World History Democracy World History Geographic Influence Mountains

World History Democracy World History Geographic Influence Mountains

World History Democracy World History Geographic Influence Mountains Independent city-states Insufficient farmland Founded colonies on Mediterranean coast Location

Peninsula in Mediterranean Exchange of culture/trade Deep harbors Numerous good harbors on its irregular coastline World History City-States Athens Democratic, leading city-state Sparta Aristocratic/military city-state

Corinth Trading center United by language, culture and fear of Persians World History Development of direct democracy in Athens. Greece

World History Prologue: The Rise of Democratic Ideas Democratic thinking developed beyond its ancient Greek beginnings and shaped intellectual movements, reforms, and revolutions. 5 World History The Legacy of Ancient Greece and Rome Athens Builds a Limited Democracy

Greek city-states create their own governmentsystem for controlling society, including: - monarchya single person called a king or monarch ruled - aristocracyrule by a small group of nobles - oligarchyrule by a few powerful people Ancient Greeks develop first democracyrule of the people Building a Democracy In Athens, citizens participated in government Each year, citizens elected three nobles to rule the city-state Political and economic crisis occurs in 600 BC causing farmers to pledge their crops to wealthy land-owners and than later pledging their land. They eventually sold themselves into slavery to the rich. 6

World History 7 World History Lesson 1 Athens Builds a Limited Democracy Reforms of Solon In 594 BC, Solon passes a law outlawing slavery based on debt - establishes four classes of citizenship based on wealth, not heredity

- introduces concept that any citizen can press charges Limited democracy in Athens - only citizens, about one-tenth of the population, could participate - women, slaves, and foreigners could not be citizens 8 Copyright by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Continued World History Lesson 1 Athens Builds a Limited Democracy

Cleisthenes Enacts More Reforms Clisthenes introduces more reforms in 508 BC, makes Athens a full democracy - regarded as the founder of democracy in Athens - balances power of rich and poor - all citizens allowed to submit laws - creates Council of Five Hundred 9 Copyright by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company World History Lesson 1

Greek Democracy Changes Pericles Strengthens Democracy Pericles strengthens democracy by increasing number of paid officials, paying jurors - poorer citizens could now participate Athens evolves into a direct democracycitizens govern and make laws Democracy ends in Athens due to war with Sparta 10 Copyright by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Continued

World History ***We call Athens Greece The Birthplace of Democracy. World History The people of Greece used a Direct Democracy. A Direct Democracy is a government where people vote to make their own rules & laws.

World History Athenian Contributions Government Direct Democracy Theater, poetry, and historical writing Science and math Architecture and sculpture Philosophy

Socrates Individual Plato Group Aristotle World World History The Three Most Famous Greek Philosophers

Socrates Plato Aristotle World History Lesson 1 Greek Democracy Changes Greek Philosophers Use Reason Several great thinkers appear in Athens in the fourth century BC Thought humans can understand the universe through

logic - Socratescreates Socratic method - PlatoSocrates pupil, writes The Republic and is exiled to Rome where he starts the Academy - AristotlePlatos pupil, examines nature and human knowledge and classifies governments 15 Copyright by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company World History Socrates469 - 399 Critic of the Sophists

Encouraged students to think Left no writings skeptical Dialectic method Conversational Based upon reason and logic Popular among the youth a gadfly in Athens Placed on trial for impiety and corrupting the youth Was executed in 399 drank poison hemlock B.C

. World History Socrates469 - 399 The unexamined life is not worth living. Socrates - -

B.C . World History Socrates469 - 399 Socratic Method: I. II. III. IV. V.

Admit ignorance. Never rely on tradition. Continuously question. Formulate your own opinions. Test your opinions with others. B.C . World History

Socrates469 - 399 Socrates dialectic method was a departure from earlier philosophers. Earlier philosophers were interested in the nature of the universe and basic elements. Socrates approach was more rigorous and was the forerunner of logic. Most famous student: Plato B.C

. World History World History Socrates469 - 399 B.C . The unexamined life is not worth living.

World History Plato427 - 347 B.C . Preserved and perpetuated the work of Socrates Most important source of info on Socrates

Founded the Academy Wrote dialogues Universal Forms was a recurring theme The Republic most important dialogue Those things which are beautiful are also difficult. World History Aristotle384 - 322

Most famous student of Plato Most famous teacher of Alexander the Great Developed Logic as a field of study Devised a complex system of classification Used in biology Views on Government B.C

. World History Aristotle 384 - 322 Views on Government 3 Good Governments: Monarchy Aristocracy Democracy 3 Bad Governments:

Tyranny Oligarchy Mob Rule B.C . World History Aristotle384 - 322 All things in moderation Man is by nature a

political animal. If Aristotle were alive today where would he fall on todays political spectrum? B.C . World History 26 World History

Alexander the Great (336-323 BCE) Taught by Aristotle Conquered Persian Empire Created Hellenistic culture and Greek imperialism and commercialization Died suddenly at 33

World History Use the Viewing Guide to answer questions while watching the video. Video Time: The Greeks Crucible of Civilization World History Lesson 1 Greek Democracy Changes Legacy of Greece

Greece set lasting standards in government, philosophy - Created natural laws to understand world - Developed direct democracy - Developed three branches of government legislative, executive, and judicial 29 Copyright by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company World History Development of representative democracy in Rome and the Roman Republic.

Rome World History Founding 1500BC-Latins crossed Alps Founded Rome on 7 hills River by Tiber Agricultural

750BC-Conquered by Etruscans Latins (Romans) learned to: Build roads, walls, & buildings Make metal weapons World History Lesson 1 Rome Develops a Republic From Kingdom to Republic In 509 BC, Roman aristocrats overthrow their last Etruscan aristrocratic king They create a republica form of government in which citizens elect political leaders

Patricians and plebeians struggle for power (two social classes) - patricians: power and status inherited - plebeians: citizens with right to vote Over time, plebeians granted more power 32 Copyright by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Continued World History Fasces Fascis, meaning

"bundle") is a bound bundle of wooden rods, sometimes including an axe with its blade emerging. The fasces had its origin in the Etruscan civilization and was passed on to ancient Rome, where it symbolized a magistrates power and jurisdiction.

World History Fasces World History Fasces World History Fasces World History

37 World History Roman Republic World History Geography Rome is located on the peninsula of Italy. The Mediterranean Sea provides transportation

and food. Italy provides fertile plains and river valleys for food and easy communication. World History Roman Religious Ideals Romans were polytheistic, believing in many gods and spirits. Knowledge of the Greek Gods filtered into Roman culture. This

is known as cultural diffusion. The Greek God Zeus became the almighty Roman God Jupiter. The Greek Goddess Hera became the Roman Goddess Juno. World History Republic 500-27 BCE Social aristocracy Patricians Plebeians Senate

Conquered Mediterranean world Italian Peninsula and west Client states Spread Greek culture Began to end with assassination of Julius Caesar in 44 BCE World History The Roman Republic Rome was founded about 509 BCE. Romans founded a new type of government called a republic. In a republic people chose officials to represent them. The highest form of government in Rome was the Senate.

Senators were wealthy landowners (called Patricians.) World History World History Society was Divided Into Classes Upper class Romans were known as patricians. These people held nearly all the important political offices. Common framers, artisans, and merchants were known as plebeians. These two classes were based on

birth alone. The line between the two classes was extremely rigid. World History Rome Built a Mighty Army Massive military units were called legions. Which consisted of: Infantry: 4,000-6,000 Heavily armed foot soldiers. Cavalry: Smaller groups on horseback that assisted the

infantry. Each legion was divided into 60 smaller groups called a century. World History Rome Built a Mighty Army Both patricians and plebeians lead double lives as farmers and soldiers because of the constant threat of war. All male citizens were required to serve in the army, and no

one could hold public office until he served 10 years as a soldier. World History Lesson 1 Rome Develops a Republic Twelve Tables Plebeians force the creation of a written law code Laws carved on 12 tables (tablets) in 451 BC, publicly displayed Establishes right to protection of the law based on democratic ideas Republican Government Two officials called consuls command army, direct government

Legislative branch made up of two assemblies and a senate - patricians made up senate; assembles included other classes Republic collapses; Rome under emperor rule starting 27 BC 47 Copyright by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company World History Legal Contributions The most valued contribution of the Romans to the world was the Twelve Tables of written laws. The Roman legal system provided

security for the empire, equality under the law, the right to a defense and to be considered innocent until proven guilty. The Roman legal system inspired legal principles still practiced around the world today. World History The Romans used a Republican form of Government - Representative Democracy.

A Representative Democracy is a government in which the people elect (vote for) a smaller group to make the rules & laws for everyone. World History A Fight with Carthage By 270 BC Rome had conquered all of Italy. They went on to control northern Africa (Carthage), Greece and parts of Asia Minor. But the expansion also led to much corruption. World History

Empire 27 BCE-476 CE Octavian (Augustus) Began Pax Romana Spread Greco-Roman civilization Law, language, historical writing Trade, industry, science, architecture Diocletian Divided Empire Constantine

Reunited empire Converted to Christianity World History Julius Caesar Caesar came to power in 48 BCE. Under Julius Caesar Rome conquered many lands. Caesar also reformed the government,

founded libraries and planned public work projects. World History Caesar Murdered Caesar was murdered in 44BCE by a group of Roman aristocrats who feared his power and did not want a dictator. World History Augustus

After Julius Caesar died, his grandnephew, Octavian (Augustus) took over. Augustus ruled with absolute power. This began the Roman Empire period during which Rome was ruled by a series of emperors. World History Under Augustus Rome

enjoyed a peaceful period that lasted about 200 years. This was referred to as the Pax Romana. The government maintained order, enforced laws, defended the borders and helped the poor. Many public works projects were conducted, such as aqueducts, canals and roads. World History

Solid paved roads were built to assist trade and communication around the empire. Many still exist today. World History Roman aqueducts were incredible works of engineering and architecture. The aqueducts could carry up to 300 million gallons of water to the city of Rome every day. World History

Decline and Fall Rome wasnt built in a day and it took a long time to decline. Eventually the emperor Diocletian divided the empire into eastern and western empires. While the western empire fell into chaos and was invaded, the eastern empire survived as a center of trade and culture and became the Byzantine Empire. World History World History

Germanic Invasion (Barbarians) Germans allowed to settle Western Rome from the North Huns from the East pushed more Germans in 476 CElast Roman emperor World History D e c l i n e a n d Fa l l Invasions of Visigoths and Germanic tribes Causes of the

Fall of Rome Heavy taxes, Shrinking middle Class, Not enough farmers Governmental Corruption, People stop Supporting the government Population decline

From war and Famine, People got lazy World History Roman Law Romans create a system of laws for the Roman Empire; influences Western democracy: - all citizens had the right to equal treatment - a person is considered innocent until proven guilty - burden of proof rests with the accuser - unfair laws could be set aside A Written Legal Code

In 528 AD, Emperor Justinian oversees compilation of all Roman laws - The Code of Justinian becomes guide on legal matters throughout Western Europe Legacy of Rome Rome gave the world the idea of a republic Individuals are citizens, not subjects Written legal code applied equally and would become the model for English 62 Common law as well as International law into today. Copyright by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company World History

The Legacy of Ancient Greece and Rome The Greeks developed democracy (direct) in Athens and the Romans added representative government by creating the first republic. 63 Copyright by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company World History Monotheism and Democracy World History

LESSON 2 Judeo-Christian Tradition Judaism and Christianity taught individual worth, ethical values, and the need to fight injustice. 65 Copyright by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company World History LESSON 2

Judeo-Christian Tradition Judaism Judaism, Christianity, and Islam helped shape democratic traditions - Worth of the individual, responsibility to community Created in Gods Image Hebrews (Israelites) believed in one all-knowing, powerful God They believed God commanded people to live moral lives - Judaismthe religion of the Israelites and Jews All individuals are made in Gods image, all have dignity 66

Copyright by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Continued World History Lesson 2 Judaism (continued) Jewish Law Teaches Morality Ten CommandmentsJewish written law code given by God to Moses Provides rules on social and religious behavior Prophets in the eighth century BC strengthen social conscience - Every person must oppose injustice and oppression

67 Copyright by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company World History Lesson 2 Christianity Judea under Roman rule by 6 BC Jesus of Nazareth begins public ministry at age 30 - preaches monotheism, Ten Commandments - emphasizes Gods personal relationship with all The Teachings of Christianity

Jesus preaches love of God, neighbors, enemies, and self Considered a political threat by Roman governor, put to death Followers call him Jesus ChristChristo is Greek for messiah Christianityreligion founded by Jesus 68 Copyright by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Continued

World History Lesson 2 Christianity (continued) The Spread of Christianity Jesuss followers spread Christianity across Roman Empire The apostle Paul greatly influences Christianitys development - Stresses essential equality in all, belief central to democracy Rome Spreads Judeo-Christian Ideas Rome indirectly spreads Christianity through the Diasporathe exile of Jews Christianity becomes official religion of the Roman Empire by 380 Romes Christian Legacy

Emperor Constantine I credits Christian God for victory in 312 AD, ends persecution In 330 AD, Constantinople becomes new Roman capitol 69 Copyright by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company World History Lesson 2 Islam In 600s, Islam created from the teachings of Muhammad Muhammad emphasizes dignity and unity of all, tolerance of different groups MuslimsIslams followersrequired to offer charity, all obey same laws

The Legacy of Monotheistic Religions Ideas from monotheistic religions form basis of democratic thinking: - individual and community must combat oppression - individual has worth, value - all equal before God 70 Copyright by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company World History Judaism's Influence on Christianity (The Bible) Religious text in the Christian faith actually includes the Torah, however re-brands it as the Old Testament. Featuring such centralized figures as Abraham and Moses, the

Christian faith added other elements to the monotheistic Jewish religion that caused people to branch away from the Temple. Referring to the prophet--and literal Son of God--Jesus of Nazareth is written to have been born of a Virgin Mother, and conceived by God. Although Jesus was a Jewish man, and is said to be a direct descendant of King Solomon himself, many members of the Jewish faith did not follow this belief. After Jesus was persecuted and killed for his teachings, his followers recorded his miracles, Gospels, acts, and teachings and compiled them all into the New Testament of the Bible, what is now regarded as one of Christianitys main religious texts. The New Testament combined the Torah with the teachings of Jesus Christ, his disciples and his followers. The Bible, which is the main religious text of Christianity, is compiled of the Torah and the New Testament. The books of the New Testament were recorded by four different people--Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John. These are known as the Gospels in the Christian church.

World History Judaism (continued) Jewish Law Teaches Morality Ten CommandmentsJewish written law code given by God to Moses Provides rules on social and religious behavior Prophets in the eighth century BC strengthen social conscience - Every person must oppose injustice and oppression 72

Copyright by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company World History Christianity Judea under Roman rule by 6 BC Jesus of Nazareth begins public ministry at age 30 - preaches monotheism, Ten Commandments - emphasizes Gods personal relationship with all The Teachings of Christianity Jesus preaches love of God, neighbors, enemies, and self Considered a political threat by Roman governor, put to death Followers call him Jesus ChristChristo is Greek for messiah Christianityreligion founded by Jesus

73 Copyright by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Continued World History Christianity (continued) The Spread of Christianity Jesuss followers spread Christianity across Roman Empire

The apostle Paul greatly influences Christianitys development - Stresses essential equality in all, belief central to democracy Rome Spreads Judeo-Christian Ideas Rome indirectly spreads Christianity through the Diasporathe exile of Jews Christianity becomes official religion of the Roman Empire by 380 Romes Christian Legacy Emperor Constantine I credits Christian God for victory in 312 AD, ends persecution In 330 AD, Constantinople becomes new Roman capitol 74 Copyright by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company World History

Lesson 1 Beliefs and Practices of Islam Links to Judaism and Christianity To Muslims, Allah is same God worshiped by Christians and Jews Quran, Gospels, Torahcontain Gods will as revealed through others Muslims, Christians, and Jews trace their roots to Abraham All three religions believe in heaven, hell, and a day of judgment Sharia law requires Muslim leaders to extend religious tolerance 75 Copyright by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Continued

World History Lesson 1 Muhammad, Prophet of Islam Around AD 570 Muhammad is born into a powerful Meccan clan Becomes a trader, marries wealthy businesswoman, Khadijah Revelations By age 40, Muhammad spends much time in prayer and meditation He hears angel Gabriel tell him he is a messenger of Allah Muhammad founds religion of Islamsubmission to the will of Allah Many join him and become Muslimone who has submitted 76

Copyright by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Continued

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