Psychology I Chapter 2 Psychological Research Methods and

Psychology I  Chapter 2 Psychological Research Methods and

Psychology I Chapter 2 Psychological Research Methods and Statistics PRE-RESEARCH DECISIONS Ask a specific question about a limited topic or hypothesis. Decide on the method to be used to gather evidence. Select a sample, a small

group of participants out of the total number available. SAMPLES Representative: a relatively small group of participants from an entire population of all possible participants with characteristics that closely match the characteristics of the whole population. Non-representative: a group of participants from an entire population whose characteristics are disproportionate to the characteristics of the whole population. To avoid a nonrepresentative same, a group of participants may be chosen randomly from a larger group (random sample), or chosen deliberately from various subgroups in the population (stratified

sample). Methods of Research: Naturalistic Observation Naturalistic observation: a method in which the researcher observes the subject in a natural setting without interfering. This type of research is often used in situations where conducting lab research is unrealistic, cost

prohibitive or would unduly affect the subject's behavior. Methods of Research: Naturalistic Observation Disadvantages: people may behave differently when they know they are being watched, different observers may draw different

conclusions from the same witnessed behavior, and variables cannot be controlled. Methods of Research: Case Studies Case study: a method that involves an intensive study or investigation of a person or group. The researcher provides a description of the behavior that comes from interviews and other sources, such as observation. The client also reports detail of events

from his or her point of view. Methods of Research: Case Studies The researcher then writes up the information from both sources as the case study, and interprets the information. A good case study should always make clear which information is factual description and which is inference or the opinion of the researcher. Methods of Research: Surveys

Survey: a research method in which information is obtained by asking large numbers of individuals a fixed set of questions about their attitudes, beliefs, and experiences. A survey may use interviews, questionnaires, or a combination of both to

obtain data. Methods of Research: Longitudinal Studies Longitudinal study: a method of research in which data are collected about a group of participants over a period of years to determine which their behavior or feelings have remained the same or changed. Disadvantages: time consuming, expensive, and/or participants may withdraw from the study. Methods of Research: Cross-sectional

Studies Cross-sectional study: a research method in which data are collected from groups of participants of different ages and compared so that conclusions can be drawn about differences due to age. These type of studies are less expensive and less time

consuming. Methods of Research: Correlation Studies Correlation study: a type of study during which researchers examine and measure the relationship between two variables or sets of data. A correlation describes the relationship between two things, but do not

identify causes between them. Methods of Research: Experiments Experiments: allow a researcher to control the situation and to decrease the possibility that unnoticed, outside variables (conditions and behavior capable of change) will influence the results. There are two types of variables; independent and dependent. The independent variable is the

one researchers change so they can observe its effects. The dependent variable is the one that changes in relation to the independent variable. Methods of Research: Experiments An experiment is usually duplicated with different participants, because there may be hidden flaws the researcher is unaware of. Participants exposed to the independent variable are the experimental

group. The control group is treated the same way as the experimental group, but are not exposed to the independent variable. Steps of Psychological Experimental Research Ask a research question Form a hypothesis Determine variables Experiment (testing) Experiment group

Control group Measure behavior of experimental and control group Compare measurements Interpret results and draw conclusions 0ac pqG0

Ethical Issues Ethics are the methods of conduct or standards for proper and responsible behavior. The (APA) American Psychological Association published a set of ethical principles regarding

the collection, storage, and use of psychological date. Problems and Solutions in Research: Self-Fulfilling Prophecy Researchers must be wary of pitfalls that can trap him/her into mistakes when conducting experiments. One such pitfall is the selffulfilling prophecy, a situation in which a

researchers expectations influence that persons own behavior, and thereby influence the participants behavior. Problems and Solutions in Research: Avoiding a Self-Fulfilling Prophecy Double Blind Technique Single-blind experiment- is an experiment in which the participants are blind or unaware of which participants received the treatment.

Double-blind experiment- is an experiment in which neither the experimenter nor the participants know which participants received which treatment. By conducting this type of experiment the researcher can remain unbiased. The Milgram Experiment 6LLV3fkXg Stanley Milgram wanted to

determine whether participants would administer painful shocks to others because an authority figure instructed them to do so . He gathered 1000 participants The volunteers were paired with learners. The volunteer would shock the learner when the learner made a mistake .

The Milgram Experiment https:// watch?v=sZwfNs1pqG0 The volunteers were told that with each mistake, the electrical shock would become stronger.

The volunteers did not realize the shocks were fake. 65% of the volunteers pushed the shock button until it reached maximum severity. Proved that ordinary individuals could easily inflict pain if orders were given by a respected authority. The Milgram Experiment Was an excellent example of a single-blind experiment.

Swarthmore College conducted the same study. 88% of undergraduates administered the highest level of shock. The Placebo Effect The placebo effect is a change in a participants illness or behavior that results from a belief that the treatment will have an effect rather than from the actual treatment. The placebo is some sort of treatment that resembles medical therapy, yet has no medical effects.

The Placebo Effect Psychiatric patients in two study groups were given a drug, after a six-week period the groups were evaluated: 53% to 80% reported they benefited from the drugs. The drugs administered were placebos. The people reacted to their own expectations of how the drug

given would affect them. Neither the researchers or the patients knew they were placebos until after the experiment.

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