Rebellion! Upper Canada Land Problems Land Speculators Absentee Landlords Clergy/Crown Reserves Road Problems Development blocked by reserve

land and undemocratic government Government Problems Appeared democratic, but wasnt. -Governor -2 Councils: Executive & Legislative (oligarchies) -Legislative Assembly Veto line ( stop any laws passed by the

Assembly that they didnt like) Only rich white men vote The Ruling Elite in Upper Canada was known as The Family Compact Lower Canada Unfair Taxes and Debt Government Problems

Soil less fertile = import wheat from Upper Canada = debt = higher taxes Undemocratic (just like Upper Canada) Discrimination and Nationalism Protection of French language and culture out population

Cholera epidemic conspiracy Ruling Class Chateau Clique English, but ruling French speakers.

Supported by the wealthy and the church. Upper Canada: Leaders William Lyon MacKenzie was publisher of the radical newspaper, the Colonial Advocate. Elected to the Legislative Assembly. Robert Gourlay completed a survey of grievances in Upper Canada. Was arrested as a

result. Radical Newspaper The Colonial Advocate Lower Canada: Leaders Louis- Joseph Papineau was the leader of the radical reformers in Lower Canada. In 1815, he became Speaker of the Legislative Assembly for Lower Canada and leader of the Parti Canadien (which pushed for reform).

Wolfred Nelson leader of The Patriotes Edmund OCalligan publisher of The Vindicator Radical Newspaper The Vindicator Rebellion in Upper Canada Mackenzie plans to attack York (Toronto) for supplies

Mackenzie sent a petition to Montgomerys Tavern (popular Family Compact hang out) on Oct. 9 He and the radical reformers marched on Montgomerys Tavern on Dec 5, 1837. They take control of the tavern briefly On Dec 6, the British attack the rebels, take back the tavern and end the rebellion. Rebellion in Lower Canada In Lower Canada, open rebellion started with the attempted arrest

of Papineau, who fled to the US. The Patriotes won the battle in the village of St. Denis (Nov 23) However, the Patriotes lost battles in both Saint Charles (Nov 25) and Saint Eustache (Dec 14). The rebellions in Lower Canada lasted less than one month. Reason for Failure Lack of military planning Lack of good military leadership

Lack of Supplies Lack of support from the Catholic Church (ONLY in LOWER Canada!!!) Punishing the Rebels Captured rebels were imprisoned. Many were issued the death penalty for taking up arms against the government. Papineau and Mackenzie were pardoned Many of the arrested reformers were shipped to Tasmania in

Australia to work as slaves on plantations, farms and government projects. Lord Durhams Report- 1838 Durham sent to investigate the causes of the rebellions and he made two recommendations 1) Upper and Lower Canada should be united to become ONE COLONY this would give the English a huge majority in the colony 2) The new colony should have RESPONSIBLE GOVERNMENT

the Executive Council members would be chosen by the leader of the largest group in the Legislative Assembly rather than the Governor the governor would sign into law any bills recommended by the Executive Council Act of Union- 1841 The British only acted on ONE of Lord Durhams recommendations In 1841, Upper and Lower Canada joined together they were now called the UNITED PROVINCE OF CANADA

now called CANADA EAST (Lower Canada) and CANADA WEST (Upper Canada) Canada East and Canada West had the same number of seats in the Legislative Assembly However, the EC and LC still had VETO POWER over the (elected) Legislative Assemblys laws Rebellion Losses Bill The purpose of this bill was to pay the people of Canada East (Lower Canada) for property that was damaged during the Rebellions

The EC and LC did NOT like this bill LORD ELGIN (the Governor) passed the bill, though he did NOT like it either, but the majority of the people in the Legislative Assembly (elected) approved the bill = RESPONSIBLE GOVERNMENT (or a step towards it anyways) Review Quiz 1. How did the British government punish the rebels? (4 ways) 2. Why was Durham sent to Canada?

3. What were his two recommendations? 4. Which recommendation from Durham did the British act on? 5. What did Upper and Lower Canada become known as? 6. Was this responsible government? Why or why not? 7. What was the purpose of the Rebellions Losses Bill? 8. Why did Lord Elgin pass this bill, even though he didnt like it?

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