Intangibles in Going Concerns Client & Valuation Perspectives
Intangibles in Going Concerns Client & Valuation Perspectives Presenter: Leslie P. Sellers MAI SRA Objectives of Presentation 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
Review definitions and fundamentals Show examples of Going Concerns Identify Clients for this type of appraisal assignments Assist clients in understanding the requirements Recognize that controversies exist a) Identify where the controversy exist b) Bring clarity with facts and personal opinions on the issues 6. Review of some methods with reviews and examples
7. Provide resources for further study 8. Provide framework for moving forward Definitions Going Concern: A going concern is an established and operating business with an indefinite future life. For certain types of property (e.g., hotels and motels, restaurants, bowling alleys, manufacturing enterprises, athletic clubs, land fills), the physical real property assets are integral parts of an on-going business. (The Appraisal of Real Estate, 14th Edition, The Appraisal Institute, Chicago, Illinois, U.S., 2013, page 63)
NOTE: Going Concern is an entity description not a value (e.g. going concern value in NOT an appropriate term) -Market value of a going concern -Market value of total assets of the business -Market value of specified assets of the business (must specify) Definitions Real Property Characteristics: Items that have been installed or attached to the land or building in a permanent manner. All real estate improvements were once personal property; when
attached to the land, they become real estate. Examples: Land Buildings Fixtures e.g. plumbing, lighting, HVAC, etc. (The Appraisal of Real Estate, 14th Edition, The Appraisal Institute, Chicago, Illinois, U.S., 2013, page 7) Definitions Personal Property Characteristics: Movable items of property that are not permanently affixed to, or part of, the real estate.
Personal property is not endowed with the rights of real property ownership. Examples: Furniture and furnishings not built into the structure Equipment installed by the tenant under specific lease terms removable at end of the lease (The Appraisal of Real Estate, 14th Edition, The Appraisal Institute, Chicago, Illinois, U.S., 2013, page 7) Definitions
Intangible Asset Characteristics: Those assets that are not tangible real property, tangible personal property, or financial assets. An intangible is something that is not material, not corporeal, not substantially real. Examples: Franchises and licenses Good will Skilled workforce (The Appraisal of Real Estate, 14th Edition, The Appraisal Institute, Chicago, Illinois, U.S., 2013, page 7)
Definitions Intangible Business Value: Whenever the income to a property includes payments for goods or services other than real property rents, the property potentially includes non-real property assets that needed to be addressed appropriately. The presence of services that generate income over and above rent on the real property may create intangible property value.
(The Appraisal of Real Estate, 14th Edition, The Appraisal Institute, Chicago, Illinois, U.S., 2013, page 703) Nomenclature is abundant in real world:
Intangible Business Value aka Intangible Personal Property aka Business Enterprise Value aka Enterprise Value aka Blue Sky aka (more appropriate for only good will) Business Value akaXXXXXX Economic Profit .
Definitions Source:(The Appraisal of Real Estate, 14th Edition, The Appraisal Institute, Chicago, Illinois, U.S., 2013, page 705) Examples Examples Typical Clients
Owners of Going Concerns Buyers of Going Concerns
Accountants and Auditors (VFR) REITS, Pension Funds, Insurance Companies Attorneys, Property Assessors SBA Lenders if a Qualified Source Commercial Banks, Credit Unions (Federally Regulated) Typical Clients
Owners of Going Concerns Buyers of Going Concerns Accountants and Auditors (VFR) REITS, Pension Funds, Insurance Companies Attorneys, Property Assessors
SBA Lenders if a Qualified Source Commercial Banks, Credit Unions (Federally Regulated) Allocation or Not? Allocation of Value Opinions Standard Rule 1-2(e) requires an appraiser to: Identify the characteristics of the property that are relevant to the type and definition of value and intended use of the appraisal, including; Any personal property, trade fixtures, or intangible items that are not real property but are included in the appraisal.
Standard Rule 1-4(g) states: When personal property, trade fixtures, or intangibles are included in the appraisal, the appraiser must analyze the effect on value of such non-real property items. (USPAP 2014-2015, The Appraisal Foundation) Allocation or Not? Scope of Work Rule 1. First, appraiser must figure out problem to solve a) Identify assignment elements (Through Consultation) b) Standard Rule 1-2(e) identification of relevant property
characteristics (FF&E, Intangible, RE, etc.) 2. Second, determine appropriate scope of work needed to solve the problem for the intended use and user. NOTE: The scope of work is the responsibility of the appraiser according to USPAP. Allocation or Not? USPAP FAQ 193 - Question: There are also occasions when the client does not specifically request separate valuations of non-real property assets, even though they may be present. Is the appraiser still required to value those assets
separately? Allocation or Not? Answer: No. This is a scope of work decision to be made by the appraiser; Standards Rule 1-4(g) does not require separate appraisals of these different types of assets. Some appraisers and users of appraisals believe the requirement that the appraiser must analyze the effect on value of such non-real property items in SR 1-4(g) is a requirement for the separate appraisal of those items in all assignments. That is incorrect. Analyzing the effect on value might be appropriately made through the
selection of comparable properties used in the sales comparison approach or the deduction of certain line items of expense for management fees, maintenance or replacements in the income approach, for example. Allocation or Not? Standard Rule 1-4(g) to value versus to identify and analyze is a scope of work issue. Appraiser must produce a credible work product for the intended use. NOTE: USPAP definition of credible is worthy of belief.
The key is client communications Interagency Appraisal Guidelines Interagency Appraisal Guidelines Interagency Appraisal Guidelines SBA Lending Guidelines
SBA Lending Guidelines SBA Lending Guidelines Ad valorem Property Assessment (Attorneys and Property Assessors) An ad valorem tax (Latin for "according to value") is a tax based on the value of real estate or personal property. Typically intangible business value is not a part of it. (Business tax is a separate tax)
Allocation of real property and personal property is required Ad valorem property tax rules are on a jurisdiction-byjurisdiction basis Intended use and Intended User may affect the value as a result. (Law states what is Real Property and what is not) Ad valorem Property Assessment (Attorneys and Property Assessors) The Controversy
The controversy is not the valuation of a going concern. The controversy is in the allocation of the component values in two areas. 1. Allocation of the total market value (aka - contributing value) 2. Which method is proper for the allocation
The Controversy When you participate in the discussion of allocation.. The Controversy Independent market value of component or allocated contributive value of the component to the whole? Some have opinions
Wilson book Going Concern Valuation Wilson RICS presentation stated the Value construct:
The value construct states for value to exist there must be: 1. Demand 2. Utility 3. Scarcity 4. Transferability (actual sales) Wilson conclusion: Therefore, if one of these elements is missing there is no value.
The Controversy Wilson RICS presentation: Far too long we have been duped into believing because the math is correct there must be value. That is simply not the case. Just because an appraiser can perform a mathematical formula, such as the Excess Earnings Method, they need to understand that if there is no market support for that conclusion then the math becomes a magical mathematical manipulation, and not a representation of market participants.
The Controversy My opinion: I disagree with Wilson (in most cases the scope requires allocation or contribution) But, intended use could require independent market value Why disagree? The value construct is for market value (independent) Most cases the values are allocations or contributing value Scope of work and intended use and user are critical
USPAP FAQ-194 Analyzing the effect on value might be appropriately made through the selection of comparable properties used in the sales comparison approach or the deduction of certain line items of expense for management fees, maintenance or replacements in the income approach, for example. (NOTE: does not state comparable sales must exist) The Controversy Example of accepted theory with no sales: We value real property interest all the time based on the present value of future benefits
What about sub leasehold or sandwich lease position value? Although the market values of leased fee and leasehold positions are often said to be allocated between the two (or more) interests, each interest must be valued on its own merit. The results can then be compared with the valuation of the fee simple interest. Because a leasehold or a leased fee interest is based on contract rights, appraisers differentiate between lease provisions that are generally representative of the market and other elements of a contract that are not typical of the market. (The Appraisal of Real Estate, 14th Ed, page 441) The Methods
60+ different methods and counting Many are slight variations of each other Appendix of Course 830 has listings and sources on all noted Cost Cost Extraction Management Fee Parsing Market Participants Cost Extraction Method
Based on the extraction between Cost Approach (fee simple) and the reconciled value from other approaches which is going concern. The extraction is the residual business value. Particularly useful in situations where sales of total assets of going concerns are the only sales available.
Care must be taken when using this approach because cost is not always equal to market value. Amount and type of depreciation existing in the asset play a role in the effectiveness of this approach.
Source: The Appraisal of Real Estate, 14th edition, Chapter 35. Cost Extraction Method A six-year-old, 90-bed assisted-living facility has an estimated market value of the going concern equal to $6,750,000. The land value has been estimated at $900,000, and the depreciated value of the improvements is estimated at $5,200,000. The estimated value of FF&E is $450,000.
What is the allocated market value of the intangible assets? Source: Course 830 Fundamentals of Separating Real Property, Personal Property, and Intangible Business Assets course materials (Chicago: Appraisal Institute, rev. 2012) Management Fee Method Based on the theory that once the revenue attributable to intangible assets is deducted, all other remaining income is attributable to the real property and other tangible assets. By removing management fees and franchise fees from the revenue, appraisers reason that the influence of intangible assets
has been eliminated. Critics state flawed because: the value of intangible assets and rights cannot be removed by merely deducting the related expenses from the income stream to be capitalized; allowing a deduction for the associated expense does not allow for a return on the capital expenditure. Source: The Appraisal of Real Estate, 14th edition, Chapter 35. Management Fee Method
Step 1 Management Fee Method Step 2 Source: Adapted from the article, Why the Rushmore Approach is a Better Method for Valuing the Real Property Component of a Hotel by Stephen Rushmore, A Business Enterprise Value Anthology, 2nd ed., 2011. Parsing Method
Based on the business valuation methodology called the excess earnings method, which was developed by the US Department of Treasury in the 1920s. Parse income and expenses into different asset classes then capitalize Good applicability for odd property types especially income always
available on going concerns because that is what they generate Critics state flawed because: identification of appropriate cap rate difficult for using a percentage deduction from income to quantify the value of both the franchise and residual intangibles. the deductions for a return on the various components of the going concern, which create an opportunity for double-counting unless caution is exercised by the appraiser.
Must be careful with parsing priorities in the factors of production Source: Critics statements are taken from The Appraisal of Real Estate, 14th edition, Chapter 35 on all but the last bullet point which is added by the author. Parsing Method Step 1 Source: Appraisal Institute Course 830 Fundamentals of Separating Real Property, Personal
Property, and Intangible Business Assets, rev. 2012. Parsing Method Step 2 Market Participants Method Based on the interviews with market participants and, in some cases, regulatory filings may be used to assist in understanding value allocated
to intangibles on sales. Appraisers interview market participants to ascertain how buyers and sellers of those properties value or allocate intangible assets in pricing decisions. Goal is to determine the thinking of market participants on these issues
Critics say flawed because: survey responses of buyers and sellers may be influenced by tax or financial considerations Buyers and sellers may not have a need or motivation to allocate Not really a method at all but only part of normal verification requirements of standards Source: The Appraisal of Real Estate, 14th edition, Chapter 35.
Valuation Resources Appraisal Institute Lum Library Valuation Resources Other Sources Valuation Resources Other Sources Appraisal Institute Course 830 Has 3 Main Goals (Teaching points) 1. Recognize Indicators that BV may exist
2. Recognize how BV changes over time 3. Goes over basic allocation methodologies Proposed Framework for Solutions Advancing with 8 agreed principles 1. Rights supported by contracts versus real property generally have higher risk (all other being the same) 2. Investment premise requires return on and return of the investment 3. Going concern premise means contributing value of the whole versus independent value for each part
4. Method used for allocation should pass test of reasonableness 5. Encourage more than one method and reconcile when possible 6. No black boxes and no rules of thumb (Daubert) 7. Each property analyzed independently based on merits 8. Professional responsibility for proper application of the methodology Questions & Answers
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