Presented at AAS meeting, Washington DC Jan 2010

Presented at AAS meeting, Washington DC Jan 2010

Presented at AAS meeting, Washington DC Jan 2010 Laboratory Spectroscopy in Herschel/PACS Range of Astrophysically Important Minerals Tatiana Brusentsova, Doug Maukonen, Pedro Figueiredo, Himanshu Saxena, Robert E. Peale Andy Nissinboim, Joseph Boesenberg, Julie Leibold, Kristen Sherman George E. Harlow , Denton Ebel Karl Hibbitts and Carey Lisse Astro-relevant minerals high-T (>1000K) predictions from condensation calculations minerals found in carbonaceous chondrite meteorites minerals interpreted from Spitzer/Deep Impact spectrum, found in Stardust samples and in IDPs minerals found in differentiated meteorites and planets minerals reported in astronomical spectroscopy Lab measurements support PACS data analysis Thermal emission: 4 c () e0() d e0() = Planck function = (S/m) ln (1/T) = mass absorption coef. S = sample cross-section m = mass in sample T = transmittance spectrum Physical Characterization Select grains from AMNH mineral collection Crush to separate intergrowths Sweep magnetic impurities Dissolve carbonate impurities in HCl (acid) Hand pick clean grains Verify crystallography (single crystal x-ray) Electron microprobe on single grains Chemical composition Cation stoichiometry Make dust

Number of particles Pellet preparation and spectroscopy 100 50 micronizing mill 0 Stokes settling grain size distribution Cerussite 1 cerussite 2 3 4 5 6 Particle diameter (micron) 20 microns Weigh and mix in polyethylene powder Melt press to pellets Fourier transform spectrometer: 14-250 microns Disseminate results Planetary Data System, Cross-referenced Curation of all samples at AMNH Samples Pellets All data Carbonates: Calcite & Dolomite group PACS 185 155 117 79 263 - 220 259 166 154 - 100 0 Ca0.78Mn1.13(CO3)2 kutnohorite 40 20

0 322 - 98 - - 370 - 320 20 60 230 195 - ankerite 40 60 - 378 Ca(Fe0.28Mg0.65)(CO3)2 80 60 173 160 - 100 0 80 20 443 - 20 Ca Mg (CO3)2 80 siderite 40 FeCO 3 dolomite 40 204 153 138 -

100 0 60 260 - 20 80 320 - 40 rhodochrosite MnCO3 352 - 308 60 205 177 160 - 80 100 0 - 356 100 0 110 - 20 228 - calcite 40 CaCO 3 - 319 60 - 360 80 -The lines in the PACS range within the same

mineral group directly depend on the mineral species - 408 100 0 huntite 20 Transmittance (%) magnesite 20 MgCO 3 40 - 363 60 306 256 228 - 40 CaMg3(CO3)4 382 282 249 214 - 80 PACS - 400 80 - 439 - 380 100 60 Transmittance (%) Spitzer 512 - Spitzer

100 0 600 500 400 300 200 100 -1 Wavenumber (cm ) 600 500 400 300 200 -1 Wavenumber (cm ) 100 Hydroxyl-containing, acid- and hydrated Spitzer PACS Carbonates: 200 Wavenumber (cm ) 100 209 - 155 - 130 - 143 175 - 275 - 195 - 248 - 297 345 - 100 0 20

277 - 60 - 245 artinite Mg2(CO3)(OH)2*3H2O - 353 80 40 -1 - 434 485 - - 600 20 214 195 177 157 112 - 300 40 330 - 400 60 - 396 500 80 Mg (CO ) (OH) *4H O 5 3 4 2 2 - 513 72 - 98 - 0 600

163 - - 175 131 - 263- - 600 20 - 235 - 204 40 467 - hydromagnesite Trona Na3(HCO3)(CO3)*2H2O 60 hydrozincite Zn5(CO3)2(OH)6 - 235 100 0 100 0 80 20 Transmittance (%) 20 215 - 517 - - 265 40 172 146 120 - - 245 60

Transmittance (%) 87 - 40 396 - 80 317 - 60 - 438 Gaylussite Na2Ca(CO3)2*5H2O - 372 80 - 97 100 - 329 PACS 513 - Spitzer 100 0 600 500 400 300 200 -1 Wavenumber (cm ) 100 Phyllosilicates (micas)

Paragonite 84351 Clintonite 84503 3500 2 Mass absorption (cm /g) 3000 2500 2000 1500 PACS 1000 500 0 100 200 300 400 500 -1 Wavenumber, cm 600 Spitzer 17 PACS Wavelength (m) 20 25 33 50 Feldspars Spitzer 17 100 PACS Wavelength (m) 20

25 33 50 100 2000 3000 2000 Ab~100 1000 Ab~100 1000 Ab36Or64 2 Mass absorption (cm /g) 1000 0 3000 2000 Ab29Or71 1000 0 3000 2000 Ab15Or85 0 2000 1000 2 2000 both Plagioclase(Albite-Anorthite) and Alkali(Albite-Orthoclase) solid solution series were examined Mass absorption (cm /g)

0 3000 Ab90An10 0 2000 1000 Ab79An21 0 2000 1000 Ab51An49 1000 0 0 3000 2000 2000 Ab6Or94 1000 Ab41An59 1000 0 0 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 -1 Wavenumber (cm ) 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 -1 Wavenumber (cm ) Sulfides: 3000 Pyrite FeS 2, #37240, <6m

4000 Mass absorption (cm /g) 2500 2 2 Mass absorption (cm /g) Stibnite Sb2S 3, #110042, <6m Sphalerite ZnS, #109954, <6m Alabandite MnS, #103312, <6m 2000 1500 1000 500 3500 3000 2500 PACS 2000 1500 1000 500 0 100 200 300 400 500 -1 Wavenumber (cm ) 600 0 100 200

300 400 500 -1 Wavenumber (cm ) 600 The effect of smaller particle size: -The increase of mass absorption coefficient values for the samples with smaller mean particle size Sphalerite #109954, no Stokes precip. Sphalerite #109954, D particles <6m, Stokes precip. 4000 Mass absorption (cm /g) 2500 2 Mass absorption (cm /g) 3000 Pyrite #37240, no Stokes precip. Pyrite #37240, D particles<6m,Stokes precip. 2 2000 1500 1000 500 3000 2000 1000 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 -1 Wavenumber (cm ) 0 100

200 300 400 500 -1 Wavenumber (cm ) 600 300K Huntite Temperature dependence 3000 2000 1000 0 200 14 K 250 -1 Wavenumber (cm ) Icy dust 300 3.0 2.5 Absorbance Intensity (Arb. units) 4000 2.0 PACS Water Ice 1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0 100 200

300 400 -1 Wavenumber (cm ) 500 150 Minerals Sampled Nesosilicates: Olivines, Garnets, Phenakites Silica minerals Inosilicates: Pyroxenes (Clino- and Ortho-), Pyroxenoids Feldspars: Alkali and Plagioclase Double-chain silicates: Amphiboles (Orthorhombic, Calcic clino-) Cyclosilicates Carbonates: Calcites, Aragonites, Dolomites, hydroxylated, Hydrated-normal, acid Phyllosilicates: Smectites, Chlorites, Micas, Kaolinites, Serpentines, Talcs Sorosilicates Oxides Sulfides Applications Early PACS report: 69 m feature due to olivine. True? We find no olivine feature there. Simulation of dust emission spectrum Linear superposition of absorbance for (e.g.) 38% water ice, 22% forsterite, 22% orthopyroxene (Mg-rich end member), 8% pyrrohtite, 5% talc or nontronite, 2.5% magnesite, and 2.5% siderite Summary Laboratory far-IR absorption spectroscopy of 150 well-characterized minerals Spectral signatures found in the range of Herschel-PACS for 40 No features ever found beyond ~140 m Funding: NASA-JPL

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