Time (s) 0.0 10.5 22.3 35.7 51.1 69.3 91.6 120.4 160.9
230.3 299.6 350.7 391.2 Problem 1 Use the data in the above table to calculate the rate at which phenolphthalein reacts with the OH- ion during each of the following periods: (a) During the first time interval, when the phenolphthalein concentration falls from 0.0050 M to 0.0045 M.
(b) During the second interval, when the concentration falls from 0.0045 M to 0.0040 M. (c) During the third interval, when the concentration falls from 0.0040 M to 0.0035 M. Reaction rate varies with time. Instantaneous rate of reaction = dX/dt = the rate at each instant Rate = k Xphenolphthalein
. Problem 2 Calculate the rate constant for the reaction between phenolphthalein and the OH- ion if the instantaneous rate of reaction is 2.5 x 10-5 mole per liter per second when the concentration of phenolphthalein is 0.0025 M. k = 0.010 s-1 .
Expressing the rate of reaction 2 HI = H2(g) + I2(g) k = rate constant for forming H2 or I2 k = rate constant for destroying HI Problem 4. Calculate the rate at which HI disappears at the moment when I2 is being formed at a rate of 1.8 x 10-6 moles per liter per second. Hint: HI disappears twice as fast as I2 is formed!
Can you figure out the rate of a reaction from its stoichiometry alone? CH3Br + OH- <=> CH3OH + Br Experiments showed that Rate = k (CH3Br) (OH-) A very simlar reaction: (CH3)3CBr + OH- <=> (CH3)3COH + Br One might expect a rate = k [(CH3)3CBr] [OH-] Rate = k [(CH3)3CBr] The rate law for a reaction must be determined experimentally!
Why????? Why cant chemistry be easy???? Some reactions occur in a single step. Some dont!! The rate of reaction will be determined by the slowest intermediate step. Rate-determining step Rate-limiting step Example: Decomposition of N2O5 into NO2 and O2
N2O5 <=> NO2 + NO3 First order Rate depends on (N2O5) Decomposition of HI second order Rate depends on (HI)2 .
What is the order of 2 NO + O2 <=> 2 NO2 ? Collision theory model of chemical reactions The rate of any step in a reaction is proportional to the concentrations of the reagents consumed in that step. The rate law for a one-step reaction should therefore agree with the stoichiometry of the reaction.
Summary The rate laws for chemical reactions can be explained by the following general rules. 1. The rate of any step in a reaction is directly proportional to the concentrations of the reagents consumed in that step. 2. The overall rate law for a reaction is determined by the sequence of steps, or the mechanism, by which the reactants are converted into the products of the reaction.
3. The overall rate law for a reaction is dominated by the rate law for the slowest step in the reaction.
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