EXPLORING THE RHETORICAL TRIANGLE AP LANGUAGE AND COMPOSITION PPT 2 Warm-Up What did you learn about rhetoric from chapters 1+ 2 of Thank-You for Arguing? After reading these chapters, how do you conceptualize the role of rhetoric in everyday life? Details Worth Noting The basic difference between an

argument and a fight: an argument, done skillfully, gets people to do what you want. You fight to win; you argue to achieve agreement (Heinrichs). Details Worth Noting Ciceros three goals for persuasion: Stimulate your audiences emotions (change their mood) Change your audiences opinion (change their mind) Get your audience to act (Fill your audience with the desire to act) (Heinrichs page 22)

Preview of Coming Attractions Additionally, chapters one and two of Thank You for Arguing mentions the following concepts which will eventually become important in our study of rhetoric: Ciceros five step method for inventing a speech; also known as the five canons of rhetoric (invention, arrangement, style, memory, delivery) Rhetorical strategies (chiasmus, concession, etc.) Apply one (of the many) rhetorical situations from

chapters one and two of Thank-You for Arguing to the rhetorical triangle. Apply each aspect of the rhetorical triangle to your summer reading novel, i.e., identify the subject, audience, speaker/persona, context and genre. About SUBJECT

Every rhetorical situation has a subject. The subject is the topic of a text; it is what the text is about. This subject may or may not be straightforward. Consider the advertisement below: About SUBJECT TRUE or FALSE: The subject of The Tortilla Curtain is illegal immigration. About SUBJECT I'm not on your side. I am presenting a fable, a fiction, so that you can judge for yourselfPeople want things to be very clearcutBut I think it's much more complex. I think it has to do with biology Delaney is a nature writer. Well, nature writers are

generally very liberal, even radically liberal on all issues except one the issue of immigration, on which they are more reactionary than anyone. The reason for this is they argue that there are six billion people on the planet now, and who is the enemy of the environment? Who is the enemy of clean air, clean water, all the dwindling animal species? Well, it's us. Us, human beings. Our species. And this is an element of the book which is very important and has been overlooked. There is this population pressure on the world in all the industrial nations, not simply the United States. England, Germany, and France all have huge influxes of immigrants, and I'm wondering, what does this mean and how are people going to deal with it? I think ultimately, as you see in The Tortilla Curtain, it may simply exacerbate racist tendencies. (excerpt from an interview with TC Boyle)

About SUBJECT Q. What is your view on immigration? A. I feel that, on the one hand, we do have a right to be a sovereign nation and to protect our borders. Illegal immigration makes a mockery of legal immigration, and no other country in the world allows this sort of thing to happen. On the other hand, what I object to even more than that is this kind of demonizing of a whole race and class of people, as in considering all Mexicans, all Guatemalans, all Salvadorans to be bad because they're invading our country as impoverished and ignorant individuals. The final gesture of the book, I think, shows you that we are one species and we do have to understand and appreciate that fact despite ethnic and national differences. But it's a small gesture because I

think that it's a very, very complex issue that people have to work towards answering. (excerpt from an interview with TC Boyle) Analyzing SUBJECT As a reader -Always use the tools given to you (chapter titles, section headings, introductory notes) to help identify the subject and purpose of the reading. -Look for implicit, as well as explicit subjects

As a writer any topic that is worthy of being the subject of a text must offer at least two paths of interpretation; it must be open Analyzing SUBJECT Questions for readers Questions for writers How does the author reveal himself to be an authority on the subject?

How can I demonstrate my authority on the subject? What details can I use to develop my subject? What details does the author use to develop the subject?

What evidence does the author use to support the development of the subject? What evidence can I use to support the development of my subject? Analyzing SUBJECT Questions for readers


circumstances that motivate an argument. Bitzer calls this the exigence or the reallife spark [or urgency] that caused the writer to begin writing. Such a spark or motivation spurs the writer to begin thinking and eventually writing out the logic that supports a position in a controversy (Kiefer: Doing a Rhetorical Analysis of a Text). Another definition of context: The circumstances, atmosphere, attitudes, and events surrounding a text. Thus, the following factors might be relevant to context

Time period Occasion Social Historical or Political Landscape Analyzing Context As a reader Knowing the context is an incredible tool for understanding-use text

tools and clue to determine context! What aspects of the text speak to its context? What aspects of the text transcend its context? As a writer What is the situation in which I am writing? What is my exigence? How should this context inform my diction and syntax? What aspects of my


KNOWLEDGE OF AUDIENCE EFFECTIVE MESSAGING About AUDIENCE The listener, viewer or reader of the text. Most texts are likely to have multiple audiences. Analyzing AUDIENCE As a reader Who is the intended audience?

What are the values of the intended audience? How does the speaker appeal to this audience? As a writer Who is my audience? What are the values of this audience? How can I change the MOOD of my audience? How can I change the MIND of the audience? How can I inspire my audience with DESIRE

TO ACT? The audience-speaker relationship can entirely alter the impact of words About GENRE Genre, in its broadest form refers to a category of artistic, musical, or literary composition characterized by a particular style, form, or content These categories can be broad or specific (consider non-fiction vs. op. ed.) About GENRE

To study genre is to study the form and content of a message as appropriate to a rhetorical situation. From the form and content of genre we may read patterns that can tell us much about the speaker and audience. Genres preserve social order by constraining the speaker and the audience with accepted norms, tastes, and values. And this is exactly the reason why the rhetorical critic must be sensitive to genre. (Genre http://rhetorica.net/genre.htm) About GENRE When individuals communicate, they do so within genres [public speaking, texting, conversation, etc.], and so the participants in any communicative act assume certain genre-constituted roles while

interacting with one another. The speaker's speech plan is mediated by her chosen genre; so is her style. In addition, the speaker's very conception of the addressee is mediated by genre, because each genre embodies its own typical conception of the addressee (Bawarshi) Analyzing Genre As a reader What is the genre of this text? What reading habits will be most effective when I read this genre?

Does the author defy or transcend any conventions of this genre? What is the purpose for these deviations? As a writer. What genre am I using to communicate? What conventions should I observe when writing/speaking in this genre? About PURPOSE

PURPOSE refers to the goal the speaker wants to achieve. Purpose may be explicitly stated or, as often is the case with literature, it may be implied. implied The Complexity of Purpose The final gesture of the book, I think, shows you that we are one species and we do have to understand and appreciate that fact despite ethnic and national differences. But it's a small gesture because I think that it's a very, very complex issue that people have to work towards answeringI'm not presenting

any answers, and I think that's why the book was very controversial. People want a polemic. They want to raise their fist in the air and say, "Yes, you're on our side." Well, I'm not on your side. I am presenting a fable, a fiction, so that you can judge for yourself. A lot of people simply read the book and flew off the handle because it either accords with what they want it to or it doesn't. People want things to be very clear-cut. Here's the issue and here's how I stand on it. But I think it's much more complex (An interview with Boyle). Analyzing Purpose As a reader What is the purpose of the piece? How is the purpose

revealed? What details and evidence support this purpose? What techniques are used to persuade the audience? Is the author successful in achieving purpose? As a writer What is the purpose? How I am communicating this purpose? (In essay writing, your thesis statement should clearly state PURPOSE.)

What details and evidence will best develop my purpose? What techniques will help me achieve my purpose? About SPEAKER/PERSONA The speaker is the person or group who creates the text About SPEAKER/PERSONA Dont think of the speaker solely as a name, but consider a description of who the speaker is in the context of the text sometimes, there is a slight difference

between who the speaker is in real life and the role the speaker plays when delivering the speech (Language of Composition 4) About SPEAKER/PERSONA [this slight difference] is called PERSONA. Persona comes from the Greek word for mask. Persona refers to face or character that a speaker shows to his or her audience (Language of Composition 4). Everyone has personas for different situations

Analyzing SPEAKER/PERSONA As a reader Who is the speaker? Who is the speaker in the context of this piece? Are there clear differences between the speaker as a person and the speaker in the text? If so aspects of this persona are notable? How might this persona be appropriate for the intended audience?

As a writer What persona, if any, might be helpful in connecting to my audience? Analyzing SPEAKER/PERSONA As a reader Is the speaker credible? How does the speaker reveal his/her credibility? As a writer Have I done the

necessary work to be a credible speaker on this subject? How can I project this credibility to my audience? CONSIDERING TONE TONE: A DEFINITION the attitudes toward the subject and toward the audience implied in a literary work Tones must have a subject attitude toward what?

AUTHORs implied attitude TONE sets the MOOD Authors attitude guides the readers response Note unusual and /or effective words from the passage. Evaluate the denotations (actual meanings) and connotations (suggested/implied meanings) of these words. Then, decide what the word choice suggests about the characters or narrators demeanor. D DICTION (word

I IMAGES D DETAILS List facts or the sequence of events from the passage. L LANGUAGE

Determine the type of language used- Formal, informal, clinical, jargon. Literal, figurative, vulgar, artificial, sensuous, precise, concrete, etc. Cite examples. What does the language say about the attitude of the piece? S SYNTAX How does sentence structure reveal attitude? What type of sentence is used? (declarative, imperative, interrogative, exclamatory) What is the length of the sentence- short, choppy sentences may reveal anger or confusion, longer sentences may reveal

reflection or deep involvement. choice) (visual, auditory, tactile, olfactory, gustatory) Cite examples of imagery from the passage. Identify the sense appealed to and interpret the meaning. Note the figurative language that contributes to the imagery D (additional considerations DICTION)

Pay attention to diction. In speaking, diction refers to how words are pronounced. In literature, it refers to the words the author chooses to use, whether the words chosen are abstract or concrete, general or specific, and formal or informal. Abstract words are words that can't be perceived with the senses, while concrete words are words that can be perceived and measured. For instance, the word "yellow" is concrete, but the word "pleasant" is abstract. Abstract words "tell," and are used to quickly move through events. Concrete words "show," and are used for critical scenes because they place the reader in the scenes along with the characters. General words are vague, such as "car" or "cat." These are concrete words, but they can apply to any number of specific cars or cats, so the reader can

imagine what he or she wants. In contrast, specific words such as "Siamese" and "Ferrari" restrict the reader to a specific image. Formal words are long, technical or unusual, and will be used by authors who want the reader to see them or the character as highly educated or just pompous. Informal words are those almost all readers will be familiar with, suggesting that the author is much like them. Informal words include contractions and slang, which more closely resemble the way most people speak From http://www.wikihow.com/Analyze-Tone-in-Literature

I (additional considerations IMAGERY) An author that writes about a character swimming in a pond of warm water and describes it as being like a warm bath is suggesting that the pond is inviting, relaxing and soothing. An author that describes the same swim as simmering in a pot may want to suggest discomfort or a sense of foreboding. D (additional thoughts about detail) One author may describe a house as having cheery flowers in the front yard, which suggests that the house is a happy home for happy

occupants. Another author may not mention the flowers but talk about the peeling paint or dirty windows, suggesting that the house is a depressing place occupied by depressed people. From http://www.wikihow.com/Analyze-Tone-inLiterature L (additional thoughts about language)

Listen to the language. The author will choose words according to their connotation, a meaning beyond the literal definition, that's suggested by a word, in order to reveal to the reader, the author's attitude toward the subject. An author that refers to a dog as a pooch is being affectionate, while an author who hates or fears dogs may use the word "cur." An author that refers to children as brats has a different attitude toward children than one that calls them rug rats. Twilight and dusk are both defined as the period of time between sunset and full darkness, but they suggest different things. Dusk is more about darkness than light and may suggest that night is fast approaching, with all the frightening things that happen at night. In contrast, twilight may suggest that dawn, which represents a new start, is near or that the sun has just set, signaling the end of a difficult day.

An author may choose words strictly by their sound. Pleasant-sounding words suggest that the author is writing a story about pleasant things, whereas harsh sounding words suggest that the subject is also harsh or unpleasant. For instance, a wind chime may either be mellifluous (musical) or cacophonous (annoying). From http://www.wikihow.com/Analyze-Tone-in-Literature S (additional considerations about SYNTAX)

Word order in a sentence gives a hint about what part you should be paying closer attention to. Generally, the greatest emphasis is on the end of the sentence, "John brought flowers" emphasizes what John brought while "The flowers were brought by John" emphasis who brought the flowers. By inverting the word order, the author makes who brought the flowers a surprise for the reader. Short sentences are more intense and immediate while long sentences create a distance between the reader and the story. However, longer sentences spoken by characters suggest thoughtfulness while short sentence can be seen as flip or disrespectful. Many authors will break the rules of syntax on purpose in order to achieve a desired effect. For instance an author may choose to place a noun before its adjectives, called anastrophe, to add weight to the adjectives and make the sentence more dramatic. "The day, dark and

dull" encourages the reader to pay extra attention to the unusual nature of the day. From http://www.wikihow.com/Analyze-Tone-in-Literature Words That Describe Tone: a Partial List

critical arrogant whimsical detached pretentious

fanciful apathetic threatening condescending wistful indifferent irate patronizing flippant straightforward outraged humorous nostalgic

candid indignant sentimental didactic ambiguous reflective learned confused mock-heroic regretful scholarly perplexed

amused remorseful ironic happy apologetic moralistic HOW DO ELEMNTS OF STYLE CONTRIBUTE TO TONE? Diction consider. You did not complete your homework. You did not fulfill your responsibilities. You disappointed me.

You arent doing your work? Youre a loser. Syntaxconsider Sally, this is not your best work. Sally, is this your best work? This is not your best work, Sally, you can do much better. With a partner, select a memorable scene from Tortilla Curtain. Reread the scene and analyze how the diction and syntax in the scene

contribute to the tone (you will identify the subject of the tone). You must use SPECIFIC QUALIFIERS FROM YOUR STYLE PACKET IN YOUR ANALYSIS, AIM TO APPLY 5+ DICTION TERMS AND 5+SYNTAX TERMS! Be prepared to share with the class in writing. Apply and define the terms you are using.

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