Tiltrotor Tactical Formation Maneuvering Click to Add Instructor
Tiltrotor Tactical Formation Maneuvering Click to Add Instructor Name This Presentation is Classified: UNCLASSIFIED Purpose The purpose of this presentation is to provide the student with the requisite knowledge to conduct tactical formation flight in the T-44C. Learning Objectives
Identify the method to determine what type of formation to choose Identify the different types of formation for the T-44C Describe tactical formation fundamentals Identify and describe tactical formation maneuvers Identify and describe division formations Outline
Formation Description and Objectives Formation Types Tactical Formation Basics Tactical Formation Maneuvers Division Formations Formation Description Maneuver Element smallest element of a flight that may engage in independent maneuver during tactical evolutions
Section = 2 aircraft, single maneuver element, smallest, basic component towards construction of larger formation, easiest C&C, and most flexible Division = 3 or 4 aircraft, largest maneuver element or two sections Flight = 2 or more maneuver elements / 5 or more aircraft Formation Description
Unity of effort for mission accomplishment Maneuverability and flexibility Mutually supportive lookout doctrine Ease of control and coordination There is an optimum size for every formation Considerations METT-TSL Mission Enemy (Threat) Terrain and Weather
Troops and Fire Support Time Space Logistics Outline Formation Description and Objectives Formation Types Parade Cruise Tactical Tactical Formation Basics
Tactical Formation Maneuvers Division Formations Formation Types Parade Fixed bearing (45) and distance Cruise Varying bearing and distance using radius of turn between the 30-45 bearings at 0.0-0.2 DME Tactical (Combat) Combat Cruise radius of turn
Combat Spread Tactical Formation Maneuvers (TFM) and flight leadership Combat Cruise 30-45 bearing on either side of lead 5 or 7 oclock Separation: 10 10
NM 45 45 Transitory Transitory 30 30 Combat Spread +10 bearing either side of lead
Abeam position Separation 0.3 to 2.0 NM +10 -10 2.0 NM +10
0.5 NM -10 Combat Spread Why do we have this? Unsure of enemy location Dont want to alert enemy for a second shot More time focused on identifying threat / hazard than avoiding lead Wider field of view / mutual support One shot does not equal two kills
TACFORM Basic Principles Wingman responsible for separation Employ adequate intraflight separation to ensure single target engagement and facilitate maneuver flexibility while maintaining mutual support Maneuver in proportion to threat Wingmen are always working to maintain position. Lead is always working to facilitate wingmen maintaining position. TACFORM Energy Management
Awareness and preservation of the aircraft energy state during a series of maneuvers Potential energy Energy based upon position (altitude, Qm) Kinetic energy Energy based upon motion (airspeed) Energy continuously changes states Airspeed to altitude in climb (kinetic to potential) Altitude to airspeed in dive (potential to kinetic) TACFORM
Maneuver Contracts All maneuvers are called from Combat Spread Airspeed 180KIAS All Turns at 45 AOB (except check turns) Rollout headings will be called for every maneuver despite degrees of turn assumed Command of execution is when Dash-2 says TWO
Dash-2 is always the one who steps up when warranted (cross turn) TACFORM Successful Execution Relative positioning within the element prior to execution Geometries of the planned maneuver relative to tactical considerations (terrain, conditions, threat) Desired relative position following maneuver completion Takes SA, flight leadership, and good airwork by
both aircraft Outline Formation Description and Objectives Formation Types Tactical Formation Basics Tactical Formation Maneuvers
Division Formations Shackle Initiate change of sides within formation Tactical necessity (clear 6 oclock) Moderately slow downrange travel Primarily used to Assist wingman regain position (excessive separation and/or sucked) Maintain energy and course or in conjunction with a moderate course change Shackle
Turn towards flight 45 heading change May require more turn by lead and less by wing, or vice versa, so dont get set on a specific heading change Stingray 62, shackle / shackle left / right 030 Resume course at cross and judge turn to regain separation The aircraft with the most SA will call Resume In this fleet, the crew chief will do this for you Shackle
45 HeadingChange 45 HeadingChange <45 HeadingChange <45 HeadingChange Tac-Turns Change the direction of the element right / left 60120 (90 assumed) Direct the execution of a planned route turn Modify element orientation towards a more positive flight condition
Types Turns Into Wingman Turns Away From Wingman Aircraft on outside of turn always turns first Stingray 62, tac-left/right, 090 Tac-Turns C D D
B B B C A Into Wingman C
D A D C B A Away From Wingman
A Pump Immediately stop downrange closure on an obstacle, weather condition or threat system 90 left / right heading change Stingray 62, Pump left / right, 270 Normally followed by pump back to original heading No resume call
Separation retained in trail Threat Ring Pump Right Pump Left Hook Turn Change orientation of element 120-240 Towards a threat in engagement
parameters in rear quadrant Away from threat outside of engagement parameters in forward quadrant Established intra-flight separation maintained Displaces element 1.5 NM right / left of original courseline Stingray 62, Hook left / right, 180 Threat Ring
Split Turn Change orientation of element 120-240 Hard Turn executed away from other element aircraft Increased intra-flight separation results (3 NM or more) Stingray 62, Split, 180 3 NM+
Cross Turn Change orientation of element 120-240 Hard Turn executed towards other element aircraft Intra-flight separation based upon entrance separation Avoid 2.5-3.0 NM 1.5 NM away at initiation yields 1.5 NM separation Stingray 62, Cross, 180
Moderate AOB Avoid 2.5-3.5 NM Dig / Pinch Adjust lateral separation within element while maintaining course orientation Hard turn with 30-45 Heading change Stingray 62, Dig / Pinch
/ Resume Dig 30-45 Heading Change Pinch Check Turn Adjusts flight orientation for heading changes of 30 or less
Execute SRT, simultaneous, no change of sides Stingray 62, Check right / left 030 0 - 45 Other 45 AOB turn at 180 KCAS results in a radius of turn of approx. 1.3 NM? Cover can be added to any maneuver (Dash-2) Adjust AOB, turn, altitude to manage
position / separation Lead rollout for proper separation by .2 - .4 NM Contracts (cont) Wingman is always working towards proper bearing and separation Element aircraft will not continue a maneuver unless visual contact is established by at least one aircraft in the section If aircraft is blind call wingman; expect a: visual / continue or blind / terminate
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