Organizational Psychology Personality and attitudes
Organizational Psychology Self-awareness: Personality and attitude INTERACTIVE LECTURE II JOLANTA BABIAK WINTER SEMESTER 2019/2020 Assigned reading Robins, S. Judge T.A. (2013). Organizational Behavior, New Jersey, Pearson Education, Inc. chapter 5 Whetten, D. A., Cameron K. S. (2011). Developing Management Skills. New Jersey: Person education, Inc. chapter 1 Self-awareness Management skills originate from self-management (self-reverence, self-control, self-knowledge, selfinsight, self-understanding)
Self-management starts with self-awareness which lies at the heart of an ability to master oneself (but it is not sufficient) Setting priorities and goals, managing time and managing stress are build upon self-awareness Knowledge about the self The knowledge we possess about ourselves (selfconcept) is central to developing and improving management skills, however Seeking kowledge about the self may motivate improvement or inhibit it! The sensitive line concept
Important areas of self-awareness 1. Understanding individual differences: managing diversity 2. The ability to manage oneself and others: emotional intelligence 3. Gathering and processing of information: cognitive style 4. Core self-evaluation 5. Orientation towards change 6.
Personal values Purpose of understanding individual differences Workforce is becoming more diverse (gender, age, culture, ethnicity) Self-awareness helps to understand your own uniqueness assumptions, trigger points, sensitive line, strengths and weaknesses Managers effectiveness is related to her ability to recognize, appreciate and utilize key differences among others Being aware of different perspectives, needs, tendencies of other people is a key part of personal maturity and
emotional intelligence Understanding individual differences Dont we have a tendency to interact with individuals who are like we are? pros Similarity makes it easier to interact with others especially in the work place cons Reduces creativity Reduces complex problem solving capacity Reduces the possibility to challenge
authority figure Makes it more difficult to recognize changes in the environment Reduces the potential for novel ways to respond to diversity Interpersonal competences emotional intelligence Ability to recognize and control own emotions Ability to diagnose and recognize others feelings Ability to understand differences among emotions Ability to respond appropriately to emotional cues
Emotional intelligence Ability to diagnose, understand and manage emotional cues Emotional competence Noncognitive capabilities and skills that affect human functioning These noncognitive skills and abilities are among the most important factors in explaining why some people succeed as leaders and others dont Why is emotional intelligence so important?
Evidence suggest that emotional competency level has dropped over time (IQ on the other hand increased almost 25 points over last 100 yrs) Emotional intelligence has strong predictive power regarding success in management IQ accounts for 10% of variance in job performance and in life success IQ + EI almost 40% Gathering and processing of information: Cognitive style We attend to information and act upon it at a time to certain degree
We all develop strategies for suppressing some kind of information and paying attention to other kinds to our benefit These strategies become habitual and ingrained and they result in a particular cognitive style Cognitive styles Particular tendency to perceive, interpret, and respond to information in a certain way 1. The manner in which we collect information 2. The way in which we evaluate and act upon it 3.
Cognitive styles are moldable: developable and changeable with conscious effort Knowing style Attributes Potential flaws emphasis on facts, details and data; Slow to make decisions seek clear solutions, Less creative
Seek rationality and validity of data resistant to innovation Show preference for a legitimate data Preference for one view instead of multiple Careful, accurate, and precise in evaluating information Planning style
Attributes Emphasis on structure, preparation, and planning Seek information with clear outlines and well-developed systems Systematic methodology for responding to information Conform to procedures and maintain routine Prefer organization and logic Potential flaws
Resistant to change Dont handle ambiguity well Intolerant of chaos Cant handle illogical issues and unpredictability Creating style Attributes
Emphasis on experimentation, nonrational thinking, and creativity Seek novelty and handle ambiguity well Spontaneous and quick to respond to information Like action and restructuring of situations Good brainstormers Potential flaws Resistant to structure Inclination to break rules
May make many mistakes Tend to ignore data and facts Tend to be disorganized Consequences of our cognitive styles People use their preferred cognitive style no matter what type of problem they face (e.g. brainstorming vs. installing new decision-aiding computer system) Cognitive style does not indicate intelligence or capability Knowing the style is advantageous in many ways
CS can be modified as person engages in different activities, interacts with different people or manages in different environments Personality: Core self-evaluation differences among people are manifested in certain kinds of behaviors, attitudes, emotional reactions, and thought patterns these unique patterns are persons personality usually referred to as trait, to the extent that it is relatively enduring and stable sizeable portion of our behavioral makeup is learned and can be changed, that is we have some control over it and it may be altered with conscious effort Personality research Three attributes of personality have gotten extremely high interest from scientists: self-esteem, locus of
control, and neuroticism Five aspects of personality are referred to as most important individuals characteristics: Extroversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism, openness Dominating personality model: The Big Five Dimensions Conscientiousness degree to which a person is dependable, responsible, organized, and forward looking Extraversion/Introversion degree to which a person is sociable, talkative, assertive, active, and ambitious Openness to experience degree to which a person is imaginative, broad minded, curious, and seeks new experiences
Emotional stability (Neuroticism) degree to which a person is anxious, depressed, angry, and insecure Agreeableness degree to which a person is courteous, likable, goodnatured, and flexible The five-factor model Low end point Factor High end point Quiet, reserved and shy Extroversion Talkative, energetic and sociable Cold, quarrelsome and
cruel Agreeableness Sympathetic, kind, and affectionate Careless, frivolous and irresponsible Conscientiousness Organized, responsible and cautious Stable, Calm and contended Neuroticism Anxious, unstable and temperamental Simple shallow and unintelligent
Openness to experience Creative, intellectual and open minded Questions to think about? Which of the personality characteristics are most desirable in leaders/managers? Which of the personality characteristics are most desirable in followers/ coworkers? Is there such phenomenon as an ideal personality profile of a manager? Can such personality characteristics as narcissism, Machiavellianism,
autocratic and dogmatic behaviors be ever useful in an organizational context? What does it take to become a charismatic leader? Core self-evaluation Differences in scores on the five personality aspects can be explained by a more foundational personality factor: the fundamental evaluation each person has developed about him/herself - core self-evaluation Core evaluations influence peoples appraisals about themselves, the world, and others but they operate subconsciously for the most part people are not aware of their own core self-evaluations Components of core self-evaluation core
self-evaluation sometimes referred to as positive selfregard; comprised of four components: self-esteem, generalized self-efficacy, neuroticism, locus of control In combination these 4 factors create a single, powerful
latent attribute that lies at the foundation of personality manifestations Effects of core self-evaluation Each factor has a slightly different meaning but the shared meaning among them, core self-evaluation, assess the extent to which one possesses positive self-regard, feels valuable, capable, stable and in control High CSE tend to be more satisfied with their job, perform more successfully on the job, have higher level of task motivation, persistence, productivity in the task, goal setting and commitment, and energized work behavior Core self-evaluation is a strong predictor of personality differences, job satisfaction, job performance, and life Orientation towards change: prerequisite
for successful coping with change Ability to process information is to some extent constrained by the fundamental attitude towards change Why is it important? Change Stability is interpreted as stagantion If the organization is not in the stage of transformation/revolution it is considered poorly managed Managers can no longer afford the luxury of managing in the stable, constant environemnt
Rapid-fire decision making, without the benfit of adequate information and careful analysis is becoming the norm Orientation towards change: two key attitudes associated with success in management roles Tolerance of ambiguity Difficulty coping with ambiguous situations, with unpredictable, complex circumstances, inadequate and unclear information (stimulus-rich and informationoverloaded environments) High ambiguity tolerance correlates + with cognitive complexity: more adaptive than opposite characteristics One can learn to be more tolerant of ambiguity
Locus of control Refers to the attitude people develop regarding the extent to which they are in control of their own destinies Internal locus of control: interpreting the reinforcements as being contingent upon ones own action External locus of control: interpreting the reinforcements as being the product of outside forces Orientation towards change, cont.
Tolerance of ambiguity High ambiguity tolerant individuals are better transmitters of information, more sensitive to internal characteristics of others, more adaptive and flexible under overloaded situations HA mangers are more entrepreneurial, are able to screen less information in a complex environment and cope more effectively with major organizational change Might have difficulty focusing on single important element of information Locus of control
ILC managers: less alienated from work environment, more satisfied with work, experience less job strain, position mobility, tend to acquire leadership position in groups Firms led by internals engage in innovation, more risky projects, longer planning horizons, more leadership in the marketplace L of C can shift over time as a function of position held and experiences Personal values A
persons principles of standards of behavior Among the most stable and enduring characteristics of an individual Foundation for attitudes personal preferences crucial decision life directions personal tastes define our morality define our conception of good and not-good Personal values, cont. Often people are unaware of which values they hold are more important and which are less important People seldom seek to clarify their values
The values we hold are affected by a number of factors, e.g. nationality, religion or lack thereof, organization we work for, personal experiences, stage of values development (values maturity) Personal values Total number of values is small and people posses the same values but in different degrees (Rokeach 1973) Instrumental means oriented (prescribe desirable standards and methods for attaining an end) Terminal ends oriented (prescribe desirable end or goal for an individual) Personal values research data. Most desired values in employees:
Responsible Honest Capable Imaginative Logical Obedient, clean, polite Personal values research data.
Managers gave significantly higher score to values relating to economic (comfortable life) and political values (social recognition) Sense of accomplishment Self-respect Comfortable life and independence Personal values research data. Most important values for business school students and professors: Ambition
Capability Responsibility Freedom Less concerned with helping others, cultural values, and social injustice Values and decision making Awareness of ones own values maturity (moral
development) has practical implications for ethical decision making For managers a corporate environment often means the pressure to compromise personal standards to meet companys goals Most ethical trade-offs are conflicts between economic end and social performance In order to manage effectively one has to have clear sense of own values and developed moral maturity Self-awareness: sum-up Managerial skill development in any area will only occur if individuals have solid foundation of self-awareness paradox in human behavior: we can know others only by knowing ourselves, but we can know ourselves only by knowing others Our ability to successfully interact and manage others comes from
relating what we see in them to our own experience Self recognition leads to recognition and understanding of others: the basis for effective managing other human beings Bibliography 1. Bass, B.M., Bass, R. (2008). The Bass handbook of leadership. Theory, research and managerial applications. New York: The Free Press. 2. Robbins, S. P., Judge, T. A. (2013). Organizational behavior. New Jersey: Person education, Inc. 3. Whetten, D. A., Cameron K. S. (2011). Developing Management Skills. New Jersey: Person education, Inc.
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