Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corp. OAWL IIP Development

Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corp. OAWL IIP Development

Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corp. OAWL IIP Development Status: Year 2.0 C.J. Grund, S. Tucker, J. Howell, M. Ostaszewski, and R. Pierce, Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corp. (BATC), [email protected] 1600 Commerce St. Boulder, CO 80303 Working Group on Space-based Lidar Winds Bar Harbor, ME August 24, 2010 Agility to Innovate, Strength to Deliver Acknowledgements The OAWL Development Team: Sara Tucker Technical Manager, Signal Processing, Algorithms Bill Good (Jim Howell) Systems Engineer, Aircraft specialist Tom Delker, Bob Pierce Optical engineering Miro Ostaszewski Mechanical Engineering Mike Atkins (Kelly Kanizay) Electronics Engineering Dan Ringoen - (Rick Battistelli), (Dina Demara) Software Engineering Mike Lieber Integrated system modeling Paul Kaptchen Technician Chris Grund PI, system architecture, science/systems/algorithm guidance OAWL Lidar system development and flight demo supported by NASA ESTO IIP grant: IIP-07-0054 Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Ball Aerospace & Page_2

Addressing the Decadal Survey 3D-Winds Mission with An Efficient Single-laser All Direct Detection Solution Molecular WindsUpper atmosphere profile Telescope UV Laser Etalon Molecular Receiver OAWL Aerosol Receiver Combined 1011101100 Signal Full Processing Aerosol Winds Lower atmosphere profile Atmospheric Profile Data HSRL Aer/mol mixing ratio Integrated Direct Detection (IDD) wind lidar approach: Etalon (double-edge) uses the molecular component, but largely reflects the aerosol. OAWL measures the aerosol Doppler shift with high precision; etalon removes molecular backscatter reducing shot noise

OAWL HSRL retrieval determines residual aerosol/molecular mixing ratio in etalon receiver, improving molecular precision Result: single-laser transmitter, single wavelength system, telescope driven by DD requirements not coherent detection single simple, low power and mass signal processor full atmospheric profile using aerosol and molecular backscatter signals Ball Aerospace patents pending Ball Aerospace & Page_3 Potential Performance Envelope Note: notional approximation etalon+coherent hybrid approach C oh D ere W n L t 5km 10 15 D D l on a

t E WL D Hybrid = Coherent+Etalon 0 Altitude 20 IDD = OAWL+Etalon 1 2 3 Velocity precision (m/s) Ball Aerospace & Page_4 Purpose for OAWL Development and Demonstration OAWL is a potential enabler for reducing mission cost and schedule

Aerosol wind precision similar to 2-mm coherent Doppler, but requires no additional laser Accuracy not sensitive to aerosol/molecular backscatter mixing ratio Tolerance to wavefront error allows simpler (and heritage) telescope and optics Compatible with single wavelength holographic scanner allowing adaptive targeting Wide potential field of view allows relaxed tolerance alignments, similar to CALIPSO FOV ~120 mR feasible while supporting 109 spectral resolution Minimal laser frequency stability requirements LOS spacecraft velocity correction without needing active laser tuning Opens up multiple mission possibilities including multi-l HSRL, DIAL compatibility Challenges met by Ball OAWL approach Elimination of control loops while achieving 109 spectral resolution Thermally and mechanically stable, meter-class OPD, compact interferometer High optical efficiency (~97%) Simultaneous high spectral resolution and large area*solid angle acceptance providing practical system operational tolerances with large collection optics Ball Aerospace & Page_5 Optical Autocovariance Wind Lidar (OAWL) Development Program Internal investment to develop the OAWL theory and implementable flight-path architecture and processes, performance model, perform proof of concept experiments, and design and construct a flight path receiver prototype.

NASA IIP: take OAWL receiver as input at TRL-3, build into a robust lidar system, fly validations on the WB-57, exit at TRL-5. Ball Aerospace & Page_6 Ball OAWL Receiver Design Uses Polarization Multiplexing to Create 4 Perfectly Tracking Interferometers Ball Aerospace & Mach-Zehnder-like interferometer allows 100% light detection on 4 detectors Cats-eyes field-widen and preserve interference parity allowing wide alignment tolerance, practical simple telescope optics, and high spectral resolution Receiver is achromatic, facilitating simultaneous multi-l operations (multi-mission capable: Winds + HSRL(aerosols) + DIAL(chemistry))

Very forgiving of telescope wavefront distortion saving cost, mass, enabling HOE optics for scanning and aerosol measurement 2 input ports facilitating 0patents pending calibration Page_7 Completed Receiver / Permanently Potted Alignments (except for the final beamsplitter) Ball Aerospace & Page_8 OAWL IRAD Receiver Development Status Receiver Status: Optical design PDR Receiver CDR complete Sep. 2007 complete Dec. 2007

Receiver performance modeled complete Jan. 2008 Design complete Mar. 2008 COTS Optics procurement complete Apr. 2008 Major component fabrication complete Jun. 2008 (IIP begins------------------------------------------------------------------------ Jul. 2008) Custom optics procurement vendor issues Aug. 2008 Custom optics procurement complete Accommodating rework complete Interferometric optics/mount bonding Interferometric alignment bond tests Delivery to IIP Jan. 2009 complete Feb. 2009

shrinkage / thermal issues Feb. 2009 New materials/process/mount design Assembly and Alignment Preliminary testing Dec. 2008 complete May, 2009 complete Oct. 2009 complete Oct. 2009 complete Nov. 2009 Ball Aerospace & Page_9 OAWL System: NASA IIP Ball Aerospace & Page_10

OAWL IIP Objectives Develop and Demonstrate an OAWL DWL system designed to be directly scalable to a space-based 3D-Winds lidar mission. Provide IRAD-developed receiver to IIP (entry TRL 3): Functional demonstrator for OAWL flight path receiver design principles and assembly processes. Shake & Bake Receiver: Validate receiver design approach and fabrication techniques suitable for airborne vibe environment. Integrate the OAWL receiver into a complete lidar system: add laser, telescope, frame, data system, isolation, and autonomous control software suitable for operation in a WB-57 pallet. Raise OAWL technology to TRL 4 through ground validations alongside the a NOAA coherent Doppler lidar system. Raise OAWL technology to TRL 5 through high altitude aircraft flight demonstrations. Validate radiometric performance model as risk reduction for a flight design. Validate the integrated system model as risk reduction for a flight design. Provide a technology roadmap to TRL7 Ball Aerospace & Page_11 Receiver Vibration Testing - Acquisition Receiver and mounts instrumented with multiple accelerometers (blue wires) WB-57 Taxi, takeoff and landing (TTOL) shock/vibe level testing (1.78 gRMS) showed the adjustable beamsplitter needed staking to prevent alignment drifts, but the permanent interferometer alignment

potting method appears stable at these levels. Operational vibe (0.08 gRMS) effects are within expectations; not expected to affect WB-57 wind measurement performance Audio speaker used to excite on organ pipe mode within the interferometer to repeatably sample the whole phase space. Ball Aerospace & Page_12 Integrated Model Process Developed at BATC Goals: <6 nm (0.11 rad phase error) vibration induced noise), 30 nm accep. <5% visibility reduction due to thermoelastic distortions. Code V SolidWorks 6 NASTRAN Main system modeling outputs Fringe visibility Phase noise

References: M. Lieber, C. Weimer, M. Stephens, R. Demara, Development of a validated end-to-end model for space-based lidar systems, in SPIE vol 6681, U.N.Singh, Lidar Remote Sensing for Environmental Monitoring VIII, Aug 2007. M. Lieber, C. Randall, L. Ayari, N. Schneider, T. Holden, S. Osterman, L. Arboneaux, "System verification of the JMEX mission residual motion requirements with integrated modeling", SPIE 5899, Aug 2005. M. Lieber, C. Noecker, S. Kilston, Integrated system modeling for evaluating the coronagraph approach to planet detection, SPIE V4860, Aug 2002 Aircraft PSD Ball Aerospace & Page_13 Integrated Model Design Iteration: Vibration-Induced Phase Noise Convergence on Specification 3.5 1900 nm, initial hard mount Requirement: <1m/s/shot/100 ms Random dynamic error with WB-57 excitation (12nm, goal 8.5nm) Log OPD (nm) 3 12/ 8.5 nm,

redesigned structure, WC/ nom 55/ 27 nm, 20 Hz isolators added, WC/ nom 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 1 2 3 4 WC = Worst case 5 Model Uncertainty Factor (MUF) for similar analysis modeling based on comments from Gary Mosier GSFC Current result: ~17/34 nm RMS (10/20 km ranges)

Final design Prediction Feb. 2008 : 8.5 nm RMS jitter, exceeding req. and meeting goal, suggests performance dominated by intensity SNR, not vibration environment While current result does not match the original model predictions, the receiver was modified to include the plate beamsplitter, and the FEM has not yet been integrated into the model. Also, real measurements have a small amount of measurement noise that is not accounted in the model. Conservative application of an appropriate MUF: the model and modeling process appear validated. IIP Upshot: ~6000 pulse returns (30s) will be averaged per wind profile suggesting the operational vibe induced errors appear to be <~0.03 m/s (10 km range) per profile therefore not significant for IIP Ball Aerospace & Page_14 Summary of effective velocity error due to measured response to simulated WB-57 vibe environment Vibe axis OPD Standard Deviation (10/20 km) Velocity precision - per shot

Precision w/ 1-second averaging Precision w/ 30-second averaging X 15/31 nm 2.3/4.6 m/s 16/33 cm/s 3/6 cm/s Y 19/38 nm 2.8/5.6 m/s 20/40 cm/s 3.7/7.4 cm/s Z 7/13 nm 1.0/2.0 m/s 7/14 cm/s

1.3/2.6 cm/s Ball Aerospace & Page_15 IIP System Integration Design for WB-57 Pallet The OAWL system is integrated in the WB-57 aircraft using one pressurized 6 foot pallet The pallet houses the optical system, electronics, and thermal control OAWL Optical System Pallet Flight Direction Ball Aerospace & Page_16 OAWL Pallet Configuration Electronics Rack Optic Bench 1. Laser Power Supply 2. Power Condition Unit 3. Data Acquisition Unit 4. Separate suspension system

Receiver Sub-Bench with Depolarization Detector Telescope Primary Mirror Telescope Secondary Mirror Pallet Frame Chiller Wire Rope Vibration Isolators Laser Double Window Ball Aerospace & Page_17 OAWL Transceiver Optical System Interferometer Detectors (10) Likely etalon location for complete IDD

molecular/aerosol DWL Zero-Time/OACF Phase Pulse PreFilter Coaxial Bistatic R/T Alignment Field Stop and Focus Telescope Ball Aerospace & Technologies Ball Aerospace & Laser Page_18 OAWL IIP System Asssembled and Aligned 7 months delay in the primary laser delivery led to several attempts to use surrogate lasers to shake out integrated system bugs the October WB-57 clock is ticking Temporary Laser X X

Temporary Laser (2.5 mJ/pulse, 532 nm) (50 mJ/pulse, 523 nm) 3 ns pulse5X bandwidth Ball Aerospace & Page_19 Beam Expander Coating damage on the secondary due to 355nm pulse energy --- different coating vendor met specs Other issues addressed included: pulse width pulse energy bandwidth waveplate function residual 1 mm Ball Aerospace & Page_20

Complete IIP OAWL DWL System To atm T0 Fibertek laser installed and aligned Ball Aerospace & Page_21 Pre-ground-validation Full System First Light Rooftop Tests (532nm) T0 (local) T600ns (90m range hard target) 20s Record of Raw 4-channel Signals T0 Wideband (pulse) optical quadrature (~32 MHz, measured) Demonstrates OAWL receiver and laser transmitter are working well together (with a plane wavefront) Ball Aerospace & Page_22 Pre-ground-validation Full System First Light Rooftop Tests (532nm)

p Phase T0 T600ns Target Tracks T0 Autocovariance Phase -pp Seconds Contrast T0 ~80% T600ns ~20% Deminished due to poor Near-range overlap, and a field-widening alignment issue under investigation p T0 (reminder) Phase T0 -T600ns 1-sec average -pp Ball Aerospace &

Page_23 OAWL IIP Status Summary complete Jul. 2008 TRL-3 Program start, TRL 3 complete Nov. 2009 IRAD receiver delivered to IIP complete Nov. 2009 Receiver shake and bake (WB-57 level) complete Feb./Mar. 2009 System PDR/CDR complete Jul. 2010 Lidar system design/fab/integration Ground validations completed planned Oct. 2010 TRL-4 Airborne validations complete (TRL-5) planned Dec. 2010 TRL-5 tech road mapping (through TRL7)

planned May 2011 IIP Complete June 2011 Ball Aerospace & Current Status Page_24 OAWL Validation Field Experiments Plan NOAA mini-MOPA Coherent Doppler Lidar OAWL System 1. Ground-based-looking up Side-by-side with the NOAA mini-MOPA Doppler Lidar September 2010 Platteville, CO 2. Airborne OAWL vs. Ground-based Wind Profilers and mini-MOPA 15 km altitude looking down along 45 slant path (to inside of turns.

Variety of meteorological and cloud conditions over land and water Boulder, CO Houston, TX Leg 1 Leg 2 Multipass October 2010 Some curtailment of planned flight hours is in planning due to WB-57 cost increases, ** Wind profilers in NOAA operational network certification details, lack of complete pallet info , and pallet mods . Ball Aerospace & Page_25 OAWL and NOAA mini-MOPA comparison site (ASAP after the integration tests are complete) General plan: LOS comparisons between OAWL and NOAAs mini-MOPA Doppler lidar. OAWL Will be located inside the newly rebuilt Table Mountain T2 building Enclosed facility with 2 windows providing eastern and northern/northeastern views mini-MOPA (longer performance comparison range)

Container on trailer parked outside. LOS pointing may be interspersed with VAD scans to provide contextual wind information Ball Aerospace & Page_26 Conclusions The dual-wavelength, field-widened, OAWL receiver has been successfully completed and delivered to the IIP for lidar system integration. Receiver testing showed that the receiver tolerates WB-57 Taxi, Takeoff, and Landing shock and vibe, and the data suggest that the receiver can actually operate with reduced performance under these extreme conditions. The receiver performs near expectations during operational vibe conditions. The IIP lidar system has been fully assembled with final laser, aligned. First light acheived. Autocovariance phase from hard target tracks T phase. 0 Testing and final alignments are in progress in prep for validations. Ground validations testing expected in September 2010. These are critical precursors to flight execution (TRL 4). Aircraft plans in place and flight conops understood. WB-57 flight tests remain on track for October 2010 (TRL 5) Ball Aerospace & Technologies Page_27 Backups

Data System Overview Data system architecture Based on National Instruments PXI Chassis Utilizes COTS Hardware Challenges & Solutions Reduced air pressure at altitude degrades heat removal ability of stock cooling fans Upgrade cooling fans Test system in altitude chamber Jacket material used in COTS cables is PVC, which is not permitted on WB-57 Utilizing NI terminal strip accessories where possible Fabricating cables made from allowable jacket materials Data Flow ~ 0.6 GB/minute New 256 GB SSD BallAerospace Aerospace & Ball & Technologies Page_29 Optical Autocovariance lidar (OAL) approach - Theory Pulse Laser Simplest OAL On/Off line DIAL

wavelength jump typically 10s GHz (Not the IIP config) d1 Prefilter CH 3 CH 2 CH 1 Detector 3 OPD=d2-d1 Detector 2 d2 Detector 1 Phase Delay mirror Beam Splitter From Atmosphere Receiver Telescope Data System Frequency

Optical Autocovariance Wind Lidar (OAWL): Velocity from OACF Phase: V = l *Df * c / (2 * (OPD)) OA- High Spectral Resolution Lidar (OA-HSRL): A = Sa * CaA + Sm * CmA , Q = Sa * CaQ + Sm * CmQ Yields: Volume extinction cross section, Backscatter phase function, Volume Backscatter Cross section, from OACF Amplitude No moving parts / Not fringe imaging Allows Frequency hopping w/o re-tuning Simultaneous multi-l operation Ball Aerospace & Df = phase shift as fraction of OACF cycle Page_30 Ball Space-based OA Radiometric Performance Model Model Parameters Using : Realistic Components and Atmosphere 20 WB-57 Parameters Wavelength 355 nm, 532 nm 355 nm, 532 nm Pulse Energy 550 mJ 30 mJ, 20 mJ Pulse rate 50 Hz

200 Hz Receiver diameter 1m (single beam) 310 mm LOS angle with vertical 450 45 Vector crossing angle 900 single LOS Horizontal resolution* 70 km (500 shots) ~10 km (33 s, 6600 shots) System transmission 0.35 0.35 Alignment error 5 mR average 15 mR Background bandwidth 35 pm 50 pm System altitude 400 km top of plot profile Vertical resolution 0-2 km, 250m 100m (15m recorded) 2-12 km, 500m 12-20 km, 1 km

Phenomenology CALIPSO model Ball Aerospace & CALIPSO model 15 Altitude, km Altitude (km) LEO Parameters aerosol molecular 10 5 0 -8 -7 -6 -5 -4 10 10 10 10 10 -1 -1sr-1) Volumebackscatter backscattercoefficient cross section 355

nmsr(m at 355atnm m-1 l-scaled validated CALIPSO Backscatter model used. (l-4 molecular, l-1.2 aerosol) Model calculations validated against short range POC measurements. Page_31 OAWL Space-based Performance: Daytime, OPD 1m, aerosol backscatter component, cloud free LOS 18 1km 500 m 16 Altitude (km) Vertical Averaging (Resolution) 20 14 12 10 355 nm 532 nm Demo and Threshold Objective

8 6 4 250 m Threshold/Demo Mission Requirements 2 Objective Mission Requirements 0 0.1 1 10 100 Projected Horizontal Velocity Precision (m/s) Ball Aerospace & Page_32 Looking Down from the WB-57 (Daytime, 45, 33s avg, 6600 shots) 18 16 Altitude (km)

14 12 10 8 355nm 532nm 6 4 2 0 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 Velocity Precision (m/s) Ball Aerospace & 0.6 Page_33

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