Material Science - Appleton Chem 30

Material Science - Appleton Chem 30

Material Science LESSON 3 Intramolecular Forces Intra is latin for within. Intramolecular forces are forces within a molecule or compound holding it together. Atoms want to have a full valence shell, because then they will be stable. Atoms can fill or empty their valence shell by sharing, gaining or losing electrons.

There are three types of intramolecular forces we will discuss: metallic bonding, ionic bonding and covalent bonding. 1. Metallic Bonds Formation of metallic bonds Metals are made up of cations with loosely held valence electrons. The valence electrons of a pure metal can be modeled as a sea of electrons.

The electrons are able to move freely from one part of the metal to another. Metallic bonds are the forces of attraction between free floating valence electrons and the positively charged metal ions. 1. Metallic Bonds Properties of Metals: The sea of electrons can help to explain the properties of metals.

Good conductors of electricity because charges (electrons) can flow freely in the metal. 1. Metallic Bonds Properties of Metals: Metals are ductile (can be drawn into wires) and malleable (bendable/ moldable)

because the metal cations are surrounded by electrons (sea) so when force is applied, the electrons act as a cushion or insulator preventing the positively charged ions from getting too close. This means protons will not repel to cause breaking but rather move and glide around one another allowing the metal to bend. 1. Metallic Bonds Properties of Metals: Metals form crystalline structures because they are made of spheres of equal size which naturally like to have a close packed arrangement (similar to how fruit stacks at the grocery store).

1. Metallic Bonds Alloys Alloys are a mixture of two or more elements where at least one of those elements is a metal. Alloys often have better properties than the metals that make them up Ex. Sterling silver (92.5% silver and 7.5% copper) is harder and more durable than pure silver, but still soft enough to make jewelry or silverware.

Steels are important alloys with a wide range of useful properties such as corrosion resistance, ductility, harness, and toughness. 2. Ionic Bonding One way an atom will fill or empty its valence shell is through ionic bonding (creating ions) Ionic bonding occurs when a metal bonds with a non-metal Ionic bonding occurs when there is a complete transfer of one

or more electrons from one atom to another. You can predict the charge of the ion created through ionic bonding based on the number of valence electrons it contains. (remember electrons are negatively charged) 2. Ionic Bonding Element Oxygen Sodium Hydroge n Number of Valence e- e- gain/lose to Charge with

fill octet full valence 2. Ionic Bonding Formation of Ions: When an atom loses or gains electrons it forms an ion (this is ionic bonding). An ion is an atom or group of atoms with an overall positive or negative charge.

Usually atoms on the left of the staircase (metals) lose electrons, forming CATIONS with a POSITIVE charge. Atoms on the right of the staircase (non-metals) tend to gain electrons, forming ANIONS with a NEGATIVE charge. 2. Ionic Bonding The cations and anions combine together in a ratio that cancels their charge Since cations and anions have opposite charges, they are attracted to each other. This attraction, called electrostatic

force, holds them together in an ionic bond. An atom and an ion are very different. 2. Ionic Bonding Example: Table Some differences in chemical and physical properties for sodium ion and sodium atom. Property Na atom charge neutral (0) pure form soft, shiny metal Na+ ion positive (+1)

not found pure; must be combined with anions to form stable ionic compounds Na+ dissolves in water without further reaction reaction violent exothermic reaction with water with water forms Na+(aq), OH(aq), H2(g) conductivit Na(s) is an excellent conductor Na+ solid compounds are poor y of heat and electricity conductors of heat and electricity; Na+ in aqueous solution conducts electricity 2. Ionic Bonding Elements with multiple ionic charges:

Multivalent elements are ones that can form more than one stable ion. Most transition metals are multivalent. Multivalent elements are ones that occur on your common ion sheet more than once (ex. Copper, iron, tin) When naming elements containing these compounds we use roman numerals to distinguish which ion is used. 2. Ionic Bonding Polyatomic More ions:

than one atom with a charge. Polyatomic ions often have complicated sounding names which makes them seem dangerous or synthetic but many poyatomic ions occur naturally. 2. Ionic Bonding Lewis Dot diagrams for ions Determine the number of electrons the ion has (look at how many the neutral atom would have and how many electrons were gained or lost based on the charge).

Draw your lewis dot structure Place square brackets around the diagram with the charge outside the bracket in the top right corner. Examples: K + As3-

Complete Valence Electron, Ions & Lewis dot Assignment

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