Step Up To: Psychology

Step Up To: Psychology

Step Up To: Psychology by John J. Schulte, Psy.D. Psychology, Eighth Edition By David G. Myers Worth Publishers (2007) Chapter 8: Learning Watch & Learn Reinforce Me

Animals Learn Think! Those Kids! Animals Learn 500 400 300 200 100

Reinforce Me 500 400 300 200 100 Watch and Learn 500 400 300

200 100 Think! 500 400 300 200 100 Those Kids! 500

400 300 200 100 1. In Pavlovs experiment, the dogs salivation to the bell is the: A) unconditioned stimulus. B) unconditioned response.

C) conditioned stimulus. D) conditioned response. 2. Jimmy was frightened by a barking dog. For the next few months, he was afraid of all dogs. This is an example of: A) stimulus generalization. B) stimulus discrimination.

C) unconditioned response. D) unconditioned stimulus. 3. After repeatedly presenting the CS without the UCS, the CR will gradually disappear. This is called: A) extinguished reaction. B) extinction. C) stimulus discrimination.

D) stimulus neutralization. 4. Once extinction has occurred, the CR may return if enough time has passed. This is an example of: A) spontaneous remission. B) stimulus generalization. C) spontaneous recovery. D) conditioned recurrence.

5. Which of the following would be an example of Classical Conditioning being applied to practical problems? A) teaching a dog to wag its tail? B) using methadone for heroine addicts. C) applying electric shock to depressed patients. D) giving alcoholics a drug to make them sick if they drink. 6. Purchasing state lottery tickets is reinforced with monetary winnings

on a _____ schedule. A) fixed-interval B) variable-interval C) fixed-ratio D) variable-ratio 7. In ____, a response is strengthened in order to avoid something unpleasant.

A) punishment. B) negative reinforcement. C) partial reinforcement. D) positive reinforcement. 8. Even when punishment changes behavior, it has several drawbacks, including: A) punishment doesnt teach the

correct response. B) punishment may result in fear of the one punishing. C) effects may be only temporary. D) all of the above. 9. Resistance to extinction is most strongly encouraged by _____ reinforcement.

A) intermittent B) delayed C) continuous D) negative 10. If you want to teach a pigeon to eat out of your hand, you would place some bird seed closer and closer to you until it finally had to come to your hand. This is called:

A) intermittent reinforcement. B) shaping. C) partial reinforcement. D) continuous reinforcement. 11. Jeremy wears his baseball cap backward because he noticed his older brother does so. This illustrates the importance of:

A) respondent behavior. B) immediate reinforcement. C) shaping. D) modeling. 12. Albert Bandura contends that most human behavior: A) is acquired through observational learning. B) is shaped through repeated trial-and error. C) is reinforced through positive conditioning.

D) is planned out and not accidental. 13. In Banduras Bobo Doll experiment, he demonstrated: A) aggressive children will imitate aggressive behavior. B) children will imitate aggressive behavior just by observing it. C) children who are non-aggressive will not imitate aggressive behavior. D) children will imitate aggressive behavior is reinforced with candy. 14. Research on children viewing

violence on TV is related to their own aggressive behavior in that: A) there is only a modest correlation. B) there is no real correlation between the two. C) its effects are only temporary. D) there is a positive and statistically significant correlation. 15. Based on what researchers have found about the effect of modeling on behavior, A) we can decrease violence in our society if

we decrease the amount of violence on TV. B) we can increase pro-social behavior if we increase the amount of it on TV. C) all of the above. D) none of the above; TV doesnt change the way people behave. 16. After a week at college, Kim has formed a mental representation of the layout of the campus and no longer gets lost. She has developed a:

A) visual memory. B) perceptual delineation. C) cognitive map. D) retinal disparity. 17. The fact that learning can occur without reinforcement is most clearly demonstrated by studies of:

A) shaping. B) latent learning. C) spontaneous recovery. D) computer-assisted instruction. 18. The desire to engage in an activity for the sake of its own enjoyment involves:

A) spontaneous reinforcers. B) spontaneous recovery. C) intrinsic motivation. D) latent learning. 19. It is easier to train a dog to bark for food than to train it to stand on its hind legs for food. This best illustrates the importance of ______ in learning.

A) primary reinforcement B) generalization C) negative reinforcers D) biological predispositions 20. According to Thorndikes Law of Effect, when responses are followed by something unpleasant: A) the response is strengthened. B) the unpleasant stimulus is avoided. C) the response is weakened. D) the CR is extinguished.

21. Toddlers taught to fear speeding cars may also begin to fear speeding trucks and motorcycles. This best illustrates: A) generalization. B) secondary reinforcement. C) shaping. D) latent learning.

22. By pushing vending machine buttons, children often learn that this action is associated with the delivery of a candy bar. This best illustrates the process underlying: A) latent learning. B) intermittent reinforcement. C) spontaneous recovery. D) operant conditioning.

23. For purposes of effective childrearing, most psychologists favor the use of _____ over _____. A) shaping; modeling B) reinforcement; punishment C) spontaneous recovery; extinction D) negative reinforcement; positive reinforcement 24: A childs fear at the sight of a hypodermic needle is a(n):

A) conditioned response. B) unconditioned stimulus. C) conditioned stimulus. D) unconditioned response. 25. In explaining juvenile delinquency, B.F. Skinner would most likely have emphasized:

A) inherited predispositions. B) unconscious conflicts. C) faulty child-rearing practices. D) a lack of moral values in contemporary society. Stop here, or continue as a review 1. In Pavlovs experiment, the dogs salivation to the bell is the:

A) unconditioned stimulus. B) unconditioned response. C) conditioned stimulus. D) conditioned response. 317 2. Jimmy was frightened by a barking dog. For the next few months, he was afraid of all dogs. This is an example of:

A) stimulus generalization. B) stimulus discrimination. C) unconditioned response. D) unconditioned stimulus. 320 3. After repeatedly presenting the CS without the UCS, the CR will gradually disappear. This is called:

A) extinguished reaction. B) extinction. C) stimulus discrimination. D) stimulus neutralization. 319 4. Once extinction has occurred, the CR may return if enough time has

passed. This is an example of: A) spontaneous remission. B) stimulus generalization. C) spontaneous recovery. D) conditioned recurrence. 319 5. Which of the following would be an

example of Classical Conditioning being applied to practical problems? A) teaching a dog to wag its tail? B) using methadone for heroine addicts C) applying electric shock to depressed patients D) giving alcoholics a drug to make them sick if they drink 323 6. Purchasing state lottery tickets is reinforced with monetary winnings on a _____ schedule.

A) fixed-interval B) variable-interval C) fixed-ratio D) variable-ratio 332 7. In ____, a response is strengthened in order to avoid something unpleasant.

A) punishment B) negative reinforcement C) partial reinforcement D) positive reinforcement 329 8. Even when punishment changes behavior, it has several drawbacks, including:

A) punishment doesnt teach the correct response. B) punishment may result in fear of the one punishing. C) effects may be only temporary. D) all of the above. 333 9. Resistance to extinction is most strongly encouraged by _____ reinforcement.

A) intermittent B) delayed C) continuous D) negative 331 10. If you want to teach a pigeon to eat out of your hand, you would place some bird seed closer and closer to you until it finally had to come to your hand. This is called:

A) intermittent reinforcement. B) shaping. C) partial reinforcement. D) continuous reinforcement. 328 11. Jeremy wears his baseball cap backward because he noticed his older brother does so. This illustrates

the importance of: A) respondent behavior. B) immediate reinforcement. C) shaping. D) modeling. 341 12. Albert Bandura contends that most human behavior:

A) is acquired through observational learning. B) is shaped through repeated trial-and error. C) is reinforced through positive conditioning. D) is planned out and not accidental. 343 13. In Banduras Bobo Doll experiment, he demonstrated: A) aggressive children will imitate aggressive behavior. B) children will imitate aggressive

behavior just by observing it. C) children who are non-aggressive will not imitate aggressive behavior. D) children will imitate aggressive behavior is reinforced with candy. 343 14. Research on children viewing violence on TV is related to their own aggressive behavior in that: A) there is only a modest correlation. B) there is no real correlation between the two.

C) its effects are only temporary. D) there is a positive and statistically significant correlation. 345 15. Based on what researchers have found about the effect of modeling on behavior, A) we can decrease violence in our society if we decrease the amount of violence on TV. B) we can increase pro-social behavior if we increase the amount of it on TV. C) all of the above.

D) none of the above; TV doesnt change the way people behave. 343 16. After a week at college, Kim has formed a mental representation of the layout of the campus and no longer gets lost. She has developed a: A) visual memory.

B) perceptual delineation. C) cognitive map. D) retinal disparity. 334 17. The fact that learning can occur without reinforcement is most clearly demonstrated by studies of: A) shaping.

B) latent learning. C) spontaneous recovery. D) computer-assisted instruction. 334 18. The desire to engage in an activity for the sake of its own enjoyment involves:

A) spontaneous reinforcers. B) spontaneous recovery. C) intrinsic motivation. D) latent learning. 335 19. It is easier to train a dog to bark for food than to train it to stand on its hind legs for food. This best illustrates the importance of ______ in learning.

A) primary reinforcement B) generalization C) negative reinforcers D) biological predispositions 336 20. According to Thorndikes Law of Effect, when responses are followed by something unpleasant: A) the response is strengthened. B) the unpleasant stimulus is avoided.

C) the response is weakened. D) the CR is extinguished. 327 21. Toddlers taught to fear speeding cars may also begin to fear speeding trucks and motorcycles. This best illustrates: A) generalization.

B) secondary reinforcement. C) shaping. D) latent learning. 320 22. By pushing vending machine buttons, children often learn that this action is associated with the delivery of a candy bar. This best illustrates the process underlying:

A) latent learning. B) intermittent reinforcement. C) spontaneous recovery. D) operant conditioning. 326 23. For purposes of effective childrearing, most psychologists favor the use of _____ over _____. A) shaping; modeling B) reinforcement; punishment C) spontaneous recovery; extinction D) negative reinforcement;

positive reinforcement 333 24: A childs fear at the sight of a hypodermic needle is a(n): A) conditioned response. B) unconditioned stimulus. C) conditioned stimulus. D) unconditioned response.

317 25. In explaining juvenile delinquency, B.F. Skinner would most likely have emphasized: A) inherited predispositions. B) unconscious conflicts. C) faulty child-rearing practices.

D) a lack of moral values in contemporary society. 338 Acknowledgements Step Up Created by: John J. Schulte, Psy.D. Based on Psychology, Eighth Edition By David G. Myers Published by Worth Publishers (2007)

Answers 1. D 9. A 17. B

2. A 10. B 18. C 3.

B 11. D 19. D 4. C

12. A 20. C 5. D 13.

B 21. A 6. D 14. D

22. D 7. B 15. C 23.

B 8. D 16. C 24. A

25. C

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