Motion - BIOLOGY AND FORENSIC SCIENCE

Motion - BIOLOGY AND FORENSIC SCIENCE

Section 1: Atoms, Elements, and Compounds Matter is composed of tiny particles called atoms. K What I Know W What I Want to Find Out L What I Learned Essential Questions What are atoms? How are the particles that make up atoms diagrammed?

What are the similarities between covalent and ionic bonds? How are van der Waals forces described? Copyright McGraw-Hill Education Atoms, Elements, and Compounds Vocabulary Review New continued

substance New atom nucleus proton neutron electron element Copyright McGraw-Hill Education

isotope compound covalent bond molecule ion ionic bond van der Waals force Atoms, Elements, and Compounds Atoms The structure of an atom Atoms are the building blocks of matter. Atoms are made up of smaller particles called neutrons, protons,

and electrons Protons are positively charged particles (p+). Neutrons are particles that have no charge (n0). Electrons are negatively charged particles (e-). Copyright McGraw-Hill Education Atoms, Elements, and Compounds Atoms The structure of an atom

Protons and neutrons are located in the center of the atom, called the nucleus. Electrons are located outside the nucleus. Copyright McGraw-Hill Education Atoms, Elements, and Compounds Atomic Structure BrainPOP FPO Add link to brainPOP from page 148 here. Copyright McGraw-Hill Education

Atoms, Elements, and Compounds Elements An element is a pure substance that cannot be broken down into other substances by physical or chemical means. There are over 100 known elements, 92 of which occur naturally. Each element has a unique name and symbol. Copyright McGraw-Hill Education Atoms, Elements, and Compounds

Elements The periodic table of elements Horizontal rows are called periods, vertical columns are called groups. Copyright McGraw-Hill Education Atoms, Elements, and Compounds Elements Isotopes Atoms of the same element that have the same number of protons and electrons but have a different number of neutrons are called isotopes.

Copyright McGraw-Hill Education Atoms, Elements, and Compounds Elements Radioactive isotopes Changing the number of neutrons in an atom does not affect the charge, but does affect the stability. When a nucleus breaks apart, it gives off radiation that can be detected and used for many applications. Isotopes that give off radiation are called radioactive isotopes.

Copyright McGraw-Hill Education Atoms, Elements, and Compounds Isotopes BrainPOP FPO Add link to BrainPOP from page 150 here. Copyright McGraw-Hill Education Atoms, Elements, and Compounds Compounds A compound is a pure substance formed when two or more different elements combine.

Compounds are always formed from a specific combination of elements in a fixed ratio. Compounds cannot be broken down into simpler compounds or elements by physical means, but can be broken down by chemical means. Copyright McGraw-Hill Education Atoms, Elements, and Compounds Chemical Bonds The force that holds substances together is called a chemical bond.

The electrons of an atom are responsible for forming chemical bonds. Electrons travel around the nucleus of an atom in areas called energy levels. Atoms become more stable by losing electrons or attracting electrons from other atoms. Copyright McGraw-Hill Education Atoms, Elements, and Compounds

Chemical Bonds Covalent bonds The chemical bond that forms when electrons are shared is called a covalent bond. A molecule is a compound in which the atoms are held together by covalent bonds. Copyright McGraw-Hill Education Atoms, Elements, and Compounds Chemical Bonds Ionic Bonds An atom that has lost or gained one or more electrons is an ion.

Ions carry an electric charge. An ionic bond is an electrical attraction between two oppositely charged atoms. Copyright McGraw-Hill Education Atoms, Elements, and Compounds Ionic Bonds Animation FPO Add link to concepts in motion animation from page 153 here. Copyright McGraw-Hill Education

Atoms, Elements, and Compounds Chemical Bonds Ionic bonds Some atoms tend to donate or accept electrons more easily than other atoms. The elements identified as metals tend to donate electrons. The elements identified as nonmetals tend to accept electrons. Most ionic compounds dissolve in water, are crystalline at room temperature, and have higher melting points than compounds formed by covalent bonds. Copyright McGraw-Hill Education

Atoms, Elements, and Compounds van der Waals Forces Attractions between molecules are called van der Waals forces. When molecules come close together, the attractive forces between slightly positive and negative regions pull on the molecules and hold them together. The strength of the attraction depends on the size of the molecule, its shape, and its ability to attract electrons. Copyright McGraw-Hill Education

Atoms, Elements, and Compounds van der Waals Forces van der Waals forces in water The slightly positive and slightly negative charges around the water molecule are attracted to the opposite charge of other nearby water molecules. van der Waals forces are responsible for water droplet formation and surface tension. Copyright McGraw-Hill Education Atoms, Elements, and Compounds

Review Essential Questions What are atoms? How are the particles that make up atoms diagrammed? What are the similarities between covalent and ionic bonds? How are van der Waals forces described? Vocabulary atom

nucleus proton neutron electron Copyright McGraw-Hill Education element isotope compound covalent bond molecule

ion ionic bond van der Waals force Atoms, Elements, and Compounds

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