Low Cost Stand-alone Renewable Photovoltaic/Wind Energy Utilization Schemes Prof. Dr. A. M. Sharaf Presentation Outline Introduction Research Objectives Low Cost Stand-alone Renewable Photovoltaic/Wind Energy
Utilization Schemes and Error Driven Controllers Conclusions and Recommendations for Future Research Publications Questions & Answers Introduction Photovoltaics (PV) PV cells PV modules PV arrays PV systems: batteries, battery charge controllers, maximum
power point trackers (MPPT), solid state inverters, rectifiers (battery chargers), generators, structure PV cell, PV module and PV array The Advantages of PV Energy Clean and green energy source that has virtually no environmental polluting impact Highly reliable and needs minimal maintenance Costs little to build and operate Modular and flexible in terms of sizes, ratings and
applications Applications of PV Systems Stand-alone PV energy systems: Small village electricity supply Water pumping and irrigation systems Cathodic protection Communications Lighting and small appliances Emergency power systems and lighting systems
Stand-alone hybrid renewable energy systems Electric utility systems PV Cell Model Current source: proportional to the light falling on the cell in parallel with a diode: Temperature dependence of the photo-generated current (Iph). Temperature dependence of the reverse saturation current of the diode D0 (I0). Series resistance (Rs): gives a more accurate shape between the maximum power point and the open circuit voltage.
Shunt diode D0 with the diode quality factor set to achieve the best curve match. The circuit diagram of the solar cell Nonlinear I-V Characteristics of PV Cell I g I ph I 0 (e q (Vg I g RS ) / AKTx 1) Vg I ph I 0 I g AKTx
ln( ) RS I g q I0 I-V characteristics of a typical PV array with various conditions PV array equivalent circuit block model using the MATLAB/Simulink/SimPowerSystems software Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) The photovoltaic system displays an inherently nonlinear current-voltage (I-V) relationship, requiring an online search and identification of the optimal maximum operating power point.
MPPT controller is a power electronic DC/DC chopper or DC/ AC inverter system inserted between the PV array and its electric load to achieve the optimum characteristic matching PV array is able to deliver maximum available power that is also necessary to maximize the photovoltaic energy utilization Nonlinear (I-V) and (P-V) characteristics of a typical PV array at a fixed ambient temperature and solar irradiation condition The Performance of any Stand-alone PV System Depends on:
Electric load operating conditions/excursions/ switching Ambient/junction temperature (Tx) Solar insolation/irradiation variations (Sx) Research Objectives 1. Develop/test/validate full mathematical models for PV array modules and a number of stand-alone renewable photovoltaic and
hybrid photovoltaic/wind energy utilization schemes in MATLAB/Simulink/SimPowerSystems software environment. Research Objectives (Continue) 2. Select parameters to validate a number of novel efficient low cost dynamic error driven maximum photovoltaic power tracking controllers developed by Dr. A.M. Sharaf for four novel low cost stand-alone renewable photovoltaic and hybrid photovoltaic/wind energy utilization schemes: Photovoltaic Four-Quadrant PWM converter PMDC motor drive scheme: PV-DC Scheme I. Photovoltaic DC/DC dual converter scheme: PV-DC Scheme II.
Photovoltaic DC/AC six-pulse inverter scheme: PV-AC Scheme. Hybrid renewable photovoltaic/wind energy utilization scheme: Hybrid PV/Wind Scheme. Low Cost Stand-alone Renewable Photovoltaic/Wind Energy Utilization Schemes and Error Driven Controllers Photovoltaic Four-Quadrant PWM converter PMDC motor drive scheme: PV-DC Scheme I.
Photovoltaic DC/DC dual converter scheme: PV-DC Scheme II. Photovoltaic DC/AC six-pulse inverter scheme: PV-AC Scheme. Hybrid renewable photovoltaic/wind energy utilization scheme: Hybrid PV/Wind Scheme. Photovoltaic Four-Quadrant PWM Converter PMDC Motor Drive Scheme: PV-DC Scheme I
Photovoltaic powered Four-Quadrant PWM converter PMDC motor drive system (Developed by Dr. A.M. Sharaf) Four-quadrant Operation of PWM Converter PMDC motor drive Quadrant 1: Forward motoring (buck or step-down converter mode) Q1on Q2chopping Q3off Q4off Current freewheeling through D3 and Q1 Quadrant 2: Forward regeneration (boost or step-up converter mode) Q1off Q2off Q3off Q4chopping Current freewheeling through D1 and D2 Quadrant 3: Reverse motoring (buck converter mode) Q1off Q2off Q3on Q4chopping Current freewheeling through D1 and Q3 Quadrant 4: Reverse regeneration (boost converter mode) Q1off Q2chopping Q3off Q4 off Current freewheeling through D3 and D4
Variations of Ambient Temperature and Solar Irradiation Variation of ambient temperature (Tx) Variation of solar irradiation (Sx) Dynamic Error Driven Proportional plus Integral (PI) Controller et w ew i ei p e p Dynamic tri-loop error driven Proportional plus Integral control system Digital Simulation Results with PI Controller for Trapezoidal Reference Speed Trajectory
Digital Simulation Results with PI Controller for Trapezoidal Reference Speed Trajectory (Continue) Digital Simulation Results with PI Controller for Sinusoidal Reference Speed Trajectory Digital Simulation Results with PI Controller for Sinusoidal Reference Speed Trajectory (Continue) Dynamic Error Driven Self Adjusting Controller (SAC) et w ew i ei p e p Dynamic tri-loop self adjusting control (SAC) system Digital Simulation Results with SAC for Trapezoidal Reference
Speed Trajectory Digital Simulation Results with SAC for Trapezoidal Reference Speed Trajectory (Continue) Digital Simulation Results with SAC for Sinusoidal Reference Speed Trajectory Digital Simulation Results with SAC for Sinusoidal Reference Speed Trajectory (Continue) Photovoltaic DC/DC Dual Converter Scheme: PV-DC Scheme II Stand-alone photovoltaic DC/DC dual converter scheme for village electricity use Dynamic Error Driven
Proportional plus Integral (PI) Controller Dynamic tri-loop error driven Proportional plus Integral control system Digital Simulation Results with PI Controller Without controller With PI controller Digital Simulation Results with PI Controller (Continue) Without controller With PI controller Dynamic Error Driven Variable Structure Sliding Mode
Controller (SMC) et w ew p e p Dynamic dual-loop error driven variable structure Sliding Mode Control (SMC) system Switching surface in the (et-t) phase plane Digital Simulation Results with SMC Without controller With SMC Digital Simulation Results with SMC (Continue) Without controller
With SMC Photovoltaic DC/AC Six-pulse Inverter Scheme: PV-AC Scheme Stand-alone photovoltaic DC/AC six-pulse inverter scheme for village electricity use Variations of Ambient Temperature and Solar Irradiation Variation of ambient temperature (Tx) Variation of solar irradiation (Sx)
Dynamic Error Driven Proportional plus Integral (PI) Controller Dynamic tri-loop error driven Proportional plus Integral control system Digital Simulation Results with PI Controller Without controller With PI controller Digital Simulation Results with PI Controller (Continue) Without controller With PI controller Dynamic Error Driven Variable Structure Sliding Mode
Controller (SMC) Dynamic tri-loop error driven variable structure Sliding Mode Control (SMC) system Digital Simulation Results with SMC Without controller With SMC Digital Simulation Results with SMC (Continue) Without controller With SMC Hybrid Renewable Photovoltaic/Wind Energy Utilization
Scheme: Hybrid PV/Wind Scheme Stand-alone hybrid photovoltaic/wind energy utilization scheme for village electricity use Variations of Wind Speed (Vw) Variation of wind speed (Vw) Dynamic Error Driven Proportional plus Integral (PI) Controller Dynamic tri-loop error driven Proportional plus Integral control system Digital Simulation Results with PI Controller Without controller
With PI controller Digital Simulation Results with PI Controller (Continue) Without controller With PI controller The loop weighting factors (v, i and p) and control gains (Kp, Ki) are assigned to minimize a selected time weighted excursion index J0 where is the
magnitude of the hyper-plane error excursion vector N= T /T 0 sample T0: Largest mechanical time constant in the hybrid system (10s) Tsample: Sampling time (0.2ms) Time Weighted Excursion Index J0 Digital simulation results of time weighted excursion index J0 with different proportional and integral gains
Conclusions and Recommendations for Future Research (I) 1. The full mathematical models for PV array modules were fully developed including the inherently nonlinear I-V characteristics and variations under ambient temperature and solar irradiation conditions. 2. The proposed stand-alone renewable photovoltaic and hybrid photovoltaic/wind energy utilization schemes and robust dynamic control strategies were digitally simulated and validated using the MATLAB/Simulink/SimPowerSystems software environment. 3. The dynamic controllers require only the measured values of voltage and current signals in addition to the motor speed signals that can be easily measured with low cost sensors and transducers. 4. The proposed low cost stand-alone renewable photovoltaic and hybrid photovoltaic/wind energy utilization schemes are suitable for resort/village electricity application in the range of (1500 watts to 50000 watts), mostly for water pumping, ventilation, lighting, irrigation and village electricity use in arid remote communities.
Proposed Schemes, Controllers and Applications Conclusions and Recommendations for Future Research (II) 1. It is necessary to validate the proposed novel dynamic maximum photovoltaic power tracking control strategies by a specific laboratory facility using the low cost micro controllers. 2. The proposed dynamic effective and robust error driven control strategies can be extended to other control system applications. They are also flexible by adding supplementary control loops to adapt any control objectives of any systems. Further work can be focused on Artificial Intelligence (AI) control strategies. 3. The research can be expanded to the design and validation of dynamic FACTS with stabilization and compensation control strategies for other stand-alone renewable energy resource schemes as well as grid-connected renewable energy systems to
make maximum utilization of the available energy resources. Publications [1] A.M. Sharaf, Liang Yang, "A Novel Tracking Controller for a Stand-alone Photovoltaic Scheme," International Conference on Communication, Computer and Power (ICCCP'05), Muscat, Sultanate of Oman, Feb. 14-16, 2005 (Accepted). [2] A.M. Sharaf, Liang Yang, "A Novel Maximum Power Tracking Controller for a Standalone Photovoltaic DC Motor Drive," 18th Annual Canadian Conference on Electrical and Computer Engineering (CCECE05), Saskatoon, Canada, May 1-4, 2005 (Accepted). [3] A.M. Sharaf, Liang Yang, "A Novel Low Cost Stand-alone Photovoltaic Scheme for Four Quadrant PMDC Motor Drive," International Conference on Renewable Energy and Power Quality (ICREPQ'05), Zaragoza, Spain, March 16-18, 2005 (Submitted). [4] A.M. Sharaf, Liang Yang, "An Efficient Photovoltaic DC Village Electricity Scheme Using a Sliding Mode Controller," 2005 IEEE Conference on Control Applications (CCA05), Toronto, Canada, August 28-31, 2005 (Submitted). [5] A.M. Sharaf, Liang Yang, "A Novel Efficient Stand-alone Photovoltaic Energy Utilization Scheme for Village Electricity," 8th International Conference on Electrical Power
Quality and Utilization, Cracow, Poland, September 21-23, 2005 (Submitted). [6] A.M. Sharaf, Liang Yang, "A Novel Efficient Stand-alone Hybrid Photovoltaic/Wind Energy Utilization Scheme for Village Electricity," International Conference on Electrical Drives and Power Electronics, Dubrovnik, Croatia, September 26-28, 2005 (Submitted). [7] A.M. Sharaf, Liang Yang, "Novel Dynamic Control Strategies for Efficient Utilization of a Stand-alone Photovoltaic System," Electric Power Systems Research (Submitted). Standalone Wind Energy Utilization Scheme and Novel Control Strategies Prof. Dr. A. M. Sharaf Outline Introduction
Stand-alone WECS with Dynamic Series Switched Capacitor Scheme Stand-alone WECS with Dynamic Series/Parallel Compensation Scheme Stand-alone WECS with Dynamic Hybrid Power Compensation Scheme
Stand-alone WECS with Dual-switching Universal Power Compensation 1 Scheme Outline Stand-alone WECS with Universal DC-Link Compensation Scheme Wind-Diesel Standalone Energy System Using Dual-switching Universal Power Compensation2 Scheme
Conclusions and Recommendations Models Publications 1.Introduction 1.1 Wind Energy
Wind energy: one of the most significant, alternative energy resources. Most wind turbines use the three phase asynchronous induction generator for it is low lost, reliable and less maintenance. However, the voltage stability problem of a wind driven induction generator system is fully dependent on wind gusting conditions and electrical load changes. New interface technologies are needed 1.Introduction 1.2 Wind Energy Conversion Schemes
Six novel techniques and compensation schemes developed by Dr. Sharaf in this thesis are proposed. Dynamic Series Switched Capacitor (DSSC) Dynamic Series/Parallel Capacitor (DSPC) Dynamic Hybrid Power Compensation (DHPC) Dynamic Dual-switching Universal Power Compensation 1 and 2 (DUPC1&2) Universal DC-Link Compensation (UDCC) 1.Introduction 1.2 Wind Energy Conversion Schemes
Six PWM switched controllers developed by Dr. Sharaf are studied in this thesis . Aux controller. Tri-loop (voltage, current and power signals) error driven PID controller. Dual-loop (voltage and current) error driven PID controller. Tri-loop nonlinear self-adjusting Tan-sigmoid controller Voltage regulator controller. Tri-loop error driven sliding mode controller.
Standalone Wind Energy Utilization Scheme and Novel Control Strategies Prof. Dr. A. M. Sharaf Outline Introduction Stand-alone WECS with Dynamic Series Switched Capacitor Scheme
Stand-alone WECS with Dynamic Series/Parallel Compensation Scheme Stand-alone WECS with Dynamic Hybrid Power Compensation Scheme Stand-alone WECS with Dual-switching Universal Power Compensation 1 Scheme Outline
Stand-alone WECS with Universal DC-Link Compensation Scheme Wind-Diesel Standalone Energy System Using Dual-switching Universal Power Compensation2 Scheme Conclusions and Recommendations Models
Publications 1.Introduction 1.1 Wind Energy Wind energy: one of the most significant, alternative energy resources.
Most wind turbines use the three phase asynchronous induction generator for it is low lost, reliable and less maintenance. However, the voltage stability problem of a wind driven induction generator system is fully dependent on wind gusting conditions and electrical load changes. New interface technologies are needed 1.Introduction 1.2 Wind Energy Conversion Schemes Six novel techniques and compensation schemes developed by Dr. Sharaf in this thesis are proposed. Dynamic Series Switched Capacitor (DSSC) Dynamic Series/Parallel Capacitor (DSPC) Dynamic Hybrid Power Compensation
(DHPC) Dynamic Dual-switching Universal Power Compensation 1 and 2 (DUPC1&2) Universal DC-Link Compensation (UDCC) 1.Introduction 1.2 Wind Energy Conversion Schemes Six PWM switched controllers developed by
Dr. Sharaf are studied in this thesis . Aux controller. Tri-loop (voltage, current and power signals) error driven PID controller. Dual-loop (voltage and current) error driven PID controller. Tri-loop nonlinear self-adjusting Tansigmoid controller Voltage regulator controller. Tri-loop error driven sliding mode controller. 1.Introduction 1.3 Standalone WECS Components
The Stand-alone WECS comprises the following main components (1) Wind Turbine (2) Gear Box (3) Induction or Synchronous Generator (see the appendix A.2 for generator models) (4) Stabilization Interface Scheme and Stabilization Controller (5) The Electric Load
1.Introduction 1.3 Standalone WECS Components Chap2. Stand-alone WECS with Dynamic Series Switched Capacitor Scheme 2.1 Stand-alone WECS Modeling and Description Figure 2.1 depicts the sample WECS with Dynamic Series Switched Capacitor (DSSC) scheme WECS Parameters are shown in Appendix A.1 Chap2. Stand-alone WECS with Dynamic Series Switched Capacitor Scheme 2.2 DSSC Compensation Scheme Figure 4 depicts DSSC Stabilization Scheme using Back to Back Gate Turn off GTO
switching Device (per phase). Chap2. Stand-alone WECS with Dynamic Series Switched Capacitor Scheme 2.3 Proposed Dynamic Control System Figure 2.3 depicts Tri-loop Error Driven PID Controlled PWM Switching Scheme How the Controller Parameters are selected is Shown in Appendix A.3 And the PWM model is shown in Appendix A.4 Chap2. Stand-alone WECS with Dynamic Series Switched Capacitor Scheme 2.4 Digital Simulation and Results Figure 2.4 below is the Unified Sample Study A.C Systems Matlab/Simulink Functional Model
Chap2. Stand-alone WECS with Dynamic Series Switched Capacitor Scheme 2.4 Digital Simulation and Results Case one: under electrical load excursion a) Under linear and non-linear load excursion from 0.1s to 0.3s, we apply 50% (100kVA) linear load; from 0.4s-0.6s, we apply 60% (120kVA) non-linear load. The figures below showed us the dynamic response of generator voltage without and with DSSC compensation scheme Without DSSC Compensation With DSSC Compensation Chap2. Stand-alone WECS with Dynamic Series Switched Capacitor Scheme 2.4 Digital Simulation and Results Case one: under electrical load excursion
b) Under Motor load excursion from 0.2s to 0.4s, we apply a 20% (20kVA) induction motor load The figures below showed us the dynamic response of generator voltage without and with DSSC compensation scheme Without DSSC Compensation With DSSC Compensation Chap2. Stand-alone WECS with Dynamic Series Switched Capacitor Scheme 2.4 Digital Simulation and Results Case two: under wind excursion From 0.3s-0.6s, the wind speed was decreased to 6m/s from 10m/s The figures below showed us the dynamic response of generator voltage without and with DSSC compensation scheme
Without DSSC Compensation With DSSC Compensation Chap2. Stand-alone WECS with Dynamic Series Switched Capacitor Scheme 2.5 Conclusions The DSSC Facts compensation scheme is effective for generator bus voltage stabilization of the linear, non-liner load excursions as well as wind speed
excursions. But it can not compensate for large induction motor excursion. Tri-loop dynamic error driven PID controller works well to control the compensation scheme Chap3. Stand-alone WECS with Dynamic Series/ Parallel Switched Capacitor Scheme 3.1 Stand-alone WECS Modeling and Description Figure 3.1 depicts the sample full stand-alone wind energy system with squirrel cage induction generator, hybrid load and DSPC compensation Chap3. Stand-alone WECS with Dynamic Series/ Parallel Switched Capacitor Scheme 3.2 DSPC Compensation Scheme
Figure 3.2 showed Low Cost Dynamic Series/Parallel Capacitor Compensations Stabilization Scheme using the Back to Back Gate Turn off GTO1&2 switching Devices (Per phase) Chap3. Stand-alone WECS with Dynamic Series/ Parallel Switched Capacitor Scheme 3.3 Proposed Dynamic Control System Figure 3.3 showed the Tri-loop nonlinear Self-adjusting Tan-sigmoid Controller Chap3. Stand-alone WECS with Dynamic Series/ Parallel Switched Capacitor Scheme 3.3 Matlab Digital Simulation and Results Figure 3.4 below is the Unified Sample Study A.C Systems Matlab/Simulink Functional Model Chap3. Stand-alone WECS with Dynamic Series/
Parallel Switched Capacitor Scheme 3.3 Matlab Digital Simulation and Results Case one: under electrical load excursion a) Under linear and non-linear load excursion from 0.1s to 0.3s, we apply 50% (100kVA) linear load; from 0.4s-0.6s, we apply 60% (120kVA) non-linear load. The figures below showed us the dynamic response of generator voltage without and with DSPC compensation scheme Without DSPC Compensation With DSPC Compensation Chap3. Stand-alone WECS with Dynamic Series/ Parallel Switched Capacitor Scheme 3.3 Matlab Digital Simulation and Results Case one: under electrical load excursion b) Under Motor load excursion
from 0.2s to 0.4s, we apply a 20% (20kVA) induction motor load The figures below showed us the dynamic response of generator voltage without and with DSPC compensation scheme Without DSPC Compensation With DSPC Compensation Chap3. Stand-alone WECS with Dynamic Series/ Parallel Switched Capacitor Scheme 3.3 Matlab Digital Simulation and Results Case Two: under wind excursion From 0.3s-0.6s, the wind speed was decreased to 6m/s from 10m/s The figures below showed us the dynamic response of generator voltage without and with DSPC compensation scheme Without DSPC Compensation
With DSPC Compensation Chap3. Stand-alone WECS with Dynamic Series/ Parallel Switched Capacitor Scheme 3.4 Conclusions The Matllab/Simulink simulations validate that the DSPC compensation are very effective for the electric linear, non-liner, motor excursion and wind excursion. The proposed low cost DSPC voltage
compensation scheme is suitable for isolated wind energy conversion systems feeding linear and non-liner and motor type loads The tri-loop nonlinear self-adjusting tansigmoid controller is effective for controlling the compensation scheme. Chap4. Stand-alone WECS with Dynamic Hybrid Power Compensation Scheme 4.1 Stand-alone WECS Modeling and Description Figure 4.1 showed Stand Alone Wind Energy Conversion Scheme Diagram with Hybrid Electric Load Chap4. Stand-alone WECS with Dynamic Hybrid Power Compensation Scheme 4.2 Dynamic Hybrid Power Compensation scheme Figure 4.2: Dynamic Hybrid Power Compensation (DHPC) Stabilization Scheme using the Back to Back Gate Turn off
GTO and 6 Pulse VSC-PWM Controller (3 phase) Chap4. Stand-alone WECS with Dynamic Hybrid Power Compensation Scheme 4.2 Dynamic Hybrid Power Compensation scheme Figure 4.3 below is the 6 Pulse Thyristor- VSC Converter Chap4. Stand-alone WECS with Dynamic Hybrid Power Compensation Scheme 4.3 Proposed Dynamic Control System Figure 4.4 is the Tri-loop Error Driven PID Controller Chap4. Stand-alone WECS with Dynamic Hybrid Power Compensation Scheme 4.4 Digital Simulation and Results Figure 4.5 is the Unified Sample Study A.C Matlab/ Simulink Functional System Model
Chap4. Stand-alone WECS with Dynamic Hybrid Power Compensation Scheme 4.4 Digital Simulation and Results Case one: under electrical load excursion a) Under linear and non-linear load excursion from 0.1s to 0.3s, we apply 50% (100kVA) linear load; from 0.4s-0.6s, we apply 60% (120kVA) non-linear load. The figures below showed us the dynamic response of generator voltage without and with DHPC compensation scheme Without DHPC Compensation With DHPC Compensation Chap4. Stand-alone WECS with Dynamic Hybrid Power Compensation Scheme 4.4 Digital Simulation and Results
Case one: under electrical load excursion b) Under Motor load excursion from 0.2s to 0.4s, we apply a 20% (20kVA) induction motor load The figures below showed us the dynamic response of generator voltage without and with DHPC compensation scheme Without DHPC Compensation With DHPC Compensation Chap4. Stand-alone WECS with Dynamic Hybrid Power Compensation Scheme 4.4 Digital Simulation and Results Case two: under wind excursion From 0.3s-0.6s, the wind speed was decreased to 6m/s from 10m/s The figures below showed us the dynamic response of generator
voltage without and with DHPC compensation scheme Without DHPC Compensation With DHPC Compensation Chap4. Stand-alone WECS with Dynamic Hybrid Power Compensation Scheme 4.5 Conclusions Digital simulation results validate that this new DHPC scheme is very effective for bus voltage stabilization under electric load disturbance including linear, nonlinear load and motor load excursions. The proposed novel tri-loop dynamic
controller is very effective for the compensation scheme. Chap5. Stand-alone WECS with Dual-switching Universal Power Compensation 1 Scheme 5.1 Stand-alone WECS Modeling and Description Figure 5.1 showed Stand Alone Wind Energy Conversion Scheme Diagram with Hybrid Electric Load Chap5. Stand-alone WECS with Dual-switching Universal Power Compensation 1 Scheme 5.2 Dual-switching Universal Power Compensation 1 Scheme Figure 5.2 depicts Dual-switching Universal Power Compensation1 (DUPC1) Stabilization Scheme using the 6 Pulse VSC-PWM Controller and IGBT Chap5. Stand-alone WECS with Dual-switching
Universal Power Compensation 1 Scheme 5.3 Proposed Dynamic Control System In this research we used two novel controllers, dual-loop error driven PID controller and Aux Controller Figure 5.3 is the Dual-loop Error Driven PID Controller Chap5. Stand-alone WECS with Dual-switching Universal Power Compensation 1 Scheme 5.3 Proposed Dynamic Control System Figure 5.4 below showed the Aux Controller Chap5. Stand-alone WECS with Dual-switching Universal Power Compensation 1 Scheme 5.4 Matlab/Simulink Digital Simulation and Results Figure 5.5 is the Unified Sample Study A.C Matlab/Simulink Functional System Model
Chap5. Stand-alone WECS with Dual-switching Universal Power Compensation 1 Scheme 5.4 Matlab/Simulink Digital Simulation and Results Case one: under electrical load excursion a) Under linear and non-linear load excursion from 0.1s to 0.3s, we apply 50% (100kVA) linear load; from 0.4s-0.6s, we apply 60% (120kVA) non-linear load. The figures below showed us the dynamic response of generator voltage without and with DUPC1 compensation scheme Without DUPC1 Compensation With DUPC1 Compensation Chap5. Stand-alone WECS with Dual-switching Universal Power Compensation 1 Scheme 5.4 Matlab/Simulink Digital Simulation and Results Case one: under electrical load excursion
b) Under Motor load excursion from 0.2s to 0.4s, we apply a 20% (20kVA) induction motor load The figures below showed us the dynamic response of generator voltage without and with DUPC1 compensation scheme Without DUPC1 Compensation With DUPC1 Compensation Chap5. Stand-alone WECS with Dual-switching Universal Power Compensation 1 Scheme 5.4 Matlab/Simulink Digital Simulation and Results Case two: under wind excursion From 0.3s-0.6s, the wind speed was decreased to 6m/s from 10m/s The figures below showed us the dynamic response of generator voltage without and with DUPC1 compensation scheme
Without DUPC1 Compensation With DUPC1 Compensation Chap5. Stand-alone WECS with Dual-switching Universal Power Compensation 1 Scheme 5.5Conclusions This new DUPC1 compensator scheme is very effective in stabilizing generator bus voltage as well as enhancing power/energy utilization under favorable wind gusting conditions The novel dual-loop dynamic controller is
extremely flexible and can be easily modified to include other supplementary loops such as generator power Appendix B Stand-alone WECS with Universal DC-Link Compensation Scheme B.1 Standalone Wind Energy Conversion Scheme Description Figure B.1: Stand Alone Wind Energy Conversion Scheme Diagram with Hybrid Load and Universal Power Compensator Appendix B Stand-alone WECS with Universal DC-Link Compensation Scheme B.2 Universal DC-Link Compensation Scheme Figure B.2: Universal DC-Link (Rectifier-DC-Link-Inverter) Scheme using 6 Pulse Diode and 6 Pulse GTO (3 phase)
Appendix B Stand-alone WECS with Universal DC-Link Compensation Scheme B.3 Proposed Dynamic Control System In this research we used a Voltage Regulator Controller (VRC). The figure below shows the structure of the controller. Referred to Matlab/Demo Appendix B Stand-alone WECS with Universal DC-Link Compensation Scheme B.4 Matlab Digital Simulation and Results Figure B.4 show the stand-alone wind energy system model and wind subsystem model Appendix B Stand-alone WECS with Universal DC-Link Compensation Scheme B.4 Matlab Digital Simulation and Results
Figure B.5 is the Wind Subsystem Model Appendix B Stand-alone WECS with Universal DC-Link Compensation Scheme B.4 Matlab Digital Simulation and Results Case one: under electrical load excursion a) Under linear and non-linear load excursion from 0.1s to 0.3s, we apply 50% (100kVA) linear load; from 0.4s-0.6s, we apply 60% (120kVA) non-linear load. Without UDCC Compensation With UDCC Compensation Appendix B Stand-alone WECS with Universal DC-Link Compensation Scheme B.4 Matlab Digital Simulation and Results
Case one: under electrical load excursion b) Under Motor load excursion from 0.2s to 0.4s, we apply a 20% (20kVA) induction motor load Without UDCC Compensation With UDCC Compensation Appendix B Stand-alone WECS with Universal DC-Link Compensation Scheme B.4 Matlab Digital Simulation and Results Case two: under wind excursion From 0.3s-0.6s, the wind speed was decreased to 6m/s from 10m/s Without UDCC Compensation With UDCC Compensation
Appendix B Stand-alone WECS with Universal DC-Link Compensation Scheme B.4 Matlab Digital Simulation and Results Case three: under temporary full short circuit fault (grounding) excursion. From 0.2s to 0.3s, all loads are grounded The figures below showed us the dynamic response of generator voltage without and with UDCC compensation scheme Without UDCC Compensation With UDCC Compensation Appendix B Stand-alone WECS with Universal DC-Link Compensation Scheme B.5 Conclusions
This new UDCC compensator scheme is very effective in stabilizing the generator bus voltage under all electric loads and wind gusting conditions as well as full three phase short circuit fault. the UDCC Facts-device showed its special advantage that it can compensate for full three phase short circuit fault. The Voltage stabilization is complex and suitable in large wind farm utilization scheme with one load collection center
Appendix C Wind-Diesel Standalone Energy System Using Dual-switching Universal Power Compensation2 Scheme B.1 Standalone WECS Description Figure C.1 showed the Wind-Diesel Standalone Energy Conversion Scheme Diagram with Hybrid Electric Load and Switching DUPC2 Scheme Appendix C Wind-Diesel Standalone Energy System Using Dual-switching Universal Power Compensation2 Scheme B.2 Dual-switching Universal Power Compensation Scheme2 Figure C.2 showed Dual Switching Universal Power Compensation (DUPC2) Scheme2 Appendix C Wind-Diesel Standalone Energy
System Using Dual-switching Universal Power Compensation2 Scheme B.3 Proposed Novel Controller System Figure C.3 is the Tri-loop Error Driven Sliding Mode Controlled PWM Switching Scheme with Dynamic Switching Surface Appendix C Wind-Diesel Standalone Energy System Using Dual-switching Universal Power Compensation2 Scheme B.4 Matlab/Simulink Digital Simulations and Results Figure C.4 below is the Unified Sample Study A.C Matlab/Simulink Functional System Model Appendix C Wind-Diesel Standalone Energy
System Using Dual-switching Universal Power Compensation2 Scheme B.4 Matlab/Simulink Digital Simulations and Results Figure C.5 is the Diesel Driven Synchronous Generator Energy Subsystem Matlab/Simulink Model The details of the Diesel Engine are shown in Appendix A.5 Appendix C Wind-Diesel Standalone Energy System Using Dual-switching Universal Power Compensation2 Scheme B.4 Matlab/Simulink Digital Simulations and Results Case one: under electrical load excursion (Wind driven generator energy system only, no diesel driven generator) a) Under linear and non-linear load excursion from 0.1s to 0.3s, we apply 50% (100kVA) linear load; from 0.4s-0.6s, we apply 60% (120kVA) non-linear load.
Without DUPC2 Compensation With DUPC2 Compensation Appendix C Wind-Diesel Standalone Energy System Using Dual-switching Universal Power Compensation2 Scheme B.4 Matlab/Simulink Digital Simulations and Results Case one: under electrical load excursion (Wind driven generator energy system only, no diesel driven generator) b) Under motor load excursion from 0.2s to 0.4s, we apply a 20% (20kVA) induction motor load Without DUPC2 Compensation With DUPC2 Compensation
Appendix C Wind-Diesel Standalone Energy System Using Dual-switching Universal Power Compensation2 Scheme B.4 Matlab/Simulink Digital Simulations and Results Case two: under wind speed excursion (Wind driven generator energy system only, no diesel driven generator) From 0.3s-0.6s, the wind speed was decreased to 6m/s from 10m/s Without DUPC2 Compensation With DUPC2 Compensation Appendix C Wind-Diesel Standalone Energy System Using Dual-switching Universal Power Compensation2 Scheme B.4 Matlab/Simulink Digital Simulations and Results Case three: under three phase temporary short circuit fault
(Combined wind-diesel energy system) From 0.1s to 0.2s, the system experienced three phase short circuit fault, and from 0.1s to 0.4s the standby diesel generator was put into operation Without DUPC2 Compensation With DUPC2 Compensation Appendix C Wind-Diesel Standalone Energy System Using Dual-switching Universal Power Compensation2 Scheme B.4 Matlab/Simulink Digital Simulations and Results Case Four: Under the Diesel Engine Mechanical Output Power Excursions (Combined wind-diesel energy system) From 0.2-0.3sec the output of diesel engine mechanical power increases 100% (0.3pu) and from 0.3-0.4sec it decrease 100% (0.3pu).
Voltage of Gen Bus Current of Gen Bus P&Q of Gen Bus Appendix C Wind-Diesel Standalone Energy System Using Dual-switching Universal Power Compensation2 Scheme B.4 Matlab/Simulink Digital Simulations and Results Voltage of Load Bus Current of Load Bus P&Q of Load Bus
Appendix C Wind-Diesel Standalone Energy System Using Dual-switching Universal Power Compensation2 Scheme B.5 Conclusions The DUPC2 compensation scheme is very effective for voltage stabilization under the linear, non-liner and motor load excursions as well as wind speed and diesel on-off excursions. During emergency three phase short circuit fault condition, the standby diesel generator
can keep the voltage of the generator bus at 1.0pu. The proposed wind/ diesel energy system combined with stabilization scheme DUPC2 is fully suitable for all isolated wind energy conversion systems in the range 0.5-2MW. Chapter 6 Conclusions and Recommendations 6.1 Conclusions
Six schemes developed by Dr.A.M.Sharaf are fully validated and compared in table 1 next slide. 1: Dynamic Series Switched Capacitor compensation scheme (DSSC) 2: Dynamic Series/Parallel Capacitor compensation scheme (DSPC) 3: Dynamic Hybrid Power Compensation scheme (HPC) 4: Dual-switching Universal Power Compensation scheme1 (DUPC1) 5:Universal DC-Link Compensation scheme (UDCC) 6:Dual-switching Universal Power Compensation scheme2 (DUPC2) Chapter 6 Conclusions and Recommendations
6.1 Conclusions DSSC Elements Switched Series CAPs; Fixed Parallel CAPs; 1 GTO DSPC HPC Switched
Series and Parallel CAPs; 2 GTO Switched Series CAPs; Switched 6 pulse GTO; DC Cap DUPC1 Switched Series CAPs;
Switched 6 pulse GTO; DC Cap; Switched filter; 2GTO; 1 IGBT UDCC Switched 6 pulse Diode; Switched 6 pulse GTO; RLC
DUPC2 Switched Series CAPs; Switched 6 pulse GTO; switched filter; 1GTO; 2IGBT Controller Used Tri-loop
PID Tri-loop Tansigmoid Tri-loop PID Dual-loop PID; Aux Voltage Regulator Controller Tri-loop Sliding
Mode Switching PWM (200 Hz) PWM (200 Hz) PWM (195Hz) PWM (195 Hz) PWM
(1000 Hz) N/A Chapter 6 Conclusions and Recommendations 6.1 Conclusions Availability Performance Complexity Limited Simple
Cost Suitable (kw) Linear, Nonlinear and wind excursions Size Linear, Nonlinear ,Motor and wind excursions
Good Simple Linear, Nonlinear, Motor and wind excursions Linear, Nonlinear, Motor and wind excursions
Better Better Complex Complex Linear, Nonlinear, Motor, full fault and wind excursions Best
Complex Linear, Nonlinear, Motor and wind excursions Better Complex Low Low Reasonable
High Low High 50-500 50-500 500-2000 500-2000 Large Utility
Large Utility Chapter 6 Conclusions and Recommendations 6.1 Conclusions Rules of How to Choose Controllers Tri-loop error driven PID controller is suitable and popular for all compensation schemes, but sometimes we are not satisfied with it, so in some cases it is not the best one. When we are not satisfied with tri-loop error driven PID controller, we have to develop or find a new controller for example: the Voltage Regulator Controller which is better than tri-loop error driven PID controller for DUCC. If a simpler controller (for example: dual-loop error
driven PID controller and Aux controller) or any other controller (for example: the nonlinear self-adjusted tansigmoid controller Tri-loop error driven sliding mode controller) is as good as tri-loop error driven PID controller then we will not use the tri-loop error driven PID controller so that we can have many choices. Chapter 6 Conclusions and Recommendations 6.1 Extensions The proposed novel stabilization schemes can be extended to other hybrid energy schemes such as solar/small hydro/microgas/hydrogen fired turbine/biomass/fuel cell, microgas turbines and hybrid systems.
The era of hydrogen technology is dawning with new hybrid fuel technologies using PV/ Wind/ Small Hydro to produce hydrogen from water. This hydrogen will be used in remote sites in producing electricity via Fuel Cell large units Appendix A Models A.1 WECS Parameters Selected of DSSC Scheme WECS Parameters A.1.1 Induction Generator (3 phase, 2 pairs of poles) Vg=4160V(L-L), Sg=1MVA, Cself=217uF;
A.1.2 Selected Per Unit Base Value Sbase= 1MVA, Vbase=4160V/25kV (Generator/ Transmission Line and Load) Appendix A Models A.1 WECS Parameters Selected of DSSC Scheme A.1.3 Feeder Line (3 phase) Vline-line =25kV, Length= 20km; Positive sequence parameters: R1= 0.45
Ohms/km, L1= 0.928mH, C1=infinite A1.14 Transformers Generator side: 4160V/1MVA Load Side: 25kV/1MVA/ Appendix A Models A.2 Generator Models A.2.1 3 Phase Induction Generator Model Below is the Induction Generator d-q Model R + V
s + ds L - ls iq s qs L
L ' ( r )' dr lr - + + R i'q r
' r V ' qr m - q a x is R
+ V ds s - qs + L id s
ls L L ' ( r )' qr lr + i 'd r -
+ R ' r V ' dr m d a x is
Appendix A Models A.2 Generator Models Electrical System Equations as Follows (Flux Models) Vqs Rs iqs d qs ds dt Where qs Ls iqs Lmiqr' Vds Rs ids d ds ds
dt Where ds Ls ids Lmidr' V 'qr R 'r i 'qr d ' qr ( r ) 'dr dt Where 'qr L'r i 'qr Lm iqs V ' dr R ' r i 'dr
d ' dr ( r ) 'qr dt Wher e Te 1.5 p (ds iqs qs ids ) Ls Lls Lm ' dr L' r i ' dr Lmids L'r L'lr Lm Appendix A Models A.2 Generator Models Mechanical System Equations:
J d 1 m (Tm F m Te ) dt 2H d m m dt Appendix A Models A.2 Generator Models A.2.2 3 Phase Synchronous Generator Model
The electrical model of the machine is Appendix A Models A.2 Generator Models The Synchronous Machine block implements the mechanical system described by: Appendix A Models A.3 Controller Parameters Controller parameters are selected by guided trial and error (1) Define an excursion based performance index
1 J Ns Ns [( e (k )) v v 2 (I eI (k )) 2 ] k 1 Where Ns=Tsettling/Tsample, Tsettling=largest
mechanical time constant Appendix A Models A.3 Controller Parameters (2) Select control loop weightings (gamma) to reflect the controller main objective, with the assign the largest loop weight for the voltage loop stabilization. (3) Select different delay times to ensure multiloop-decoupling and the control priority assignment, ensure dynamic tracking error delay
of half cycle for the fast electrical loops and few cycles for the slow mechanical loops. (4) Avoid the creation of any near resonance condition (5) Avoid any control loop/system unstable interaction by ensuring full control loop-decoupling of the multi-loop structure Appendix A Models A.3 Controller Parameters (6) Select the controller PID parameters to ensure fast controllability and voltage stabilization as well as short settling time (Kd is very small, if used)
(7) Minimize the index J under a number of sequenced wind and load excursions over a selected settling time (1-2 times the largest time constant in the system) (8) Repeat the optimization guided procedure until delta error especially voltage is within maximum +- 10 % in a short settling period and max wind power is somewhat extracted also no severe oscillations in the dynamic response, damped or over-damped dynamic response. Appendix A Models A.3 Controller Parameters
The figure below showed J-Ki-Kp 3-phase-portait for Controller Parameter Searching Start End Appendix A Models A.4 PWM Models Below is the Structure of PWM Model Referred to Matlab/Help Appendix A Models A.4 PWM Models
The PWM Generator block generates pulses for carrier-based pulse width modulation (PWM) systems. The block can be used to fire the selfcommuted devices (FETs, GTOs, or IGBTs) of singlephase, two-phase, three-phase, or a combination of two three-phase bridges. The number of pulses generated by the PWM Generator block is determined by the number of bridge arms you have to control Appendix A Models A.4 PWM Models
The pulses are generated by comparing a triangular carrier waveform to a reference sinusoidal signal. The reference signal can be generated by the PWM generator itself, or it can be generated from a signal connected at the input of the block. In the second option, the PWM Generator needs one reference signal to generate the pulses for a single- or a twoarm bridge, or it needs a three-phase reference signal to generate the pulses for a three-phase bridge (single or double bridge The amplitude (modulation), phase, and frequency of the reference signals are set to control the output voltage (on the AC terminals) of the bridge connected to the PWM Generator block. Appendix A Models A.4 PWM Models The following figure displays the two pulses generated by
the PWM Generator block when programmed to control a one-arm bridge Appendix A Models A.4 PWM Models The following figure displays the six pulses generated by the PWM Generator block when programmed to control a three-arm bridge. Appendix A Models A.5 Diesel Engine Model The figure below is the Structure of the Diesel Engine Appendix A Models A.5 Diesel Engine Model
The diesel engine comprises diesel engine & governor and excitation system. The diesel engine & governor include the control system, actuator and diesel engine; it inputs desired and actual speed, output diesel engine mechanical power. The excitation system provides excitation for the synchronous machine and regulates its terminal voltage. The first input of the block is the desired value of the stator terminal voltage. The following two inputs are the vsq and vsd components of the terminal voltage. The fourth input can be used to provide additional stabilization of power system
oscillations. Publications: A.M. Sharaf, and Liang Zhao, A Low Cost Dynamic Voltage Stabilization Scheme for Stand Alone Wind Induction Generator System. ICCCP05 Oman (Accepted). A.M. Sharaf, Liang Zhao, A Hybrid Power Compensation Scheme
for Voltage Stabilization of Stand Alone Wind Induction Generator System. CCECE05 (Accepted). A.M. Sharaf, and Liang Zhao, A Universal Power Compensation (UPC) Scheme for Voltage Stabilization of Stand Alone Wind Induction Generator System, 2005 IEEE Conference on Control Applications, August 28-31, 2005, Toronto, Canada. (Submitted) A.M. Sharaf, and Liang Zhao,A Dual Switching Universal Power Compensation Scheme for Wind-Diesel Standalone Energy System, 8th International Conference on Electrical Power Quality and Utilization, Sep 21-23, Cracow, Poland. (Submitted) A.M. Sharaf, and Liang Zhao, Novel Control Strategies for WindDiesel Standalone Energy System Using Dual Switching Facts Universal Power Stabilization Scheme, EPSR- Elsevier Jounal. (Submitted) Dynamic Filter Compensator Schemes for Monitoring and Damping Subsynchronous Resonance Oscillations
Prof. Dr. A. M. Sharaf Electrical and Computer Engineering Department PRESENTATION OUTLINE Introduction Objectives
Background review of SSR Modeling details for -Synchronous generators -Induction motors Sample dynamic simulation results Conclusions and future extensions Introduction What is Subsynchronous Resonance (SSR)? Subsynchronous Frequency: Subsynchronous resonance is an electric f ssr f 0 f er power system condition where the electric network exchanges energy with a turbine generator at one or more of
xC 1 1 f f 0 the natural frequencies of the combined er 2 LC xL electrical and mechanical system below the synchronous frequency of the system. Where: f0
Example of SSR oscillations: SSR was first discussed in 1937 Two shaft failures at Mohave Generating Station (Southern Nevada, 1970s) - Synchronous Frequency = 60 Hz
f er - Electrical Frequency xL - Inductive Line Reactance xC - Capacitive Bank Reactance Objectives 1. Study Subsynchronous Resonance (SSR) oscillations for synchronous generators and large induction motors 2. Explore a new method to monitor SSR shaft
torsional oscillations 3. Develop and validate a novel dynamic control scheme to damp SSR shaft torsional oscillations Background Review of SSR SSR Torsional Modes Analysis -Mechanical System (inertia, shaft stiffness, etc.) -Electrical System
Mechanical test shows that the natural torsional modes as a function of inertia and shaft stiffness. Torsional modes of frequency used in this study are between 11 and 45Hz. (typically 15.71Hz; 20.21Hz; 24.65Hz; 32.28Hz; 44.99Hz) Categories of SSR Interactions: Torsional interaction Induction generator effect
Shaft torque amplification Combined effect of torsional interaction and induction generator Self-excitation Torsional natural frequencies and mode shapes Background Review of SSR Other sources for excitation of SSR oscillations Power System Stabilizer (PSS)
HVDC Converter Static Var Compensator (SVC) Variable Speed Drive Converter Modeling for Synchronous Generator Sample Study System Figure 1. Sample Series Compensated Turbine-Generator and Infinite Bus System Figure 2. Turbine-Generator Shaft Model
Table 1. Mechanical Data Modeling for Synchronous Generator Figure 3. Matlab/Simulink Unified System Model for the Sample Turbine-Generator and Infinite Bus System The Intelligent Shaft Monitor (ISM) Scheme Figure 4. Proposed Intelligent Shaft Monitoring (ISM) Scheme The Intelligent Shaft Monitor (ISM) Scheme is * (sin w0t cos w0t ) is * (sin w0 t cos w0 t )
/ - The result signal of (LPF, HPF, BPF) w0 = 377 Radians/Second T0 = 0.15 s, T1 = 0.1 s, T 2 = 0.1s, Figure 5. Matlab Proposed Intelligent Shaft Monitoring (ISM) Scheme with Synthesized Special Indicator Signals ( , , , ) T3 = 0.02 s The Dynamic Filter Compensator (DFC) Scheme
-Shunt Modulated Power Filter R f 2.5 , L f 15 mH , C s 50 F -Series Capacitor Cs 15 F -Fixed Capacitor C0 50 F Figure 6. Facts Based Dynamic Filter Compensator Using Two GTO Switches S1, S2 Per Phase Control System Design Figure 8. DFC Device Using Synthesized Damping Signals ( , , ) Magnitudes
Control System Design Figure 7. Dynamic Error Tracking Control Scheme for the DFC Compensator Simulation Results for Synchronous Generator Figure 9. Monitoring Synthesized Signals without DFC Compensation Under Short Circuit Fault Condition Simulation Results for Synchronous Generator Figure 10. SSR Oscillatory Dynamic Response without DFC Compensation Under Short Circuit Fault Condition Simulation Results for Synchronous Generator
Figure 11. Monitoring Synthesized Signals ( , , , ) with DFC Compensation Under Short Circuit Fault Condition Simulation Results for Synchronous Generator Vg vs. t 3 Ig vs. t 1 2 0.5 1 0
0 -1 -0.5 -2 -3 0 0.05 0.1 0.15 -1
0.2 0 0.05 0.15 0.2 Pg vs. Ig Vg Pg vs. t 1
0.1 1 0.5 Pg 0.5 0 0 -0.5 5 1 0
-0.5 0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 Vg 0 -5 -1
Ig Figure 12. SSR Oscillatory Dynamic Response with DFC Compensation Under Short Circuit Fault Condition Modeling Details for Induction Motor Figure 13. Induction Motor Unified System Model The Dynamic Power Filter (DPF) Scheme Figure 14. Novel Dynamic Power Filter Scheme with MPF/SCC Stages Control System Design Figure 15. Tri-loop Dynamic Damping Controller
Control System Design Figure 16. Tri-loop Error-Driven Error-Scaled Dynamic Controller Using a Nonlinear Tansigmoid Activation Function Control System Design Figure 17. Proposed Tansigmoid Error-Driven Error-Scaled Control Block 1 e e0 ( k ) Vc ( k ) K 0 Re ( k ) 1 e e0 ( k ) Re ( k ) ( k i ei ) 2 ( k v e v ) 2 ( k p e p ) 2
Synthesized Monitoring Signals v v i P Q v v i Where: Figure 18. Voltage Transformed Synthetic Signals Figure 19. Current Transformed Synthetic Signals v T
v i T i T Va V b
Vc ia i b ic 1 1 1
2 2 3 3 0 2 2
Simulation Results for Induction Motor Without Damping DPF Device Figure 20. Monitoring Signals P & Q With Damping DPF Device Figure 21. Monitoring Signals P & Q Simulation Results for Induction Motor Without Damping DPF Device With Damping DPF Device Figure 22. Shaft Torque Oscillatory Dynamic Response
Figure 23. Load Power versus Current, Voltage Phase Portrait Summery: Three Cases Comparison Case 1 Case 2 vs. t vs. t vs. t vs. t 0.6
0.6 1 1 0.4 0.4 0 0 0.2 0.2
-1 -1 0 0 -2 -2 -0.2 0
0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 -0.2 0 0.05 vs. t 0.1
0.15 0.2 0 0.05 vs. t 1 2000 0
0 0.1 0.15 0.2 10 4000 5 2000 0.1
0.15 0.2 -4000 0.1 0.15 0.2 0 0
-0.5 -0.5 -1 0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 -1
vs. t 0 0.05 1 2 0.1 0.15 0.2
0.15 0.2 vs. t 4 4 x 10 0 0 0
-5 -1 0.05 0.05 vs. t 0.5 -1 -2 -2000
0 0 vs. t 0.5 vs. t 0 -0.5 -3 vs. t
0.5 -1.5 -3 Case 3 0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2
-10 -2000 0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 -4000
-2 -4 0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 -6 0
0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 -3 0 0.05 0.1 Figure 24. Monitoring Signals
Figure 25. Monitoring Signals Figure 26. Monitoring Signals Without SSR Modes With SSR Modes But With SSR Modes And Without DPF With DPF Summery: Three Cases Comparison Case 1
Case 2 Case 3 Figure 27. Monitoring Signals Figure 28. Monitoring Signals Figure 29. Monitoring Signals Without SSR Modes With SSR Modes But With SSR Modes And
Without DPF With DPF Summery: Three Cases Comparison Tssr vs. t 0.4 0.3 1.0015 0.2 1.001
0.1 1.0005 0 1 -0.1 0.9995 -0.2 0.999 -0.3
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 Tssr vs. t 4 Wssr vs. t
1.002 0.9985 Figure 30. Shaft Torque and Case 1 without SSR Modes 0 0.05 0.1 0.15
0.2 Wssr vs. t 1.015 3 Speed Dynamic Response 1.01 2 Figure 31. Shaft Torque and 1.005
1 0 1 Case 2 -1 Speed Dynamic Response 0.995 -2 -4
with SSR Modes But without DPF 0.99 -3 0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 Tssr vs. t
0.15 0.985 0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 Wssr vs. t
1.001 0.1 0.05 Figure 32. Shaft Torque and 1.0005 0 -0.05 -0.1 Case 3
1 with SSR Modes And with DPF -0.15 -0.2 Speed Dynamic Response 0 0.05 0.1 0.15
0.2 0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 Summery: Three Cases Comparison Figure 33. Stator Current Fast Fourier
Case 1 Transform (FFT) without SSR Modes Figure 34. Stator Current Fast Fourier Case 2 Transform (FFT) with SSR Modes but without DPF Figure 35. Stator Current Fast Fourier Case 3 Transform (FFT) with SSR Modes and with DPF
Conclusions and Future Extensions For both synchronous generators and induction motor drives, the SSR shaft torsional oscillations can be monitored using the online Intelligent Shaft Monitor (ISM) scheme. The ISM monitor is based on the shape of these 2-d and 3-d phase portraits and polarity of synthesized signals The proposed Dynamic Power Filter (DPF) scheme is validated for SSR torsional modes damping
Future work includes: - Develop a Matlab based monitoring software environment- the Intelligent Shaft Monitor (ISM) system for commercialization - Test a low power laboratory model of the prototype Dynamic Power Filter (DPF) and control scheme. Publications [1] A.M. Sharaf; and Bo Yin; Damping Subsynchronous Resonance Oscillations Using A Dynamic Switched Filter-Compensator Scheme, International Conference on Renewable Energies and Power Quality (ICREPQ04), Barcelona, March, 2004.
[2] A.M. Sharaf; Bo Yin; and M. Hassan; A Novel On-line Intelligent Shaft-Torsional Oscillation Monitor for Large Induction Motors and Synchronous Generators, CCECE04, IEEE Toronto Conference, May, 2004. (Accepted)
HOXA9 Regulates Enhancers of Genes involved in Hematopoiesis
The transduced human stem cells were examined after 3 weeks and there was a significant increase in immature blood cells and reduction in mature cells in the NUP98-HOXA9 cells in comparison to the control cells. After five weeks of being...