2015 by McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd. 1 Chapter 2

 2015 by McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd. 1 Chapter 2

2015 by McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd. 1 Chapter 2 Demand and Supply Old Joke: Teach a parrot to say demand and supply, and youve created an economist. Intro Activity 2015 by McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd. 2 Learning Objectives After this chapter, you will be able to: describe the nature of demand, changes in quantity demanded, changes in demand, and the factors that affect demand summarize the nature of supply, changes in quantity supplied, changes in supply, and the factors that affect supply explain how markets reach equilibrium the point at which demand and supply meet 2015 by McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd. 3 What Is Demand? Demand: is a relationship between a products price and quantity demanded. Quantity demanded: the amount of a product consumers are willing to purchase at each price

Demand is shown using a schedule: a table that shows possible combinations of prices and quantities demanded of a product or curve: a graph that expresses possible combinations of prices and quantities demanded of a product The law of demand: states that price and quantity demanded are inversely related. Market demand: is the sum of quantities demanded by all consumers in a market. http://www.investopedia.com/video/play/law-demand/ 2015 by McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd. 4 The Demand Curve FIGURE 2.1 Your Demand Curve for Strawberries Your Demand Schedule for Strawberries Point on graph $2.50 7 a 2.00 9 b 1.50 11 c Price ($ per kg)

Quantity Demanded (kg per month) Price ($ per kg) a 2.50 b 2.00 c 1.50 D 1.00 0.50 0 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 Quantity Demanded (kg per month)

2015 by McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd. 5 Deriving Market Demand Your Demand Curve for Strawberries Friends Demand Curve for Strawberries Price ($ per kg) Price ($ per kg) FIGURE 2.2 2.00 1.50 1.00 D0 0.50 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Quantity Demanded (kg per month) Individual and Market Demand Schedules for Strawberries Price You Friend Market ($ per kg) (D0) (D1)

(Dm) $2.50 2.00 1.50 (kg per month) 1 2 3 2 3 4 3 5 7 2.50 2.00 1.50 1.00 D1 0.50 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Quantity Demanded (kg per month) Market Demand Curve for Strawberries Price ($ per kg) 2.50 2.50 2.00 1.50 1.00

Dm 0.50 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Quantity Demanded (kg per month) 2015 by McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd. 6 Changes in Demand Changes in demand: are shown by shifts in the demand curve are caused by changes in demand factors: factors that can cause an increase or a decrease in a products demand Increase in demand: an increase in the quantity demanded of a product at all pricescurve shifts to the right Decrease in demand: an decrease in the quantity demanded of a product at all pricescurve shifts to the left 2015 by McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd. 7

Changes in Demand FIGURE 2.3 Market Demand Curve for Strawberries Market Demand Schedule for Strawberries $2.50 2.00 1.50 Quantity Demanded (millions of kg) (D2) (D0) (D1) 5 7 9 7 9 11 9 11 13 Price ($ per kg) Price ($ per kg) 2.50 2.00 1.50 D2 1.00 D0

D1 0.50 0 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 Quantity Demanded (millions of kg per year) 2015 by McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd. 8 Demand Factors (a) Demand factors include the following: The number of buyers (an increase causes a rightward demand shift). Income For normal products: products whose demand changes directly with income, an increase causes a rightward demand shift. For inferior products: products whose demand changes inversely with income, an increase causes a leftward demand shift. 2015 by McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd. 9

Demand Factors (b) Prices of other products For substitute products: products that can be consumed in place of one another, a rise in the other products price causes a rightward demand shift. For complementary products: products that are consumed together, a rise in the other products price causes a leftward demand shift. 2015 by McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd. 10 Demand Factors (c) Consumer preferences: current trends or events that affect peoples preferences Consumer expectations: about future prices and their own incomes affect their current purchases http://reffonomics.com/Demand.html http://www.grokkingecon.com/?ms=1442972569292 2015 by McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd. 11 Changes in Quantity Demanded Changes in quantity demanded: are shown by movements along demand curve

are caused by price changes http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ng3XH PdexNM (hula hoop) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aTSwc XJ700c (micro course) 2015 by McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd. 12 Changes in Quantity Demanded Demanded (b) Changes in Quantity Figure 2.4, page 39 FIGURE 2.4 2.00 a b 1.50 1.00 D0 0.50 0 Change in Demand Price ($ per pair of skis) Price ($ per pair of skis) Change in Quantity Demanded

2.00 1.50 1.00 D0 0.50 5000 6000 Quantity Demanded (pairs of skis) 2015 by McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd. 0 D1 5000 Quantity Demanded (pairs of skis) 13 What Is Supply? Supply: is a relationship between a products price and quantity supplied is shown using a schedule or curve Quantity supplied: the amount of a product businesses are willing to supply at each price Supply schedule: a table that shows possible combinations of prices and quantities supplied of a product Supply curve: a graph that expresses possible combinations of prices and quantities supplied of a product The law of supply: states there is a direct relationship between price and quantity supplied. Market supply: the sum of all producers quantities supplied at each price 2015 by McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd. 14

The Supply Curve FIGURE 2.5 Market Supply Curve for Strawberries Market Supply Schedule for Strawberries f Price Quantity Supplied Points ($ per kg) (millions of kg) on graph $2.50 13 f 2.00 9 e 1.50 5 d Price ($ per kg) 2.50 S e 2.00 d 1.50 1.00 0.50

0 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 Quantity Supplied (millions of kg per year) 2015 by McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd. 15 Changes in Supply Changes in supply: are shown by shifts in the supply curve are caused by changes in supply factors: factors that can cause an increase or a decrease in a products supply Increase in supply: an increase in the quantity supplied of a product at all prices Decrease in supply: a decrease in the quantity supplied of a product at all prices 2015 by McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd. 16 Changes in Supply FIGURE 2.6 Market Supply Curve for Strawberries

S2 Market Supply Schedule for Strawberries $2.50 11 13 15 2.00 7 9 11 1.50 3 5 7 2.50 Price ($ per kg) Price Quantity Supplied ($ per (millions of kg) kg) (S ) (S0) (S1) 2 S0 S1

2.00 1.50 1.00 0.50 0 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 Quantity Supplied (millions of kg per year) 2015 by McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd. 17 Supply Factors (a) Supply factors include the following: 1. 2. 3. 4. Number of producers (an increase causes a rightward supply shift)

Resource prices (an increase causes a leftward supply shift) State of technology (an improvement causes a rightward supply shift) Prices of related products (an increase causes a leftward supply shift) 2015 by McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd. 18 Supply Factors (b) Changes in nature (for some products, an improvement causes a rightward supply shift) Producer expectations (an expectation of lower prices in the future causes an immediate rightward supply shift) http://reffonomics.com/Supply.html http://reffonomics.com/SupplyandDemand.html www.Grokkingecon.com 2015 by McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd. 19 Changes in Quantity Supplied Changes in quantity supplied: are shown by movements along the supply curve are caused by price changes https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KccMcf_xOQ U&list=PL11CDA660F515D6B9&index=11

2015 by McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd. 20 Changes in Quantity Supplied FIGURE 2.7 Change in Quantity Supplied S0 120 Price ($ per kg) Price ($ per kg) S1 100 a 80 60 40 20 1 S0 120 b 100 0 Change in Supply 2 80 60

40 20 0 Quantity Supplied (millions of kg per year) 2015 by McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd. 1 2 Quantity Supplied (millions of kg per year) 21 Market Equilibrium Market equilibrium: the point at which demand and supply curves intersect When a product is in surplus: there is excess supply price is pushed down When a product is in shortage: there is excess demand price is pushed up 2015 by McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd. 22 Market Equilibrium FIGURE 2.8 Market Demand and Supply Curves for Strawberries Market Demand and Supply Schedules for Strawberries

Quantities Price (millions of kg) ($ per D S kg) $3.00 5 13 13 2.50 7 11 11 2.00 9 9 9 1.50 11 7 7 1.00 13

5 5 a a e 2.00 b b 1.50 Shortage 1.00 D 0 2015 by McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd. S Surplus 2.50 Price ($ per kg) Surplus (+) or Shortage (-) (millions of kg) 3.00

1 9 11 13 15 5 7 Quantity (millions of kg per year) 3 23 Shift in Demand or Supply A rightward demand shift pushes up both equilibrium price and quantity. A leftward demand shift pushes down both equilibrium price and quantity. A rightward supply shift pushes equilibrium price down and equilibrium quantity up. A leftward supply shift pushes equilibrium price up and equilibrium quantity down. 2015 by McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd. 24 Demand Changes and Equilibrium FIGURE 2.9 Market Demand and Supply Curves for Strawberries S 3.00 Price 2.50 Quantities (D1) (S) (millions of kg) (D0)

($ per kg.) $3.00 5 9 13 2.50 7 11 11 2.00 9 13 9 1.50 11 15 7 1.00 13 17 5 Price ($ per kg)

Market Demand and Supply Schedules for Strawberries b a 2.00 1.50 shortage 1.00 0 D0 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 Quantity (millions of kg per year) 2015 by McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd. 25 D1 17 Supply Changes and Equilibrium FIGURE 2.10 Market Demand and Supply Curves for Strawberries

3.00 Price 2.50 ($ per kg) Quantities (S0) (S1) (millions of kg) (D0) $3.00 5 13 17 2.50 7 11 15 2.00 9 9 13 1.50 11

7 11 1.00 13 5 9 Price ($ per kg) Market Demand and Supply Schedules for Strawberries S0 S1 Surplus a 2.00 b 1.50 1.00 0 D0 1 3 5 7 9

11 13 15 Quantity (millions of kg per year) 2015 by McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd. 26 17 Demand and Supply Increases A simultaneous (at the same time also called a double shift) rightward shift in demand (increase) and supply (increase) raises equilibrium quantity, but the effect on equilibrium price depends on the relative sizes of the two shifts. if demand shifts rightward more than supply, then price rises if supply shifts rightward more than demand, then price falls 2015 by McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd. 27 Effects of Increases in Demand and Supply FIGURE 2.11 Market Demand and Supply Curves for Strawberries Market Demand and Supply Schedules for Strawberries $3.00 5 9 13

17 2.50 7 11 11 15 2.00 9 13 9 13 1.50 11 15 7 11 1.00 13 17 5 9 3.00

Price ($ per kg) Price Quantities (D0) (D1) ( S0) (S1) ($ per kg.) (millions of kg) S0 2.50 a S1 b 2.00 1.50 1.00 0 D0 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 Quantity (millions of kg per year) 2015 by McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd.

28 D1 17 Demand Increase and Supply Decrease A simultaneous (at the same time also called a double shift) rightward shift in demand (increase) and leftward shift in supply (decrease) raises equilibrium price, but the effect on equilibrium quantity depends on the relative sizes of the two shifts. if supply shifts leftward more than demand shifts rightward, then quantity falls if demand shifts rightward more than supply shifts leftward, then quantity rises 2015 by McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd. 29 Effects of a Demand Increase and Supply Decrease FIGURE 2.12 Market Demand and Supply Curves for Strawberries Market Demand and Supply Schedules for Strawberries $3.00 5 7 13 11 2.50

7 9 11 9 2.00 9 11 9 7 1.50 11 13 7 5 1.00 13 15 5 3 3.00 Price ($ per kg)

Price Quantities (D0) (D1) ( S0) (S1) ($ per kg.) (millions of kg) b S S0 1 2.50 2.00 a 1.50 1.00 0 D0 D1 1 http://reffonomics.com/SupplyandDemand.html Copyright 2012 by McGraw-Hill Ryerson Limited. All rights reserved. 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 Quantity (millions of kg per year) 30

17 Groups for Activity 5 Group 1 Group 2 Group 3 Group 4 Group 5 Group 6 Group 7 Group 8 Group 9 Kalie Dylan Mitchell Kewen Elijah Tanner Andrew Yixin Kelly Thu Crulison Maira Taylor Sachin Zifu Stephanie Younis Gurkirat Jaapvir

Naixin Caissy Grace Graham Alex Peter Daniel Kulan Edward Jerry Andy Giacomo Yuan Shibo Copyright 2008 by McGraw-Hill Ryerson Limited. All rights reserved. Spoilt for Choice William Stanley Jevons: assumed measurable utility outlined the law of diminishing marginal utility: states that a consumers marginal utility declines as more of a product is consumed showed how this law can be illustrated using the downward-sloping marginal utility graph for a given consumer and product, based on that consumers total utility graph

http://reffonomics.com/Utility.html 32 Total and Marginal Utility FIGURE A Total Utility Consumers Total and Marginal Utility From Cappuccino 0 Margina l Utility (utils) (a) 1 12 (b) 2 20 3 24 (d) 4 26 (e) 12 (f)

8 (g) 4 (h) 2 (i) (c) d 24 Utility (utils) 0 Total Utility (utils) e c 20 16 b 12 8 4 0 a 2 1 3

Cups of Cappuccino 4 Marginal Utility Utility (utils) Quantity Consume d (cups) 28 16 12 8 4 0 f g h i 2 1 3 Cups of Cappuccino 2015 by McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd. 4 33 The Utility-Maximizing Rule Jevons devised the utility-maximizing rule this rule states a consumer should reach the same marginal utility per dollar for all products consumed www.grokkingecon.com in mathematical terms:

MU1 P1 = MU2 P2 2015 by McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd. 34 Applying the Rule FIGURE B Cups of Cappuccino (price = $1) Danish Pastries (price = $2) Quantity Margina Marginal l Utility Utility per $ (MU1) (MU1/P1=MU1/$1) (utils per $) (utils) 0 12 12 1 8 8 2 4 4 3 2 2

4 Quantity Margina Marginal l Utility Utility per $ (MU2) (MU2/P2=MU2/$2) (utils per $) (utils) 0 16 1 12 8 2 8 6 3 4 4 4 2 Danish Pastries 12 8 4 0 2 1 3 Cups of Cappuccino 4 Marginal Utility Per $ (utils) Marginal Utility

Per $ (utils) Cappuccinos 12 8 4 0 2015 by McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd. 2 1 Pastries 3 4 35 2015 by McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd. 36 2015 by McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd. 37 2015 by McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd. 38 2015 by McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd. 39

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