trainee will be able to: 1. List which IAEA Safety Standards deals with surveillance and

in-service inspection. Basic Professional Training Course; Module XIV Surveillance programmes 69 IAEA SAFETY REQUIREMENTS Most fundamental requirements for surveillance programmes and inspection are described in IAEA Safety Requirements SSR-2/1, Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Design and Safety Requirements SSR-2/2, Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Commissioning and Operation. Basic Professional Training Course; Module XIV Surveillance programmes 70 IAEA SAFETY REQUIREMENTS Additional recommendations for surveillance and inspection programmes are written in other Safety Guides: Safety Standards Series No. NS-G-2.6 Maintenance, Surveillance and In-service Inspection in Nuclear Power Plants,

Safety Standards Series No. NS-G-2.2, Operational Limits and Conditions and Operating Procedures for Nuclear Power Plants, Safety Standards Series No. NS-G-2.3, Modifications to Nuclear Power Plants, Safety Series No. 50-SG-O1, Staffing of Nuclear Power Plants and the Recruitment, Training and Authorization of Operating Personnel, Basic Professional Training Course; Module XIV Surveillance programmes 71 IAEA SAFETY REQUIREMENTS Safety Standards Series No. NS-G-2.10, Periodic Safety Review of Nuclear Power Plants, Safety Standards Series No. NS-G-1.1, Software for Computer Based

Systems Important to Safety in Nuclear Power Plants, Safety Standards Series No. NS-G-1.3, Instrumentation and Control Systems Important to Safety in Nuclear Power Plants, Safety Standards Series No. NS-G-2.5, Core Management and Fuel Handling for Nuclear Power Plants. Basic Professional Training Course; Module XIV Surveillance programmes 72 Safety Requirements SSR-2/1 Requirement 29 of this Safety Requirement deals with surveillance and in-service inspection: All safety equipment must be designed in such a way that it can be calibrated, tested, maintained, replaced, inspected and monitored as required to ensure their capability of performing their functions and to maintain their integrity in all conditions specified in their design basis. Emphasis is placed on the need to ensure that all mentioned

activities can be performed in accordance to national and international codes and standards All safety functions are performed without undue exposure of workers. When dealing with items important to safety, they must be designed for performing surveillance and inspection activities without significant reduction in the reliability of safety functions. Basic Professional Training Course; Module XIV Surveillance programmes 73 Safety Requirements SSR-2/2 Requirement 31 contains requirements concerning the surveillance and inspection: Operating organization must ensure the effective programmes for surveillance in inspection are established and implemented; Surveillance programmes must be in compliance with established operational limits and conditions and must allow detecting and repair of

any abnormal condition before it can give rise to significant consequences for safety. Surveillance procedures must be prepared, reviewed, modified when required, validated, approved and distributed in accordance with procedures established under the management system. All data on surveillance and inspection must be recorded, stored and analysed for confirming that the operating performance is in accordance with the design intent and with requirements for the reliability and availability of equipment. Basic Professional Training Course; Module XIV Surveillance programmes 74 Safety Requirements SSR-2/2 Frequency of surveillance and inspection must be determined on the basis of: The importance to safety with insights from probabilistic safety assessment taken into account; Their reliability in, and availability for, operation;

Their assessed potential for degradation in operation and their ageing characteristics; Operating experience; Recommendations of vendors. Basic Professional Training Course; Module XIV Surveillance programmes The views expressed in this document do not necessarily reflect the views of the European Commission.

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