Integrating Gender into Your Evaluation [insert date] Qualitative
Integrating Gender into Your Evaluation [insert date] Qualitative Methods in Evaluation of Public Health Programs Session 12 Learning objectives At the end of the session, participants will be able to: Define gender and related terms Identify why gender is important to qualitative evaluation of public
health programs Describe gender issues in qualitative evaluation design, data collection, analysis, and dissemination/use Activity: Vote with your feet This will help us explore gender concepts * Source: USAID Training of Trainers: Gender and Reproductive Health 101 Our personal gender notions We all have our own beliefs about gender
Our preconceptions make a difference in how we act and approach life, including our work We need to keep this in mind when we ask people to address gender Sex vs. gender SEX GENDER Biological difference between males and females: Beliefs about the appropriate roles, duties, rights, responsibilities, accepted
behaviors, opportunities, and status of women and men, in relation to one another: Universal for all human beings Rarely changes Determined at birth Constructed by society Differs between cultures and over time Acquired Includes identity, expression, and orientation
* Source: WHO 2009: Integrating Gender into HIV/AIDS Programmes in the Health Sector Gender gap Adherence to rigid gender roles can create a gender gap: Unequal access to and participation in opportunities are realities that women and men experience Women Men
Education Credit and savings groups Education Informal labor market * Source: WHO, Why Gender and Health? Income Social and political spaces Legal rights Gender inequality and
health A teenage boy dies in accident because he tried to meet peers expectations that young men should take risks. A woman cannot access needed maternal health care because she does not have control of the household money.
A transgender woman has trouble finding services that do not discriminate against or stigmatize her. Source: WHO, http://www.who.int/gender/genderandhealth/en/index.html What is gender integration? G en d Identifying: Specific genderrelated differences and resulting inequalities
er Addressing: In the design, implementation, and M&E of programs Gender integration The evaluation process How to integrate gender Practices Data Sex- and
agedisaggregate d data Gendersensitive data Sex-disaggregated data Understand how project activities are affecting gender norms and the lives of men, women and other vulnerable populations. Consider the intersection of identities: Such as age, ethnicity,
race, religion, disability status, etc. Gender-sensitive data Focuses on data around gender norms, expectations and inequities; for example: o Gender-based violence o Power differences o Female autonomy o Access to educational and economic opportunities Importance of gender-sensitive data
To know if we have increased womens and mens participation in and benefits from interventions, especially in areas where they have been historically underrepresented To know if we have reduced gender inequality (e.g., barriers to access ) or unintentionally exacerbated gender inequalities To generate evidence on how attention to gender in programs contributes to more equitable and sustainable outcomes Source: MEASURE Evaluation. (2013). Facilitating data use for gender-aware health programming: Guidance for workshop facilitators. Retrieved from www.measureevaluation.org/resources/publications/ms-13-81
Gender-sensitive data Importance of qualitative data Quantitative measures are limited in their ability to capture: Complexities of power and relationship dynamics Unintended consequences of shifting norms How to integrate gender Practices Data Sex- and agedisaggregate d data
Gendersensitive data Activity 1 2 3 Stakeholde r Engagemen t
4 5 6 7 8 9 11 Stakeholde
r Engagemen t 10 12 Data collection 2 - where Data collection 3
- when Ethics 4 Probing 5 Selection of 6 participan ts Selection of
7 interview ers Data collection 8 - when Ethics 9 Data collection 10 - where
Selection of 11 interview ers Selection of 12 participan ts Probing 1
Gender-integrated practices Gender-integrated Protocol practices Ask yourself: What methods are you using? Are women and girls included in this research? o Equity in representation, access to intervention, and benefits of research o If not, state why Does the study involve a sensitive topic, such as gender-based violence, or sensitive target group,
e.g., lesbian, gay, bi-sexual, or transgender (LGBT) persons? o Participant protection and adherence to standards Are there strategies to monitor for unintended Gender-integrated Stakeholder practices engagement Ask yourself: Do the people at the table represent the groups needed in order to talk about and promote gender equality in a meaningful way? In addition to these groups, what is the level of input from men, women, and
transgender stakeholders, local womens NGOs, community-based organizations, etc., in setting goals and Gender-integrated Tool development practices Ask yourself: Are both sexes included in the research? Are you adhering to standards for sensitive subjects? Would gender-sensitive questions be relevant for your topic? Do you need to add indirect probes
to account for sensitive topics? Gender-integrated Data collection practices Ask yourself: Will gender affect logistics: Timing? Location? Have you hired the right people? o Women may be more comfortable talking to another woman on sensitive subjects (same for men); if working with LGTBQ+ or key populations, are data collectors to be from those communities?
Ethical issues, particularly for GBV and other sensitive topics, and marginalized populations o Review relevant international guidelines o Extra precautions for confidentiality and data security o Ensure you have supportive structures in place Gender-integrated Data collection practices Ask yourself: Are there gender biases that may affect data? o Are only men speaking in FGDs? Are there
power dynamics or gender dynamics that are impacting your data collection? o You may want to disaggregate qualitative data by sex and age and add gendersensitive measures, if necessary, to explore why differences exist Are there biases that YOU may have that affect data collection? o Be reflective in your own biases! Gender-integrated Data analysis practices Ask yourself:
Are you disaggregating by sex and age during analysis? Are there underlying differences in how women and men talk about: o Program benefits? o Structural environments? o Community norms that may affect outcomes? Have you inadvertently created bias in the analysis? Gender-integrated Dissemination and use
practices Ask yourself: Will the dissemination of information favor one gender? How will use of this data impact men and women? Will the information disproportionately benefit one sex over another? Questions, ideas, comments? Summary Summary
Gender cuts across all stages of the evaluation Goes beyond including women in the evaluation Gender goes beyond sexdifferentiated analysis Assess the implications for both women and men when designing evaluations Make gender an integral dimension in the design, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation This presentation was produced with the support of the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) under the terms of MEASURE Evaluation cooperative agreement
AID-OAA-L-14-00004. MEASURE Evaluation is implemented by the Carolina Population Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill in partnership with ICF International; John Snow, Inc.; Management Sciences for Health; Palladium; and Tulane University. Views expressed are not necessarily those of USAID or the United States government. www.measureevaluation.org
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