Poetry Notes In poetry the sound and meaning of words are combined to express feelings, thoughts, and ideas. The poet chooses words carefully. Poetry is usually
written in lines. 2 Poetry Elements Writers use many elements to create their poems. These elements include: Rhythm/Rhyme Sound Imagery 3 Imagery: a word or set of words that paints a verbal picture of an object, idea, mood, or
situation. Moon is shining. Night sky is blue. Stars are great drops Of golden dew. Harlem Night Song, Langston Hughes 4 3. Imagery
Imagery is the use of words to create pictures, or images, in your mind. Appeals to the five senses: smell, sight, hearing, taste and touch. Details about smells, sounds, colors, and taste create strong images. To create vivid images writers use figures of speech. Five Senses 5 1. Rhythm
Rhythm is the flow of the beat in a poem. Gives poetry a musical feel. Can be fast or slow, depending on mood and subject of poem. 6 Rhyme
Rhymes are words that end with the same sound. (Hat, cat and bat rhyme.) Rhyming sounds dont have to be spelled the same way. (Cloud and allowed rhyme.) Rhyme is the most common sound device in poetry.
7 ABAB Rhyming Pattern Oodles of Noodles Use the letters of the alphabet to show the rhyme pattern. I love noodles. Give me oodles. a Make a mound up to the sun. b Noodles are my favorite foodles. a I eat noodles by the ton. b By Lucia and James L. Hymes, Jr. 8 AABB Rhyming Pattern First Snow Snow makes whiteness where it falls.
The bushes look like popcorn balls. And places where I always play, Look like somewhere else today. By Marie Louise Allen 9 ABCB Rhyming Pattern The Alligator The alligator chased his tail Which hit him in the snout; He nibbled, gobbled, swallowed it, And turned right inside-out. by Mary Macdonald 10
Rhythm & Rhyme Example What is the rhyme pattern of this poem? Use paper to write down the pattern. After you finish, click to the next slide to check your pattern. Where Are You Now? When the night begins to fall And the sky begins to glow You look up and see the tall City of lights begin to grow In rows and little golden squares The lights come out. First here, then there Behind the windowpanes as though A million billion bees had built Their golden hives and honeycombs Above you in the air. The rhythm in this poem is
slow why? By Mary Britton Miller 11 Rhythm Example Where Are You Now? When the night begins to fall a And the sky begins to glow b You look up and see the tall a City of lights begin to grow b In rows and little golden squares c The lights come out. First here, then there c Behind the windowpanes as though b A million billion bees had built d Their golden hives and honeycombs e
Above you in the air. c The rhythm in this poem is slow why? By Mary Britton Miller 12 2. Sound Writers love to use interesting sounds in their poems. After all, poems are meant to be heard. These sound devices include: Repetition Alliteration Onomatopoeia
13 Repetition Repetition occurs when poets repeat words, phrases, or lines in a poem. Creates a pattern. Increases rhythm. Strengthens feelings, ideas and mood in a poem.
14 Repetition Example The Sun Some one tossed a pancake, A buttery, buttery, pancake. Someone tossed a pancake And flipped it up so high, That now I see the pancake, The buttery, buttery pancake, Now I see that pancake Stuck against the sky. by Sandra Liatsos 15 Alliteration Example
This Tooth I jiggled it jaggled it jerked it. I pushed and pulled and poked it. But As soon as I stopped, And left it alone This tooth came out On its very own! by Lee Bennett Hopkins 16 Onomatopoeia
Words that represent the actual sound of something are words of onomatopoeia. Dogs bark, cats purr, thunder booms, rain drips, and the clock ticks. Appeals to the sense of sound. (See next slide for example.) 17
Onomatopoeia Example Listen Scrunch, scrunch, scrunch. Crunch, crunch, crunch. Frozen snow and brittle ice Make a winter sound thats nice Underneath my stamping feet And the cars along the street. Scrunch, scrunch, scrunch. Crunch, crunch, crunch. by Margaret Hillert 18 Figures of Speech
Figures of speech are tools that writers use to create images, or paint pictures, in your mind. Similes, metaphors, and personification are three figures of speech that create imagery. 19 Simile
A simile compares two things using the words like or as. Comparing one thing to another creates a vivid image. (See next slide for example.) The runner streaked like a cheetah. 20 Simile Example Flint
An emerald is as green as grass, A ruby red as blood; A sapphire shines as blue as heaven; A flint lies in the mud. A diamond is a brilliant stone, To catch the worlds desire; An opal holds a fiery spark; But a flint holds fire. By Christina Rosetti 21 Metaphor
A metaphor compares two things without using the words like or as. Gives the qualities of one thing to something that is quite different. (See next slide for example.) The winter wind is a wolf howling at the door. 22 Metaphor Example The Night is a Big Black Cat
The Night is a big black cat The moon is her topaz eye, The stars are the mice she hunts at night, In the field of the sultry sky. By G. Orr Clark 23 Personification Personification gives human traits and feelings to things that are not human like
animals or objects. (See next slide for example.) The moon smiled down at me. 24 Personification Example From Mister Sun Mister Sun Wakes up at dawn, Puts his golden Slippers on, Climbs the summer Sky at noon, Trading places
With the moon. by J. Patrick Lewis 25 Other types of Figurative Language 26 Lines and Stanzas
Most poems are written in lines. A group of lines in a poem is called a stanza. Stanzas separate ideas in a poem. They act like paragraphs. This poem has two stanzas. March A blue day A blue jay And a good beginning. One crow,
Melting snow Springs winning! By Eleanor Farjeon 27 4. Forms of Poetry There are many forms of poetry including the: Haiku Ballad Free Verse Limerick
Concrete Poem 28 Haiku A haiku is a Japanese poem with 3 lines of 5, 7, and 5 syllables. (Total of 17 syllables.) Does not rhyme.
Is about an aspect of nature or the seasons. Captures a moment in time. Little frog among rain-shaken leaves, are you, too, splashed with fresh, green paint? by Gaki 29 Free Verse
A free verse poem does not use rhyme or patterns. Can vary freely in length of lines, stanzas, and subject. Revenge When I find out who took the last cookie out of the jar and left me a bunch of stale old messy crumbs, I'm going to take
me a handful and crumb up someone's bed. By Myra Cohn Livingston 30 Limerick A limerick is a funny poem of 5 lines.
Lines 1, 2 & 5 rhyme. Lines 3 & 4 are shorter and rhyme. Line 5 refers to line 1. Limericks are a kind of nonsense poem. There Seems to Be a Problem I really dont know about Jim. When he comes to our farm for a swim, The fish as a rule, jump out of the pool. Is there something the matter with him? By John Ciardi 31 Couplet
A couplet is a poem, or stanza in a poem, written in two lines. Usually rhymes. The Jellyfish Who wants my jellyfish? Im not sellyfish! By Ogden Nash 32 Traditional Cinquain
A cinquain is a poem written in five lines that do not rhyme. Traditional cinquain has five lines containing 22 syllables in the following pattern: Line 1 2 syllables Line 2 4 syllables Line 3 6 syllables Line 4 8 syllables Line 5 2 syllables Oh, cat
are you grinning curled in the window seat as sun warms you this December morning? By Paul B. Janezco 33 Quatrain A quatrain is a poem, or stanza, written in four
lines. The quatrain is the most common form of stanza used in poetry. Usually rhymes. Can be written in variety of rhyming patterns. The Lizard The lizard is a timid thing That cannot dance or fly or sing; He hunts for bugs beneath the floor And longs to be a dinosaur. By John Gardner 34 Diamante
A diamante is a sevenline poem written in the shape of a diamond. Does not rhyme. Follows pattern. Can use synonyms or antonyms. (See next two slides for examples.)
Diamante Pattern Line 1 Your topic (noun) Line 2 Two adjectives about Line 3 Three ing words about Line 4 Four nouns or short phrase linking topic (or topics) Line 5 Three ing words about Line 5 Two adjectives about Line 7 Your ending topic (noun) 35 Synonym Diamante Monsters Creepy, sinister, Hiding, lurking, stalking, Vampires, mummies, werewolves and more
Chasing, pouncing eating, Hungry, scary, Creatures 36 Antonym Diamante Day Bright, sunny, Laughing, playing, doing, Up in the east, down in the west Talking, resting, sleeping, Quiet, dark, Night 37
Concrete Poem A concrete poem (also called shape poem) is written in the shape of its subject. The way the words are arranged is as important what they mean. Does not have to rhyme. 38
Acrostic In an acrostic poem the first letter of each line, read down the page, spells the subject of the poem. Type of free verse poem. Does not usually rhyme. Loose brown parachute
Escaping And Floating on puffs of air. by Paul Paolilli 39 Voice Hello! Hi! Voice is the speaker in a poem. The speaker can be the poet himself or a character he created in the poem. There can be one speaker or many speakers.
40 Voice: Poet as Speaker The Wind Who has seen the wind? Neither I nor you: But when the leaves hang trembling The wind is passing thro. Who has seen the wind? Neither you nor I: But when the trees bow down their heads, The wind is passing by. by Christina Rosetti 41 Voice: Poet as Speaker
The Sugar Lady There is an old lady who lives down the hall, Wrinkled and gray and toothless and small. At seven already shes up, Going from door to door with a cup. Do you have any sugar? she asks, Although shes got more than you. Do you have any sugar? she asks, Hoping youll talk for a minute or two. by Frank Asch 42 Voice: Poet as Speaker Clouds White sheep, white sheep, On a blue hill,
When the wind stops You all stand still. When the wind blows You walk away slow. White sheet, white sheep, Where do you go? by Christina Rosetti 43 Voice: Human Character as Speaker For Keeps We had a tug of war today Old March Wind and I. He tried to steal my new red kite That Daddy helped me fly. He huffed and puffed. I pulled so hard
And held that string so tight Old March Wind gave up at last And let me keep my kite. by Jean Conder Soule 44 Voice: Animal as Speaker Turtle in July Heavy Heavy hot Heavy hot hangs Thick sticky Icky But I lie Nose high Cool pool No fool
A turtle in July by Marilyn Singer 45 Authors Purpose The poet has an authors purpose when he writes a poem. The purpose can be to: Share feelings (joy, sadness, anger, fear, loneliness) Tell a story Send a message (theme - something to think about) Be humorous Provide description* (e.g., person, object, concept) *Although description is important in all poems, the focus of some poems is the description itself rather than feelings, story-telling, message, or humor. 46
Authors Purpose: Share Feelings When I Was Lost Underneath my belt My stomach was a stone. Sinking was the way I felt. And hollow. And alone. By Dorothy Aldis 47 Mood
Mood is the atmosphere, or emotion, in the poem created by the poet. Can be happy, angry, silly, sad, excited, fearful or thoughtful. Poet uses words and images to create mood. Authors purpose helps determine mood. 48 Mood - Barefoot Days Barefoot Days by Rachel Field
In the morning, very early, Thats the time I love to go Barefoot where the fern grows curly And grass is cool between each toe, On a summer morning-O! On a summer morning! That is when the birds go by Up the sunny slopes of air, And each rose has a butterfly Or a golden bee to wear; And I am glad in every toe Such a summer morning-O! Such a summer morning! 49 Mood - Mad Song Mad Song
I shut my door To keep you out Wont do no good To stand and shout Wont listen to A thing you say Just time you took Yourself away I lock my door To keep me here Until Im sure You disappear. By Myra Cohn Livingston 50 Mood - Poem Poem
I loved my friend. He went away from me. Theres nothing more to say. The poem ends, Soft as it began I loved my friend: By Langston Hughes 51 Mood - Something is There Something is There Something is there there on the stair coming down coming down stepping with care.
Coming down coming down slinkety-sly. Something is coming and wants to get by. By Lilian Moore 52 Mood - Foghorns Foghorns The foghorns moaned in the bay last night so longing so deep I thought I heard the city crying in its sleep. By Lilian Moore
53 Mood - Magic Landscape Magic Landscape Shall I draw a magic landscape? In the genius of my fingers I hold the seeds. Can I grow a painting like a flower? Can I sculpture a future without weeds? By Joyce Carol Thomas 54 Reading for Meaning
To find meaning in a poem, readers ask questions as they read. There are many things to pay attention to when reading a poem: Title Provides clues about topic, mood, speaker, authors purpose? Rhythm Fast or slow? Why? Sound Devices What effects do they have? Imagery What pictures do we make in our minds? Figures of Speech What do they tell us about the subject? Voice Who is speaking - poet or character; one voice or more? Authors Purpose Sending message, sharing feelings, telling story, being funny, being descriptive? Mood Happy, sad, angry, thoughtful, silly, excited, frightened? Plot What is happening in the poem? Remember, to make meaning, readers must make connections and tap into their background knowledge and prior experiences as they read. 55
About me. University of Auckland. New Zealand. Chang'an University. China. I spent 4 years in University of Auckland to pursue my phd. Then after the graduation, I came back to my hometown Xi'an and now I work at Chang'an university
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