Why Project Management? (Chapter 1 and More) Project Management Overview This material is based on the Fifth Edition of the Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK Guide*) published by the Project Management Institute (PMI*) in 2013. *PMI and PMBOK are registered marks of Project Management Institute, Inc. 2 Learning Objectives After completing this chapter, students will be able to: Understand why project management is becoming such a powerful and popular practice in business. Recognize the basic properties of projects, including their definition.
Understand why effective project management is such a challenge. Differentiate between project management practices and more traditional, process-oriented business functions. Recognize the key motivators that are pushing companies to adopt project management practices. 01-02 CONTENTS Module 1: Elements of Project Management Module 2: The Project Management Context Module 3: Project Organizational Influences Module 4: The I/S Organizational Context
4 Elements of Project Management 5 Project Management Institute (PMI) The worlds leading project management professional organization Administers the globally recognized PMP (Project Management Professional) certification Publishes the Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge known more colloquially as the PMBOK Guide The material in this series is based on the 5th Edition of the PMBOK Guide
*PMI, PMP and PMBOK are registered marks of Project Management Institute, Inc. 6 What is a Project? A project has: Requirements A Schedule A Budget Closure Criteria 7
Elements of Projects Complex, one-time processes Limited by budget, schedule, and resources Developed to resolve a clear goal or set of goals Customer-focused 01-08 Process vs. Project Work Process Ongoing, day-to-day activities to produce goods and services Use existing systems,
properties, and capabilities Typically repetitive Project Take place outside the normal, process-oriented world Unique and separate from routine, process-driven work Continually evolving A project is a temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product or service. 01-09 Project Management Project management is the application of
knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques to project activities to meet project requirements. Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK Guide) 10 Project Definitions Summarized A project can be considered any series of activities and tasks that have: Specific objectives to be completed within certain specifications, Defined start and end dates, Funding limits, Human and nonhuman resources, and Multifunctional focus. 01-011
Elements of Projects Complex, one-time processes Limited by budget, schedule, and resources Developed to resolve a clear goal or set of goals Customer-focused 01-012 General Project Characteristics Entail crossing functional and organization boundaries Traditional management functions of planning, organizing, motivating, directing, and controlling apply Principal outcomes are the satisfaction of customer requirements within technical, cost, and schedule objectives Terminated upon successful completion of performance objectives 01-13
Project Success Rates Software & hardware projects fail at a 65% rate, Over half of all IT projects become runaways, Only 30% of technology-based projects and programs are a success. Only 2.5% of global businesses achieve 100% project success and over 50% of global business projects fail, Average success of business-critical application development projects is 32%, and Approximately 42% of the 1,200 Iraq reconstruction projects were eventually terminated due to mismanagement or shoddy construction 01-14
Why are Projects Important? 1. Shortened product life cycles 2. Narrow product launch windows 3. Increasingly complex and technical products 4. Emergence of global markets 5. Economic period marked by low inflation 01-15 Project Life Cycles Man Hours Conceptualization Planning Execution
Termination Fig 1.3 Project Life Cycle Stages 01-16 Project Life Cycles Conceptualization - the development of the initial goal and technical specifications. Planning all detailed specifications, schedules, schematics, and plans are developed Execution the actual work of the project is performed Termination project is transferred to the customer, resources reassigned, project is closed out. 01-17 Four Dimensions of Project Success
FIGURE 1.7 01-18 Six Criteria for IT Project Success System quality Information quality Use User satisfaction Individual impact Organizational impact 01-19 A Sampling of Project Management Tasks Insuring involvement of all stakeholders Resource allocation
Resource planning Schedule planning Monitoring progress of the work and adjusting the work plan accordingly Team development and leadership Risk management Managing client and customer interactions and expectations Change management 20 Importance of Processes The effective and reliable application of knowledge and skills is greatly enhanced by a well-defined set of processes Such a set of processes can help to ensure that the application of the appropriate knowledge skills repeatedly produces the desired outcomes over a wide range of project types as well as over a wide range of project teams.
In short, robust and well-defined processes are a key component to ensuring high degrees of predictability and repeatability in the successful management of projects within any organization 21 Definition of a Process A systematic series of activities directed towards causing an end result, such that one or more inputs will be acted upon to create one or more outputs. Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK Guide) 22 Accomplishing Tasks through Processes The PMBOK Guide identifies a total of 47 fundamental
project management processes These processes are logically grouped in two complementary ways: by major process group and by project management knowledge area There are five process groups There are ten knowledge areas The knowledge areas are integrated across various process groups 23 Project Manager Responsibilities 1. Selecting a team 2. Developing project objectives and a plan for execution 3. Performing risk management activities
4. Cost estimating and budgeting 5. Scheduling 6. Managing resources 01-24 Knowledge Areas Integration Management Project Management Process Groups Initiating Develop Project Charter Planning Develop Project
Management Plan Scope Management
Time Management Cost Management Quality Management Executing Direct and Manage Project Work Plan Scope Management Collect Requirements Define Scope Create WBS Plan Schedule Management Define Activities
Sequence Activities Estimate Activity Resources Estimate Activity Durations Develop Schedule Plan Cost Management Estimate Costs Determine Budget Plan Quality Management Human Resource Management Plan Human Resource Management Communications Management
Plan Communications Management Monitoring/Controlling Monitor and Control Project Work Perform Integrated Change Control Control Schedule Adapted from PMBOK Guide Control Costs
Perform Quality Assurance Acquire Project Team Develop Project Team Manage Project Team Manage Communications Control Quality Control Communications Risk Management Procurement Management
Plan Procurement Management Conduct Procurements Control Procurements Plan Stakeholder Management Manage Stakeholder Engagement Control Stakeholder Engagement
Identify Stakeholders Close Project or Phase Validate Scope Control Scope Stakeholder Management
Closing Control Risks Plan Risk Management Identify Risks Quantitative Risk Analysis Qualitative Risk Analysis Plan Risk Responses Close Procurements The Five Project Management Process Groups Monitoring/Controlling Planning
Closing Initiating Executing Adapted from the Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK Guide) 26 Process Groups are not Phases It is important to make a basic point: The project management process groups are not project phases It is often tempting to identify phases and process groups, but there are some distinct differences between the two
A primary difference is that the process groups are inter-related in more essential ways than phases In fact the Planning, Executing, and Controlling/Monitoring process groups have an inherent iterative relationship in all projects 27 The Iterative Heart of the Matter Monitoring/Controlling Planning The Iteration is driven by the Monitoring and Controlling Process. This process involves monitoring a project so problems can be
corrected and plans updated. Closing Initiating Executing 28 Project Management at a High Level There are three high-level three major activities that every project manager must focus on: Discover and understand the project requirements
Address the needs, concerns, and expectations of project stakeholders as the project proceeds Balance competing project constraints throughout the project 29 Project Management Constraints What are some of the major competing constraints that every project will involve? The project schedule
The project budget The scope of the work to be done The quality of the project deliverables Resource availability
Major risks inherent in the project Stakeholder characteristics 30 Project Management Constraints (contd) Balancing these constraints is not an easy task, because they are always inter-related If any one of them changes, at least one (and perhaps more) of
the others is likely to change as well: If the project schedule slips, this will almost certainly have an effect on the project budget as work must be re-arranged and re-planned Similarly, if the schedule and budget change, it is highly likely that the scope of work, or the quality (perhaps both), will be impacted Clearly, resource availability can have direct effect on the project schedule, which puts into play all the cascading effects just described And, when risk events actually occur, there will most certainly be impacts on one or several of the other factors 31 Project Management Constraints (contd)
Of course, the bottom-line responsibility of the project manager is to see that the project requirements are satisfied on schedule and on budget So the project managers life is greatly complicated by the inter-relationships among the various major project constraint factors 32 Project Planning is Iterative As conditions change, competing constraints must be managed So a project plan must be progressively monitored and
elaborated Progressive elaboration allows a project manager to better match the project plan to reality as the project evolves Project Management Triple Constraints The specific project will determine the constraints on which the project manager should focus st Co e However, in every project, the project manager must pay close attention the so-called Triple Constraints of project
management Tim Triple Constraints A Balancing Act Quality (Scope, Performance) 34
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