Nuts & Bolts of Curriculum SED 455: Curriculum Development & Assessment by Cindy Barnes, M.Ed. Adjunct Faculty GCU Question 1 What is Meant by the Term Curriculum? Curriculum refers to the specific blueprint or map to achieve outputs of desired student performance. Curriculum specifies what the learner should achieve within a timeframe not just a list of content and activities. Curriculum is the overarching aim of the school district. (Wiggins (Wiggins & McTighe, 2005). Question 2 What is Curriculum Theory?
Researchers draw upon established methodologies. Theories provide a way of strengthening the field of educational research. In the curricular field there are three camps of 1) traditionalists; 2) conceptual-empiricists; 3) reconceptualists During the past two decades the field of curriculum went from a practice-oriented field to a more theoretical, historical, research-oriented field. (Pinar (1999 p. 484) Curriculum Theory Camps Traditionalist - core knowledge schools and the work of John Dewey would fall into this camp. This model provided large numbers of people with basic skills needed to obtain low skill jobs. Curriculum is organized and straight forward. Curriculum and lesson plans can be created before the teacher or students ever enter the classroom (Module 2 Lecture). Conceptual Empiricists - Introduced by William Pinars Book Curriculum Theorizing in 1975. Stemming from the idea that traditional practices in education are too strict and rigid. Curriculum should be determined by past scientific research and investigating what works in certain schools, areas, and cultures. Curriculum is shaped and guided by research and investigating what does and doesnt work. Processes are decided by the results of scientific research (Kridel, 2010, Pages 139-140) Reconceptualist - Largely initiated by Robert Ennis in his 1962 book A Concept of Critical Thinking. "The main thrust of critical theory is to enable people to reflect and critique the dominant socioeconomic class structure and the ways in which the curriculum serves to perpetuate such structure" (Ornstein & Hunkins, 2009 p. 186). Curriculum cannot be created before the educator and/or administrators have met and
interacted with the student. Question 3 What is Meant by the Term Curriculum Approach? Takes into consideration the student culture & diversity of the school. Focus on the relationship between schools , society and the future. Established goals must be addressed to determine curriculum approach Components of Curriculum Approach Technical-Scientific Models (Backward Design adopted this approach) Behavioral Systems Managerial Intellectual-Academic Approach Non-Technical/Non-Scientific Approaches Questions the assumptions of technical approach. Humanistic-Aesthetic Reconceptualist
Formal methods of schooling with a It stresses personal, subjective focus on content and outcomes. aesthetic nature of curriculum Logical step by step procedure of what you want students to know and evidence of that knowledge. Focus is not on content or learning outcomes. Views learning as holistic, focused on the learner and students as a participant. Question 4 What is the relationship between curriculum and instructions? Good teachers can translate information, make good judgment, experience and wisdom into relevant knowledge that a student can understand, retain and pass to others. (Wikipedia, (Wikipedia, 2008 2008 September September 12). Question 5 What are the bases for curriculum planning? A curriculum must be aligned with National or State content standards.
Assessment information helps planners make relevant curriculum decisions. Question 6 What criteria can be used to plan, develop, and implement curricula? Student Prior Knowledge Instructional Goals Student Learning Philosophies and Information Learning Styles Instructional Strategies Processing Theories Learning Environment Formative and Specific Learning Objectives Summative Assessments
(Smith & Ragan, 2005). Question 7 How do values influence curriculum planning? Values can influence who will be included in the curriculum goals (curriculum approach). The belief that learning is a universal right, has led to a focus in developing curriculum that meets the needs of every student. (SIU, (SIU, 1998). 1998). Question 8 What are some of the challenges in meeting the curriculum and the future? Stakeholders support the schools Integrating Technology - Policy-makers dont fully recognize the impact technology have in schools. Teaching the curriculum in ways that are effective for a variety of students.
Government vouchers for private schools and Federal Legislation has caused a budget crisis in public school districts. References Grand Grand Canyon Canyon University: University: SED SED 455 455 Module Module 22 Lecture
Lecture Notes Notes Kridel, Kridel, Craig. Craig. "Encyclopedia "Encyclopedia of of Curriculum Curriculum Studies." Studies." Google Google Books. Books. N.p. N.p. Retrieved Retrieved from. from. http://books.google.com/books?id=GgMyFqxsXWoC http://books.google.com/books?id=GgMyFqxsXWoC Ornstein, Ornstein, A. A. C., C., & & Hunkins, Hunkins, F. F. P. P. (2009). (2009). Curriculum: Curriculum: Foundations, Foundations, Principles, Principles, and and Issues Issues th th ed.). (5
San Francisco: Pearson Education, Inc. (5 ed.). San Francisco: Pearson Education, Inc. Pinar, Pinar, W.F. W.F. (1999b). (1999b). The The reconceptualization reconceptualization of of curriculum curriculum studies. studies. In In W. W. F. F. Pinar Pinar (ed.), (ed.), Contemporary Contemporary curriculum curriculum discourses: discourses: Twenty Twenty years years of of JCT. JCT. New New York, York, NY: NY: Peter Peter Lang, Lang,
483-497. 483-497. Smith, Smith, P.L., P.L., Ragan, Ragan, T. T. J. J. (2005). (2005). Instructional Instructional Design. Design. Hoboken, Hoboken, NJ NJ John John Wiley Wiley & & Sons. Sons. "The Traditional View Of The Learning Process." UNESCO.com. United Nations "The Traditional View Of The Learning Process." UNESCO.com. United Nations Educational Scientific Educational Scientific and and Cultural
Cultural Organization, Organization, 27 27 Nov. Nov. 2003. 2003. Retrieve Retrieve from from http://portal.unesco.org/education/en/ev.php-URL_ID=26921 http://portal.unesco.org/education/en/ev.php-URL_ID=26921 SIU. SIU. (1998). (1998). The The Center Center foor foor Dewey Dewey Studies. Studies. Retrieve Retrieve from from nd nd nd ed. Association Wiggins, Wiggins, G G& & McTighe, McTighe, J.J. (2 (2 Edition). Edition). (2005). (2005). Understand Understand by by design design 22nd
ed. Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Alexandria, VA. for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Alexandria, VA. Wraga, Wraga, W.G. W.G. (1999). (1999). Extracting Extracting sunbeams sunbeams out out of of cucumbers: cucumbers: The The retreat retreat from from practice practice in in reconceptualised reconceptualised curriculum curriculum studies. studies. Educational Educational Researcher Researcher 28(1), 28(1), 4-13. 4-13.
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