Nucleic Acids What are they - Biology Junction

Nucleic Acids What are they - Biology Junction

Nucleic Acids DNA & RNA What are they ? The 4th type of macromolecules The chemical link between generations The source of genetic information in chromosomes

What do they do ? Dictate amino-acid sequence in proteins Give information to chromosomes, which is then passed from parent to offspring What are they made

of ? Simple units called nucleotides, connected in long chains Nucleotides have 3 parts: 1- 5-Carbon sugar (pentose) 2- Nitrogen containing base (made of C, H and N) 3- A phosphate group ( P ) The P groups make the links that unite the sugars (hence a

sugar-phosphate backbone Two types of Nucleotides (depending on the sugar they contain) 1- Ribonucleic acids (RNA) The pentose sugar is Ribose (has a hydroxyl group in the 3rd carbon---OH)

2- Deoxyribonucleic acids (DNA) The pentose sugar is Deoxyribose (has just an hydrogen in the same place--H) Deoxy = minus oxygen DNA Nucleotides Composition (3 parts): 1- Deoxyribose sugar (no O in 3rd carbon)

2- Phosphate group 3- One of 4 types of bases (all containing nitrogen): - Adenine - Thymine (Only in DNA) - Cytosine - Guanine RNA Nucleotides

Composition ( 3 parts): 1- Ribose sugar (with O in 3rd carbon) 2- Phosphate group 3- One of 4 types of bases (all containing nitrogen): - Adenine - Uracyl (only in RNA) - Cytosine - Guanine

DNA vs RNA DNA 1- Deoxyribose sugar 2- Bases: Adenine, Thymine, Cytosine, Guanine 3- Double-stranded helix arrangement RNA 1- Ribose sugar 2- Bases: Adenine, Uracyl, Cytosine, Guanine

4- Single stranded The Double Helix (DNA) Structural model: Model proposed by Watson & Crick, 1953 Two sugar-phosphate strands, next to each other, but running in opposite directions. Specific Hydrogen bonds occur among bases from one chain to the other: A---T

, C---G Due to this specificity, a certain base on one strand indicates a certain base in the other. The 2 strands intertwine, forming a doublehelix that winds around a central axis How DNA Works 1- DNA stores genetic information in segments called genes 2- The DNA code is in Triplet Codons

(short sequences of 3 nucleotides each) 3- Certain codons are translated by the cell into certain Amino acids. 4. Thus, the sequence of nucleotides in DNA indicate a sequence of Amino acids in a protein.

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