Chapter Chapter13Clickers Lecture Essentials of Oceanography Eleventh Edition

Chapter Chapter13Clickers Lecture Essentials of Oceanography Eleventh Edition

Chapter Chapter13Clickers Lecture Essentials of Oceanography Eleventh Edition Marine Provinces Alan P. Trujillo

Harold V. Thurman 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter Overview The study of bathymetry determines ocean depths and ocean floor topography. Echo sounding and satellites are efficient bathymetric tools. Most ocean floor features are generated by

plate tectonic processes. Different sea floor features exist in different oceanographic locations. 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Bathymetry Measures the vertical distance from the ocean surface to mountains, valleys, plains, and other sea floor features

2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Measuring Bathymetry Soundings Poseidonus made first sounding in 85 B.C. Line with heavy weight Sounding lines used for 2000 years Fathom

Unit of measure 1.8 meters (6 feet) 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Measuring Bathymetry HMS Challenger Made first systematic measurements in 1872 Deep ocean floor has relief

Variations in sea floor depth 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Measuring Bathymetry Echo Soundings Echo sounder or fathometer Reflection of sound signals German ship Meteor identified mid-Atlantic ridge in 1925

Lacks detail May provide inaccurate view of sea floor 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Echo Sounding Record 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

Measuring Bathymetry Precision Depth Recorder (PDR) 1950s Focused high-frequency sound beam First reliable sea floor maps produced Helped confirm sea floor spreading 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Modern Bathymetry Measuring

Multibeam Echo Sounders Multiple simultaneous sound frequencies Seabeam First multibeam echo sounder Map sea floor strips up to 60 km (37 mi) wide

2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Modern Bathymetry Measuring Sonar Sound navigation and ranging acronym 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Modern Bathymetry Measuring

Side scan sonar GLORIA (Geological Long-range Inclined Acoustical instrument) Sea MARC (Sea Mapping and Remote Characterization) Can be towed behind ship to provide very detailed bathymetric strip map 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

GLORIA Side Scanning Sonar 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Sea Floor Mapping from Space Uses satellite measurements Measures sea floor features based on

gravitational bulges in sea surface Indirectly reveals bathymetry 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Comparing Bathymetric Maps 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

Sea Floor Mapping from Space Satellite-derived ocean surface gravity Reveals bathymetry where ships have not conducted research 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

Measuring Bathymetry Seismic Reflection Profiles Air guns Strong, low-frequency sounds Details ocean structure beneath sea floor

2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Seismic Reflection Profile 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Hypsographic Curve Shows relationship between height of land and depth of

ocean 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Hypsographic Curve 70.8% of Earth covered by oceans Average ocean depth is 3729 meters Average land elevation is 840 meters Uneven distribution of areas of different depths/elevations

Variations suggest plate tectonics at work 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Ocean Provinces

Three Major Provinces Continental margins Shallow-water areas close to shore Deep-ocean basins Deep-water areas farther from land Mid-ocean ridge Submarine mountain range

2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Ocean Provinces 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Continental Margins Passive Not close to any plate boundary No major tectonic activity

East coast of United States Active Associated with convergent or transform plate boundaries Much tectonic activity 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Passive and Active Continental Margins

2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Active Continental Margins Convergent Active Margin Oceanic-continent convergent plate boundaries Active continental volcanoes Narrow shelf Offshore trench

Western South America 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Active Continental Margins Transform Continental Margin Less common Transform plate boundaries Linear islands, banks, and deep basins close to shore

Coastal California along San Andreas Fault 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Continental Margin Features

Continental shelf Shelf break Continental slope Continental rise 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Passive Continental Margin Features 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

Continental Shelf Flat zone from shore to shelf break Shelf break is where marked increase in slope angle occurs. Geologically part of continent Average width is 70 km (43 miles) but can extend to 1500 km (930 miles) Average depth of shelf break is 135 meters

(443 feet) 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Continental Shelf Type of continental margin determines shelf features. Passive margins have wider shelves.

Californias transform active margin has a continental borderland. 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Continental Slope Where deep ocean basins begin Topography similar to land mountain ranges

Greater slope than continental shelf Averages 4 but varies from 125 gradient Marked by submarine canyons 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Submarine Canyons Narrow, deep, V-shaped in profile Steep to overhanging walls

Extend to base of continental slope, 3500 meters (11,500 feet) below sea level Carved by turbidity currents 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Turbidity Currents Underwater avalanches mixed with rocks and

other debris Sediment from continental shelf Moves under influence of gravity Sediments deposited at slope base 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

Continental Rise Transition between continental crust and oceanic crust Marked by turbidite deposits from turbidity currents Graded bedding in turbidite deposits

2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Continental Rise Deposits generate deepsea fans, or submarine fans Distal ends of submarine fans become flat abyssal plains 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

Abyssal Plains Extend from base of continental rise Some of the deepest, flattest parts of Earth

Suspension settling of very fine particles Sediments cover ocean crust irregularities Well-developed in Atlantic and Indian oceans 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Abyssal Plains 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

Abyssal Plain Volcanic Peaks Poke through sediment cover Below sea level: Seamounts, tablemounts, or guyots at least 1 km (0.6 mile) above sea floor Abyssal hills or seaknolls are less than 1 km (0.6 mile) above sea floor Above sea level: Volcanic islands

2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Ocean Trenches and Volcanic Arcs Convergent margins generate ocean trenches. Deepest part of oceans Most in Pacific Ocean Deepest trench Mariana Trench at 11,022 meters (36,161 feet)

2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Ocean Trenches 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Island and Continental Arcs Volcanic arc on nonsubducted

ocean plate Island arc Islands in ocean Japan Continental arc Mountains on land Andes Mountains 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

Pacific Ring of Fire Margins of Pacific Ocean Majority of worlds active volcanoes and earthquakes Marked by convergent boundaries 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Mid-Ocean Ridge

Longest mountain chain On average, 2.5 km (1.5 miles) above surrounding sea floor Volcanic Basaltic lava Divergent plate boundary 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Mid-Ocean Ridge

2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Mid-Ocean Ridge Features Rift Valley Downdropped area on crest of ridge Marked by fissures and faults Small earthquakes 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

Mid-Ocean Ridge Features Seamounts tall volcanoes Pillow lava or pillow basalt shapes formed when hot basaltic lava quickly cools

2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Mid-Ocean Ridge Features Hydrothermal Vents Sea floor hot springs Foster unusual deep-ocean ecosystems able to survive without sunlight 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

Hydrothermal Vents Warm water vents temperatures below 30C (86F) White smokers temperatures from 30 350C (86662F) Black smokers temperatures above 350C (662F) 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

Hydrothermal Vents 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Fracture Zones and Transform Faults Transform faults along mid-ocean ridge offset spreading zones. Linear ridge on spherical Earth Seismically active

Fracture zones along Pacific Ocean midocean rise Seismically inactive Occur beyond offset fragments of rise 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Fracture Zones 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

Fracture Zones and Transform Faults 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Fracture Zones and Transform Faults 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Oceanic Islands

Volcanic activity Hotspots Island arcs Islands that are part of continents 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

End of CHAPTER 3 Marine Provinces 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

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