# Biomechanics Labs for K-12 Need clarifications on slides:

Biomechanics Labs for K-12 Need clarifications on slides: 2, 11, 15, 20, 21, and 28 Optimal Projection for Maximizing Distance Movements involving projectiles have an optimal angle of release to maximize distance depending on: Release height versus target height 45o is optimal if the release point and landing point are the same height. Greater than 45o will result in shorter distance, greater height, and greater flight time

Less than 45o will result in shorter distances, lower height, and shorter flight time Most throwing and striking skills have an optimal angle of projection below 45 0. Velocity of object released Lower velocity vs higher velocity? How does distance impact angle of release? Optimal Projection 1 You will be throwing an object (i.e., a baseball) from different release angles and recording the flight time and distance.

Flight Time Distance High angle of release Moderate angle of release Low angle of release Low angle of release = Faster but less distance (ie. baseball throw from the infield to home plate) High angle of release = More distance but longer flight time (ie. baseball throw from the outfield to home plate) Optimal Projection 2

You will put the shot using 3 different release angles. Rest between attempts. Use the movement analysis app to verify each attempts angle. For each successful attempt (correct angle), record the distance. Which attempt traveled the furthest? Modifications Have landing targets of differing heights. How does this affect the distance of the throw? Resource: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tujhe7sc7SQ

Optimal Projection 3 You will punt the football (or soccer ball) using 3 different release angles. Rest between attempts. Use the movement analysis app to verify each attempts angle. For each successful attempt (correct angle), record the distance and time. Which attempt traveled the furthest? Which had the most hang time? Resistance to Angular Motion

The further the horizontal distance the weight is from the joint that is rotating, the greater the muscular force required to lift the weight. How much mass and how it is distributed affects resistance to angular velocity (how?) Resistance to Angular Motion 1 Perform lateral side raises using a light weight with the following positions: Arms Almost Fully Extended (approx. 165 degrees) Arms Slightly Bent

(approx. 120 degrees) Arms Moderately Bent (approx. 90 degrees) Which position did the weight feel the lightest? (Position 3 should feel the easiest because the weight being lifted is closer to the joint) Explain the concept of Moment Arm. What other examples can you see this principle at work? Resistance to Angular Motion 2

Easier Sit-up Harder Sit-up Why is the easier sit-up easier? (more mass near the axis of rotation) create picture of harder version with knees bent Resistance to Angular Motion 3 Easier Running Technique Bring legs to butt (reduces force

needed for forward swing of leg) Harder Running Technique Bring legs to perpendicular to ground Resistance to Angular Motion 4 Students lay on the scooter board and another student will spin them.

What happens when you put your arms and legs out? What happens when you put your arms and legs in? Coordination Continuum Simultaneous Movement: used in movements that require high forces (preparation, action, and follow through phase occur at almost the same time). Sequential Interaction (summation of forces): Forces acting on the linked segments of the body can be transferred to other segments.

Used in movements that require lower forces and higher speed. Coordination Continuum 1 Sequential You will be shooting a basketball under 3 different conditions and recording the distance and trajectory of the shot. Position 1 Use arms only. Do not bend your legs or use your calf muscles. Position 2

Position 3 Use arms and bend/extend legs. Do not use your calf muscles. Bend and extend your legs before you shoot and push off the ground with your calf muscles. (insert picture)

(insert picture) (insert picture) Which lab were you the most successful? How did each lab feel? Coordination Continuum 1 Recording Sheets Place an X where the ball landed (use different colors for each attempt)

Draw the trajectory (use different colors for each attempt) Coordination Continuum 2 Sequential Each partner will throw a ball as far as they can for each portion of the lab. The non-throwing partner will record the distance thrown. Sitting position 1. Have your partner hold your shoulders so that you cannot twist your upper body. Throw the ball as far as you can, using only your

arm to generate force. Record the distance: _____________ Standing up 1. Face the direction you are throwing. Have your partner hold your shoulders so that you cannot twist your body. Throw the ball as far as you can, using only your arm to generate force. Record the distance: _____________

Sitting position 2. Do not hold the throwers shoulders. Reaching as far back as you can with your throwing arm, throw the ball as far as you can. Record the distance: _____________ Standing up 2. Face sideways to the direction you are throwing. Reaching as far back as you can with your throwing arm, throw the ball as far as you can. Try to transfer your weight from your back leg to your front leg

as you throw. Record the distance: _____________ Which lab section did you feel the most comfortable throwing? Which lab section did you throw the furthest? Coordination Continuum 3 Students practice a jump shot from numerous distances from the basket. Start at the closest location. At each location, attempt: Shooting the basketball using a slow segmental approach.

Shooting the basketball using a simultaneous approach. The further away they get, the more simultaneous the shooting movement must be (in order to generate enough force). Coordination Continuum 4 Jump for maximum height using both approaches. Record your score. Did you jump higher using a sequential technique or simultaneous? Friction 1

How does equipment affect performance? Wheels (skateboard, inline skates, etc.) Shoes/Cleats Playing Surface Tennis courts (regular, clay, grass) Skating surface (asphalt, concrete, wood, indoor flooring, etc.) Grass vs turf Friction 2 Push a heavy object using 2 different methods (or pulling think

Crossfit): Continuously bumping object forward Sliding object as far as you can, rest and repeat Which method was easier? Friction 3 Try moving an object, applying the force in different locations (see below) Which method was easiest to move the object?

Buoyancy The amount of buoyant force is equal to the amount of water displaced (dependent on volume of object) by the object. Persons ability to float also depends on aligning buoyant force (BF) or center of buoyancy (near the center of the chest) with the center of gravity of the body (near the belly button in anatomical position). Buoyancy 1 Laying in the water, try to stay afloat using these 3 positions: Position 1

Head is out of water. Back is parallel to water line. Legs are near the top of the water. Position 2 Head is halfway out of the water. Back is parallel to water line Legs are relaxed.

Position 3 Water is covering half the head, from ears back. Back and legs are relaxed and in a reclined position. Which position was the easiest to stay afloat? (Position 3 should be the easiest because the more water displaced, the more buoyancy created) Buoyancy 2 When floating, inhale the maximum amount of air.

Now exhale the maximum amount of air. What happens? Which makes it easier to float. Form Drag 1 Decreasing frontal area and streamlining (biking, skating, what else?). Activity can be generic. Can also add additional clothing to students to increase drag. Form Drag 2 Swimming: hand enters water at different positions palm down

palm 45 degrees and palm perpendicular to water line Force-Time 1 (Impulse) Practice increase time that force is applied in order to slow down object: Landing, catching a baseball, receiving hockey pass, trapping a soccer ball, etc. Was it easier or harder to execute the skill with longer time applying force or shorter time? What did it feel like? Force-Time 2 (Impulse)

Increase time that force is applied in order to increase total exerted impulse (i.e., a bigger change in speed) Practice skills with and without following through (shooting a basketball, kicking a soccer ball, throwing a ball, etc.) Ie. Penalty kick in soccer (shooting from a straight approach vs shooting from an angled approach which maximizes hip rotation and allows for further follow through) Measure the distance for each (multiple attempts and average) Measure time from release to target Principle of Balance Base of

Support Wrestling Activity: students attempt to get their partner off balance by pushing against each other. Switch roles after 3 attempts. Option 1: Provide different tactics Narrow base vs Wide base Staggered stance versus non-staggered stance Option 2: Dont provide any information and let the students practice their own ideas. Debrief after the task: What worked and what didnt? Principle of Balance 2 Base of

Support Modify Yoga positions with greater base of support vs smaller base of support Spin The rotation of projectiles can be used to stabilize flight, modify flight, and modify rebound. More spin = less speed Surprising Applications of the Magnus Effect video https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2OSrvzNW9FE&list=PLf_5SaJu-W JRlXEvKWG7N-f4P0oI0Z5Ld&index=7

Spin Activity for modifying rebound: bounce pass a basketball using topspin and sidespin Activity for modifying flight path: Bending a soccer shot. Activity for modifying flight path: Volleyball serve (regular, float, and topspin) Activity for stabilizing flight: Frisbee (Turbo put: try pushing only and try pushing and spinning) and football pass (no rotation vs spiral)

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