Learning to Cite your Sources: MLA Angela Paul Research Services Group Updated Spring 2017 What is a citation? A citation refers to information about a source that was used by a researcher for a research project or research paper.
3 What is a citation? The information in a citation identifies the author, publication title, publisher, and other unique identification information Bibliographic entry, reference and citation are often used interchangeably
4 How do I include citations in my paper? List the citations or references on a separate page from the research paper or project summary Locate this list after the paper and before any appendices or other supplementary material
5 The Reference List This page may be called Bibliography, References or Works Cited depending on the function of the list and the citation style used for the paper This heading is usually written at the center of the top of the page, but it depends on the style
6 How do I know what to call this list of citations? Bibliography This list may include everything the researcher used to prepare for writing the research paper or research project References This list must include resources that were used directly in the research paper
or research project Works Cited This list includes only resources that are cited directly in the research paper or research project 7 Formatting the Reference Page 1. Start the first line of each citation at the left margin 2. Indent subsequent lines 0.5 inches (called
hanging indent) 3. The citation list must be double spaced, with no extra spaces in between the citations 4. Use the same font or typeface as used in the rest of the paper or essay 8 Using MS Word Features to help with Formatting 1. Highlight the entire list, then go to the Paragraph tool
2. Make sure Alignment is set to "left" and Outline Level is set to "body 3. Make sure the left and right Indentation is set to "0 4. Under Special, change the indentation to "hanging" by 0.5" (inches) 5. Under Spacing make sure "before" and "after" are set to "0 pt 6. Change Line Spacing to "double" 9
Other Formatting Rules Pay attention to italicization and capitalization Punctuation and spacing are VERY important The reference list, bibliography, or works cited page must be alphabetized by the first word in the citation (except for the CSE citationsequence style) 10 Why are citations so complicated?
Citations are created in a certain style to assist reading comprehension for the reader. When the reader knows how to read a citation, it is easy for her or him to identify sources used in the paper. Punctuation, spacing, capitalization and other complicated details all help the reader understand the citation. 11
Why do I need to include citations? Many reasons! The authors you quoted and learned from need to be acknowledged Readers should be able to independently draw conclusions about your argument Your research and work should be acknowledged 12
Citation Styles Various disciplines have published citation and writing style guides to address specific needs within their discipline. 13 Style Guides Style guides identify the style of the entire
essay or research paper, including parenthetical and other in-text references. Not all instructors require students to closely follow a style guide. Final approval of your writing style, individual citations or reference list must come from whoever is directing your publication. 14 Style Guides
Each style guide specifies how the citation list should be formatted and organized, and the order of each piece of information in the citation for that style. This tutorial focuses on the citation list. 15 Style Guides APA and MLA are the most common styles used in undergraduate classes at WSU.
16 Styles used in Humanities Research
Chicago Style [bibliography style] Columbia Style/Humanities Harvard Referencing Modern Language Association (MLA) 17 Styles used in Law and Social Sciences Research
American Anthropological Association (AAA) American Political Science Association (APSA) American Psychological Association (APA) American Sociological Association (ASA) Chicago Manual of Style (CMOS) [bibliography
style or reference list style, depending on the field] Bluebook [Law] 18 Styles used in the Sciences
American Chemical Society American Medical Association American Society of Mechanical Engineers Chicago Style [reference list style] Columbia Style/Sciences Council of Science Editors
19 MLA Style The rest of this tutorial provides instruction and includes examples for print and online books as well as periodical citations in MLA style. 1 MLA Style
Modern Language Association (MLA) is commonly used in the humanities. The latest publication is MLA Handbook 8th edition (2016). 2 Changes in the 8 Edition th Publication facts for a citation used to be based
on the format of the source, so new mediums were difficult to document until the MLA style guide created instructions The 8th edition allows the researcher to examine the source and create an accurate citation without specific instructions for the format or medium of the source Most important is consistency within the list 3
Changes in the 8 Edition th The new edition leaves many options up to the writer/researcher The inclusion of some information in the citation should be based on what will most satisfy the needs of the reader based on the topic and the purpose of the research paper Abbreviations vol. no. and pp. are used for
clarity The words web and print are no longer used 4 Works Cited Page The heading Works Cited is typically used for the citation list in research papers and research projects written in MLA style The heading Works Consulted may be used instead if the list includes other sources
See MLA Handbook p. 20 for details 5 Author Names Personal names are written last name first, using the authors full name as identified in the original source Use a comma after the last name and before the first name and also in between names
6 Author Names Use the word and before the last author Example: Dorris, Michael, and Louise Erdrich Names are listed in the citation as in the same order as in the publication (not necessarily alphabetical) as described on MLA p. 21
6 Three or More Authors Write only the first author Use et al. to denote additional authors, for example: Hotchkiss, Andrew, et al. See MLA Handbook chapter 2.1 for additional details about author names 7
Corporate Names as Authors An organization such as a university, society, association, corporation, or governmental body may serve as an author Use full official names for the author, not acronyms, such as Modern Language Association instead of MLA 8
Corporate Names as Authors If the organization is the author as well as the publisher, omit the author field in the citation and start the citation with the chapter title (if relevant) or publication title 8 Electronic Versions
Websites require a current URL, so use a homepage URL if that is the most reliable link Do not include http:// or https:// in the URL (See MLA Handbook p. 110 for details) 9 Electronic Versions The library database and stable URL are required when available
Open websites also require a date of access, otherwise the access date is optional DOIs are required when available 9 Other Notes about MLA Style Remember to pay close attention to capitalization, spacing, and all types of punctuation.
Use brackets  to add information not provided by the source, but which are necessary for clarification (See MLA Handbook p. 111 for details) 10 Other Notes about MLA Style The publishers name may be omitted if the website and the publisher use the same name.
See MLA Handbook p. 42 for other reasons to omit the publisher name 10 Periodicals Periodical is a generic term used for publications that are published periodically (a formal and predictable schedule), such as scholarly journals, magazines and newspapers.
11 MLA-PERIODICALS MLA does not greatly alter the pattern of citations for different types of periodicals Remember to pay close attention to italicization, capitalization, spacing, and all types of punctuation
12 About the Example Patterns in this Tutorial Words within left and right chevron or arrow heads are added for explanation. For example means the item should be included in the citation if that information is available.
13 About the Example Patterns in this Tutorial Items in red indicate that the item is written exactly this way For example doi # means the word doi must be included and the DOI number must be added by the researcher/writer to look like this in the citation: doi
10.1017/S0009640714001747 13 Pattern for Article Citation Author(s). Article Title. Periodical Title, vol. #, no. #, publication date written day month abbreviation year , pp. #, doi # or Library Database and stable URL. Accessed date written day month abbreviation
year. 14 Journal Article Citation Example with Two Authors Chaney, Cassandra and Ray Roberson V. Armed and Dangerous? An Examination of Fatal Shootings of Unarmed Black People by Police. Journal of Pan African Studies, 2015, vol.
8 no. 4, pp. 45-78. Literature Resource Center go.galegroup.com/. Accessed 2 July 2016. 15 Test Your Self! Identify the correct order for each piece of the citation in MLA style. 40
ACTIVITY: Online Journal 16 Online Newspaper Article Citation Example Holman, Rhonda. Is Reviving Football at WSU Worth the High Cost? [Editorials]. Wichita Eagle [KS] 30 June 2016, Newsbank
infoweb.newsbank.com/. Accessed 2 July 2016. 17 Article with no Author Citation Example Muhammad Ali and Frazier Clash Sept. 30. Wichita Times [KS]. 25 Sept. 1975, p. 5. Americas Historical Newspapers
infoweb.newsbank.com. Accessed 2 July 2016. 18 Test Your Self! Identify the correct order for each piece of the citation in MLA style. 44
ACTIVITY: Online Journal 19 Pattern for a Book Citation Author(s). Book title. Publisher (publisher location ), publication year, doi # or Library Database and stable URL .
20 Example for a Book Rupp, Leila J. and Susan K. Freeman (editors). The Harvey Goldberg Series: Understanding and Teaching U.S. Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender History, University of Wisconsin Press, 2014.
22 Pattern for a Book Chapter Citation Author(s). Chapter title. Book title, edited by editor , Publisher (publisher location ), publication year, pp. page range. doi # or Library Database and stable URL .
21 Example for a Chapter in a Book Jakhu, Ram S. and Joseph N. Pelton. The Technology of Small Satellites. Small Satellites and their Regulation, Springer, 2014, pp. 21-41. doi: 10.1007/978-1-46149423-2 23
Test Your Self! Identify the correct order for each piece of the citation in MLA style. 50 ACTIVITY: Book Citation 24
Other Types of Sources There are many other types of sources useful for research projects that are not included in this tutorial. Use the MLA Handbook for details about citing other types of sources.
Government documents Websites Court cases Patents or trademarks Photographs
Interviews Manuscripts Annual reports Blogs and vlogs Maps 25
Thanks For Watching! If you have questions about this (or any other) of our tutorials, visit us at the Reference Desk! Or contact us: (316) 978-3584 [email protected] 26
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