PowerPoint 演示文稿 - Weebly

PowerPoint 演示文稿 - Weebly

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 1.1 1.2 1.3

1.4 1.5 (1945-1956) (1956-1963) (1964-1971) (1971- ) (1981) 1.1 1946 2 14 ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer: ) 18000 70000

5 160 27,000kg 167 ENIAC (artillery-firing tables ) ENIAC John Mauchly ( chief consultant) Presper Eckert ( chief engineer) 1 18 500,000 In one second, the ENIAC could perform 5,000 additions, 357 multiplications or 38 divisions. Presper Eckert :1919-1995

John Mauchly:1907-1980 ENIAC (von Neumann) EDVAC (Electronic Discrete variable Automatic Computer: ) 1945 6 101 EDVAC (First Draft of a Report on the EDVAC) EDVAC von Neumann: 1903-1957 1.2

1948 1956 10 1947 12 20 1958 IBM RCA501

1959 IBM IBM7090 TRADIC (Transistorized Airborne Digital Computer) 800 100 3 IBM7090 1.3 1958 TI Jack Kilby (IC) Jack Kilby: 1923-2005 1958 34 TI

2000 1958 Jack Kilby 1.4 (LSI) 80 VLSI ULSI

1.5 1981 IBM (PC) 80 ThinkPad X61 : 2 T8100 (2.10GHz) : 1GB/4GB : 160GB iPAQ 212 624MHz

ROM 128MB DRAM 256MB ROM Windows Mobile 640 x 480 192 i780 Windows Mobile 6 Professional Marvell PXA3xx (416-624 MHz) ROM 180MB RAM:128MB 65000 TFT 3203 20 120 2

/ 2.1 2.2 (batch processing system)

CPU CPU multiprogramming CPU I/O CPU CPU

I/O I/O 2.3 (time-sharing system) Bob Bemer 1957 John McCarthy IBM 704 2.4

2.5 2.6 2.7 Ubiquitous Computing (Mark Weiser, Xerox PARC 1988)

Calm Computing (John Brown, Xerox PARC 1996) Universal Computing (James Landay, Berkeley 1998) Invisible Computing (G. Barriello, UoWashington 1999) Pervasive Computing (Academia, IBM 1999, SAP 2000) Context Based Computing (Berkeley/IBM 1999) Hidden Computing (Toshiba 1999) Post PC Computing (common sense) Ambient Intelligence (European Commission, FP5) Everyday Computing (Georgia Tech, 2000) Sentient Computing (AT&T, 2002) Autonomous Computing (IBM, 2002) Amorphous Computing (DARPA, 2002) Spray Computing (Zambonelli, 2003) mainframe Computing evolution

Ubicomp PC Internet mobile 3 3.1 An embedded system is a computer system contained within some larger device or product with the intent purpose of providing monitoring and control services to that device. 3.2

Any sort of device which includes a programmable computer but itself is not intended to be a general-purpose computer. 3.3 IEEE: Device used to control monitor or assist the operation of equipment machinery or plants. 3.4 3.5

3.6 3.7 Physically, embedded systems range from portable devices such as digital watches and MP3 players, to large stationary installations like traffic lights, factory controllers, or the systems controlling nuclear power plants. Complexity varies from low, with a single microcontroller chip, to very high with multiple units, peripherals and networks mounted inside a large chassis or enclosure. 1. Telephone decoupling electronics (for ADSL).

2. Multicolour LED (displaying network status). 3. Single colour LED (displaying USB status). 4. Main processor, a TNETD7300GDU, a member of Texas Instruments' ARM7 product line. 5. JTAG test and programming port. 6. RAM, a single ESMT M12L64164A 8 MB chip. 13. Ethernet port. 7. Flash memory, obscured by 14. Ethernet transformer, Delta LF8505. sticker. 15. KS8721B ethernet PHY transmitter 8. Power supply regulator. receiver. 9. Main power supply fuse. 16. USB port. 10. Power connector. 17. Telephone (RJ11) port. 11. Reset button. 18. Telephone connector fuses. 12. Quartz crystal.

CMMB POS 3.8 Embedded systems and ubiquitous computing

Ubiquitous Ubiquitouscomputing: computing:Information Informationanytime, anytime,anywhere. anywhere. Embedded Embeddedsystems systemsprovide providefundamental fundamentaltechnology. technology. 4 1960-197 0 1971-1989

1990 - 4.1 20 60 (Verdan) 1962 (DDC) 1965 1970

1965 Gemini3 1968 4 5 1963 DEC PDP8 PDP11 The Apollo Guidance Computer (AGC) was the first recognizably modern embedded system, used in real-time by astronaut pilots to collect and provide flight information, and to automatically control all of the navigational functions of the Apollo spacecraft. It was developed in the early 1960s for the Apollo program by

the MIT Instrumentation Laboratory under Charles Stark Draper, with Apollo computer DSKY hardware design led by Eldon C. Hall user interface unit. 4.2 4.2.1 1973 1977 8 Intel 8080/8085 Motorola 6800/6802 Zilog Z80 Rockwell 6502

8085/Z80 7 Intel 8080 8008 CPU 2 Mhz 64KBKB 8080 Altair 395 Bill Gates Intel 8080 CPU Altair 8080 BASIC

OEM

Intel iSBC Zilog MCB iSBC 80/20-4KB Single Board Computer. It is a complete SBC with an 8080 CPU, 4KBK of SRAM and sockets for 8k of ROM or EPROM as well as 4KB8 parallel I/O lines and a RS-232 port and more. Intel Multibus 1983 40MB/S Multibus 1976

Prolog STD 1978 Motorola VME_Bus Multibus 1981 PC PC104 CPCI Compact PCI 4.2.2 DSP ,

I/O A/D D/A RAM ROM VLSI , I/O DSP 4.2.3

PL/M C 80 System( Microtec Research Mentor Graphic ) :VRTX Xray, Spectra Ready

System Incorporation(ISI WindRiver ):pSOS pRISM Integrated :VxWorks Tornado WindRiver QNX :QNX 4.3

4.3.1 20 90 VCD 50 777 1000

4.3.2 8 16 32 4 ApplicationSpecific 32 DSP So

C IP DSP PC PC104 CPCI Compact PCI 4.3.3

32 C RISC / 32-

90% 30% 50-70%

80 JAVA CORBA 5

(efficiency) 5.1 5.2

100 - 500 KIPS 100 - 500 KIPS 2 2 10 mHz 10 mHz 68000 68000 Z80 Z80 8086 8086

1980 10 - 25 MIPS 10 - 25 MIPS .5 - .8 .5 - .8 50 - 100 mHz 50 - 100 mHz 680x0 680x0 CPU32 CPU32 PowerPC PowerPC 80x86 80x86 Pentium Pentium MIPS MIPS i960

i960 SPARC SPARC ARM ARM SH 1/2/3 SH 1/2/3 Alpha Alpha ColdFIRE ColdFIRE 1 - 2 MIPS 1 - 2 MIPS 1.0 1.0 25 mHz 25 mHz 680x0 680x0 CPU32

CPU32 80x86 80x86 SPARC SPARC MIPS MIPS i960 i960 1990 1996 10 - 200 MIPS 10 - 200 MIPS .2 - .5 .2 - .5 100 - 300 mHz 100 - 300 mHz 680x0

TriCore 680x0 TriCore CPU32 SI 20 CPU32 SI 20 PowerPC C6x PowerPC C6x 80x86 80x86 Lucent Lucent Pentium 16000 Pentium 16000 MIPS 563xx MIPS

563xx i960 SHARC i960 SHARC SPARC MCORE SPARC MCORE ARM Merced ARM Merced SH 1/2/3 AltiVEC SH 1/2/3 AltiVEC SH-DSP MAP1000 SH-DSP MAP1000 SH 4/5 SA1500 SH 4/5 SA1500 1998

5.3 For real-time systems, right answers arriving too late are wrong. Most embedded systems are real-time Most real-time systems are embedded embedded embedded real-time

real-time (high dependability) Reliability R(t) = probability of system working correctly provided that is was working at t=0 Maintainability M(d) = probability of system working correctly d time units after error occurred. Availability: probability of system working at time t Safety: no harm to be caused Security: confidential and authentic communication 5.4 Energy efficient Code-size efficient

(especially for systems on a chip) Run-time efficient Weight efficient Cost efficient BOM 5.5

KB

Recently Viewed Presentations

  • PLATÒ - WordPress.com

    PLATÒ - WordPress.com

    Viatja per Egipte, Cirene, Magna Grècia i Sicília. Funda a Atenes la seva escola: l'Acadèmia. L'ensenyament es feia per exposició oral i els seus continguts versaven sobre aritmètica, geometria, astronomia, dret, política i dialèctica.
  • Monday August 22, 2016 Today's Agenda - PC\|MAC

    Monday August 22, 2016 Today's Agenda - PC\|MAC

    Variable (noun) Mentor Sentence: One variable that contributes to the success of a student is completing homework assignments. Can you define . variable? What context clues helped you? Share It: Discuss a variable that contributes to your success as a...
  • Drugs to treat… SEXUAL DYSFUNCTION

    Drugs to treat… SEXUAL DYSFUNCTION

    Viagra for women is called Avlimil and was created in 2003. 84 percent success rate of decreasing symptoms of female sexual dysfunction, but It doesn't have FDA approval yet. Befar, the topical alprostadil cream, may be used to treat Female...
  • Commas

    Commas

    Commas How to use them Commas - , A comma is a punctuation mark It tells us to take a brief pause when we are reading - not as long as a full stop. It is the most common punctuation...
  • Saturn Stuff - University of Florida

    Saturn Stuff - University of Florida

    The Jovian Planets, Part II Saturn SATURN The God of Agriculture Physical Data Diameter: 119,871 km (9.41 Dearth) Mass: 5.69x1029 g (95.1 Mearth) Density: 0.70 g/cm3 (lighter than water!)
  • Title

    Title

    Home of PubMed, MedlinePlus, National Center for Biotechnology Information, informatics research, specialized information on public health, toxicology, HIV/AIDS, health services research, disasters, and more. Part of the National Institutes of Health Bethesda, Maryland, US
  • QRDA Category I STU R5 Update

    QRDA Category I STU R5 Update

    Removed the SHALL requirement in the QRDA Category I Framework template to align with the SHOULD requirement in US Realm Header. Not Done. Removed the SHALL requirement of sdtc:valueSet. However, when report "not done", If it is a value set.
  • Reengineering AGROVOC to Ontologies Step towards better semantic

    Reengineering AGROVOC to Ontologies Step towards better semantic

    Emphasis is on general Agricultural concepts and not specialized disciplines like forestry, fishery, nutrition, etc Formal semantics due to standardized meaning Internal consistency due to integrity constraints Inferencing capability Easy to re-use and share Ontologies are represented in standard languages...