Fear and Leaching in Michigan or, Dude, wheres my nutrients? Emily Farrer, Joshua Haag, Joel Perkovich , Katherine Windfeldt Introduction Properties of Soil Physical Chemical Biological Synthesis of Lab and Field Data The Development of a Northern Oak Ecosystem Physical Properties of Soil Texture
Sand H20 Holding Capacity 0.12 cm3 H2O/cm3 Soil Lowest of all sites Bulk Density 1.1 g/cm3 2nd Lowest behind NH Chemical Analyses CEC - Lowest CEC of all sites at 2.2 cmolc/kg (other sites range 3.86-8.71 cmolc/kg) - Thus, smallest nutrient holding capacity of all soils Base Saturation
- Lowest BS of all sites at just 13% (other sites range from 97-99%) pH - Most acidic of all sites at 4.21 (Mixed Oak highest pH at 5.97) Soil Biological Properties Property Value Relative amount Soil organic matter 3.06% lowest Microbial biomass
lowest Nitrification 0.002 g/m2/d lowest C resp./N min. 14.3 ugC/ugN intermediate (MO lower) Ecosystem Biological Properties Ecosystem Biomass Mg/ha % total Abovegroun
d 179.0 79.7 Forest Floor 11.5 5.1 Soil 34.0 15.1 Nitrogen Pools kg/ha % total Abovegroun
d 392.7 24.8 Forest Floor 86.2 5.4 Soil 1105. 0 69.8 Low ecosystem biomass and N compared to other forests
Aboveground and forest floor second lowest (OH lowest) Soil biomass and N pools lowest Northern Oak Physiography Structure / Texture texture - Well-sorted, sandy PM from former lake bed = larger particle size, weak structure and sandy Bulk Density (Db) ` - Well-sorted (homogenous), loosely packed soil results in second lowest Db at 1.1 gm/cm3 (other sites range 1.02-1.34) CEC / Base Saturation - Lowest CEC at 2.2 cmolc/kg 90% sand and 3% clay = weak electronegative charge for CEC - Lowest BS at 13% Role of topography / fire and well-drained sandy PM = nutrient loss
Available Water Content - Lowest AWC at 0.12 cm3 H20/cm3 soil (other sites range 0.14-0.44) - well-drained sandy PM, lower elevation and southern aspect = H20 loss pH - Most acidic at 4.21, Non-calcareous PM offers no buffer for soil acidification via weathering Soil: Field and Lab Profile Sandy and acidic throughout Lab data supported Little structure Low OM Moderately shallow, weak profile Well-drained weathering Low OM, no humus accum.
O horizon thin A shallow Low biomass in forest floor and soil E weak Bs weak C sand SOM rules! Structure SOM Color Water holding capacity CEC (& anion EC) pH Microbial biomass Microbial respiration Base Saturation
N mineralization NPP Vegetation History 1880s white pine logged, big burn Natural fire regime until 1930 when human fire suppression began Composition Overstory black oak, white oak, red oak, red maple Understory / Ground Cover white pine, red maple, sassafras, blueberry, wintergreen, Pensylvania sedge
Vegetation Low Biomass - 224 Mg/ha Lowest AWC 0.12 cm3 H2O/cm3 soil Lowest Nutrient Availability Nitrogen content of 1584 kg/ha CEC of 2.2 cmol/kg BS of 0.13 Species Composition Dry/Acidic Lowest AWC 0.12 cm3 H2O/cm3 soil Lowest Nutrient Availability Lowest pH of 4.21 Fire regime Perpetuation of system Fire regime/Dry site Oak species The Development of a Northern Oak Ecosystem
Young soil Limited weathering Low CEC (and non-calcareous parent material) Well drained (low FC and AWC) -> Loss of nutrients by leaching Nutrients CEC Soil Development and Ecosystem Feedbacks Few nutrients -> low biomass Low biomass -> little SOM Little SOM -> Low CEC Loss of nutrients by leaching SOM Nutrients
CEC Soil Development and Ecosystem Feedbacks Nutrients Physiographic and topographic characteristics -> prone to fire Loss of nutrients by burning and leaching Nutrients CEC Summary: Young, relatively unweathered soil Susceptible to leaching
Loss of nutrients Low productivity and biomass Low SOM and CEC Susceptible to fire Loss of nutrients Low productivity and biomass Low SOM and CEC Positive feedbacks maintain low biomass
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