Peace Operations and the Challenges Posed by Corruption
Peace Operations and the Challenges Posed by Corruption Presentation to the Senior Leadership Programme Transparency International (UK) Defence and Security Programme in cooperation with DPKO Division of Policy, Evaluation The Challenge Corruption in host-nation space will affect all activities within an integrated mission, how the mission is perceived and its effectiveness; It may be so pervasive that it is seen as normal Impact goes far beyond endemic criminality to include organised crime, funding for extremist groups and state capture; Increasing and evolving threat that reflects the current security environment Why it matters Corruption:
Perpetuates conflict. Damages mission effectiveness and credibility. Deters international donors and wastes funds. Damages local institutions and encourages impunity. Success in fighting corruption will enhance mission effectiveness. High Level Panel Report Acknowledges corruption as cause and consequence of conflict, and its links to organized crime; Underlines the importance of: Addressing corruption as part of the country analysis when planning a UN mission: Addressing corruption as a priority; Understanding the consequences of international intervention; Addressing corruption in the context of SSR; Engaging with civil society; Oversight.
Implementation of the Recommendations of the High Level Panel - extracts from the Secretary General's Report Labels assigned to conflict, such as internal, inter-State, regional, ethnic or sectarian have become increasingly irrelevant as transnational forces of violent extremism and organized crime build on and abet local rivalries. Political solutions to conflict rest, ultimately, on a countrys people and leaders. Effective conflict response, as the Panel notes, needs to take account of national and local priorities and needs. It must be directed at building domestic capacity to protect and strengthen inclusive peace. I fully endorse the Panel's view, echoed by the Advisory Group of Experts on the Review of the Peacebuilding Architecture, that
conflict analysis should systematically include considerations of human rights and threats to civilians, as well as the political, security, social, economic, gender and regional dimensions of a conflict. The Future of United Nations Peace Operations: Implementation of the Recommendations of the High-level Independent Panel on Peace Operations A/70/357-S/2015/682 2 September 2015 Conflict Assessment and Mission Design Addressing Endemic Corruption Existing Capability: Political analysis, JMAC, mission components, mission support, UNCT, other agencies, IFIs, etc. Existing Response Overall picture? Mostly within individual areas of responsibility Strengthening the Response Clear Policy & Guidance Strengthened expertise to develop a comprehensive response in cooperation with the JMAC; Strengthened reporting;
Anti-corruption benchmarks drawn from the mandate; Communications strategy All mission programmes must consider the implications of endemic as a key factor affecting their planning CORRUPTION & | A CAUSE & orruption Conflict CONSEQUENCE OF CONFLICT SETTLEMENT Positioning for advantage Stabilisation the priority Desire for peace dividend Focus on defence and security, SSR to prevent return to conflict PKO provides security
CONFLICT High level of instability Opportunities for exploitation External interests Conflict prolonged COMPREHENSIVE RECONSTRUCTION STABILITY Defence and security sectors act as example to other state institutions Comprehensive counter-corruption strategy in place Popular and civil society support reinforces stability Clean government in place INADEQUATE RECONSTRUCTION Mandate and role of defence and security not properly defined Poor buy-in from various stakeholders including civil society Good governance not emphasised in the settlement
No provision for maintenance of sociopolitical order free from patronage networks FRAGILE STATE Significant Corruption Protection of self-interest Lack of confidence in government 10 Pathways Criminal Patronage Networks Factionalism Elections Organised Crime Narcotics Exploitation of Natural Assets Land Title and Expropriation Borders Foreign Aid Military, Police, and Militia Lessons from Afghanistan
A lack of appreciation of the nature of corruption threats, plus a decision to use corrupt actors without an appreciation of the implications at the beginning of the mission A sense of complacency within the IC towards the extent and impact of those threats, The political dilemmas faced throughout the campaign, The primacy of security considerations, The perverse spending incentives that prioritised burn rate over outcomes,
The limited development and mobilisation of anti-corruption tools, A disconnect between research and policy on corruption risks, Counter-moves by the host government, The weakness of local civil society. Transparency International Defence and Security Publication Corruption - Lessons from the international mission in Afghanistan Lessons from Afghanistan
Use the growing body of knowledge to better train and equip the international policy and military communities. Practical guidance and a comprehensive toolbox for addressing corruption threats. Be explicit about the threats from corruption from the outset, in the mandate and in preparatory planning. Develop a common, sophisticated and civil-owned approach to addressing the corruption threats that can be adopted by the IC from the outset of a mission. Spend less, measure success through outcomes and not burn rate, and be much more transparent about all levels of spending.
Strengthen oversight to reduce corruption risks both to host nation and international institutions. Transparency International Defence and Security Publication Corruption - Lessons from the international mission in Afghanistan Security Assistance in Mali Main Challenges : Nepotism and bribery Institutional weakness Factional divisions Four reasons why corruption was not addressed by donors : Perception of corruption as insignificant and technical, and not as a political, power distribution issue Primacy of tactical military considerations Lack of a toolbox enabling concrete action Prevalence of short-term, unsustainable programmes. Additionally: The impact of drug trafficking/organized crime; The challenge (for MINUSMA) of working with institutions (Army,
Police and Gendarmerie) which have not been reformed and vetted, and which lack proper civilian oversight. Transparency International Defence and Security Publication Security assistance, corruption and fragile environments - Exploring the case of Mali 20012012 Mission Corruption Missions have mechanisms to address corruption and other abuses: SOPs / rules, OIOS, DSS investigations, etc. - but this doesnt prevent them from occurring; Standards must be high, and actions must be transparent, if the mission is to be able to address endemic corruption effectively; Guidance to all mission personnel must be unequivocal and all personnel must be accountable;
All members of a mission must understand the corruption environment this requires awareness and training; Corruption Risk Analysis Strategic Assessment & Mandate Development The impact of endemic corruption must be considered at all stages UN Integrated Assessment and Planning Handbook - 2014 Mandate Development Strategic Assessment provides the analysis and identifies the potential threats;
Most assessments will identify corruption as a problem but dont necessarily go any further for fear that it will make things more difficult; Failure to adopt a proactive approach to countering corruption is to overlook a key cause of conflict, its as much a political problem as it is a legal or financial one; Countering corruption is key to long-term development. A a huge challenge but it must not be seen as so big as to be impossible; The first step in countering the threats is for the mandate to include appropriate language that recognises the challenge and requirements; i.e. placing accountable governance and countering corruption at the heart of the mission; Addressing the Problem
Corruption Risk Analysis: where do the risks lie and who generates them? what threat do they pose to stability, peace and the implementation of the mandate? what should be a short-term priority and what can be longer-term? consequences of action / inaction; implications for other mission priorities and its overall effectiveness; implications for other actors national / international: who will support anti-corruption initiatives? who may oppose them? Corruption risks for Peace Operations A Tool for Analysis POLITICAL MISSION OPERATIONS Mandate
Security & Priorities Political Context Lack of Awareness / Guidance Relationship with Host Nation Unwitting Accomplice Competing Priorities Noble Cause Corruption Political Economy / Money Flow Local Procurement ORGANISED CRIME Fragile Government Competing Powerbases
Culture of Impunity Lack of Accountability Self Interest vs National Interest Communications Strategy Security Forces History Misconduct / SEA / Inadequate Oversight Perception Government Capture Transnational Nature HOST NATION OTHER ACTORS Links to Armed Groups
Programme Coordination Trafficking / Smuggling etc Donor / External Interests NGO Exploitation Mandate Implementation Emphasis on immediate issues, particularly establishing security, protection of civilians, human rights etc; Likely to include longer term issues essential to sustainable peace such restoration of democratic governance & rule of law corruption impacts directly on the last two; Situations are dynamic and may require compromise:
Long-term objectives may be deferred for short-term gain; Support of local power brokers may be difficult to achieve without some form of trade-off; Similarly working with a fragile government that is known to have committed human rights abuses and it is corrupt will be difficult; The mission cannot be seen to condone corruption but equally it cannot take such a hard line that implementing the mandate becomes impossible. The Challenge to the Mandate (1) CORRUPTION THAT IS ENDEMIC IN THE MISSION AREA Despite the unprecedented investment in United Nations peacekeeping operations in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, slow progress in security sector reform and establishing the rule of law means that Security Council benchmarks for the Mission's exit appear unlikely to be met in the near future 79. The second area relates to perceptions of the United Nations. Tension is implicit in the need to support the elected Government in the host country while being seen to uphold United Nations values. The Missions mandate has
increasingly emphasized its role in assisting and supporting the Government of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Mandate language recognizes the sovereignty of the elected Government but places the Mission in a difficult position if elements of the Government or its services are seen to be associated with corruption, fraud or human rights violations. Programme evaluation of performance and achievement of results: United Nations peacekeeping activities in the Democratic Republic of the Congo Report of the Office of Internal Oversight Services. A/66/741 - 12 March 2012 The Challenge to the Mandate (2) CORRUPTION THAT IS ENDEMIC IN THE MISSION AREA MINUSTAH proved resilient and mobilized effectively immediately after the earthquake, although its on-going efforts to increase the capacity of the Haitian National Police and other rule of law institutions have faced challenges In 2010-2011, the overall performance of the Haitian National Police still needed improvement. Corruption was reportedly widespread and there were reports of unprofessionalism, including the excessive use of force, human rights violations and poor investigation skills. Some perceived that, since 2004, the quality of the National Police had only marginally improved, and few believed that it would be possible for MINUSTAH to transfer responsibility for security to the National Police over the next few years. Stakeholders sensed that progress in building the capacity of the National Police was fragile and that it could
deteriorate when the Mission is disbanded. The National Police continued to rely heavily on MINUSTAH, particularly outside of Port-au-Prince. Programme evaluation of the United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti, Report of the Office of Internal Oversight Services A/66/740 12 March 2012 Corruption Risk Analysis - Elements Implications for specific and multidimensional issues; Impact on the missions ability to implement its mandate Implications within the country in which the mission is deployed; Develop understanding of the political economy;
Implications of: doing nothing; deferring action; adopting a robust anti-corruption strategy. Where TI DS Can Help Advice; Publications; Training; Assessments. Some Available Publications
Interventions Toolkit: Counteracting Corruption in Operations and Security Assistance Knowledge base Analysis Application Case study 1: ISAF Impact of corruption on mission goals: provision of security; delivery of basic services; and stabilising host government. Mitigation of corruption risks: strategic, operational, and tactical levels.
Case study 2: UN peacekeeping mission Impact of corruption on the tactical, operational and strategic levels. Mitigation of corruption risks: institutional planning and analysis. Case study 3: security assistance (Latin America) Political and military aspects of counteracting corruption and potential for mission exacerbation of corruption issues.
Comprehensive approach: civil and military contribution to managing corruption risks. Conclusion The fight against endemic corruption will only succeed if: Corruption is treated as a singular but multidimensional issue addressed at senior leadership level; The problem is reflected in mandates; It is included in risk assessments;
There are clear policies and guidance; Anti-corruption initiatives are included in planning; Capacity building programmes, such as DDR and SSR, include building integrity and anti-corruption measures; It is started early & with a long-term view; It must be supported by training: Generic to develop awareness of the strategic implications for
peacekeeping missions and post conflict reconstruction; Mission Specific to develop understanding of the political economy and how circumstances in a given country are likely to impact a missions mandate; THANK YOU [email protected] www.ti-defence.org
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