Lecture Notes for Age of Revolutions & Rebellions

Lecture Notes for Age of Revolutions & Rebellions

Lecture Notes for Age of Revolutions & Rebellions SSWH14 The student will analyze the Age of Revolutions and Rebellions. b. Identify the causes and results of the revolutions in England (1689), United States (1776), France (1789), Haiti (1791) and Latin America (1808-1825). ENGLAND 1689 Watch this silly videothen lets discuss what you just learned... Now, watch this serious video. Then lets see if you can do the notes on your own from what you just learned.

England (1689) [C21; S5] While their religious problems are settled - they still have ruling problems. The _______________________ gets stronger PARLIAME while the monarchy NTlosses power. Elizabeth had no heir she gets her cousin from ScotlandJAMES to stepIin. He is ___________. He believed in the absolute authority of the monarch. So MONEY begins the problems, mostly over ________________. James lasting is the BIBLE legacy to historyCHARLES translation of the ____________________. His son, I_____________ inherits the throne and also believes in an absolute

monarchy. There are a lot of changes under his rule because of his money PETITION OF problems. A pivotal piece of legislature is passed; the __________________________________ 1) CANT PUT IN PRISON WITHOUT A REASON 2) NO TAXES RIGHT which WITHOUT has four APPROVAL important3)points: CANNOT QUARTER SOLDIERS IN PEOPLES HOMES 4) CANNOT ENACT MARSHAL LAW Charles dissolves the parliament and gets money by

placing fees and fines on everyone. This doesnt go over well. He also started messing with religious matters and Scotland raises an army to invade England. Then, things get out of hand so bad he leaves London andCIVIL raises an army in N. England. ENGLISH Now, its WAR the ROYALISTS ________________________________ which ROUNDHEADS lasts for seven years. The _________________, loyal to OLIVER Charles and the _____________________, the Puritans are CROMWELL the two groups. The Puritan

general was HEAD TREASON _______________________________________. Charles lost the war and his _________. He was tried for EXECUTED _________________. This was significant because kings had never before been publicly _______________________________. Cromwell became leader and was very strict; he put down an Irish rebellion, and placed the ethics of the _______________ on PURITANS DICTATORSHI all. While he was ruler, England

was under P After his death, a __________________________. England is back to a Parliament. The English people ask for Charles son to RESTORATION come home and rule. This is called the _____________________________________ which is the restoring of the monarchy back on the throne. Everything gets back to normal with excesses. But, Parliament HABEASmakes CORPUS (MUST BE BROUGHT BEFORE A some significant changes - specifically JUDGE) regarding the ______________________

Charles II has no son, so his brother JAMES II ______________________ comes to the throne. Trouble! Hes catholic. He doesnt do what hes told regarding religion and flaunts his Catholicism in everyones faces. They remember Bloody Mary and dont want to go through all that again. He gets scared and flees London in the middle of the night in a dress! Parliament asks his daughter to come rule England. PROTESTANT She is also ________________ who isOF married to WILLIAM WILLIAM MARY

___________________________. TheyAND are called ORANGE _________________________. This was a bloodless overthrow of a monarch and therefore is called GLORIUS REVOLUTION the ____________________________________________. Significance of this: brings in a CONSTITUTIONAL _________________________________________________; which MONARCHY is where the monarchy does not have all the power - but share it with Parliament. To make this clear, they adopt the

ENGLISH _________________________. BILL OF RIGHTS SAME AS PETITION OF RIGHT; BUT ADDS CANNOT INTERFER WITH PARLIAMENT CABINET SYSTEM is developed. This is a Also, a ____________________ group of ________________________ (not religious) MINISTERS who act in the rulers name. They are the link between parliament and the monarch. This system of government is still used in England today. United States 1776 Another silly video can you figure out its meaning?

UNITED STATES (1776) [C22; S4] ideas were a big influence on colonial independence. Enlightenment LOCKE & ROUSSEAU According to _____________________ people have the right to rebel against a government who were not meeting their needs. Also known as the SOCIAL CONTRACT _______________________. 1776 In July ________________, DECLARATION OF the 2 nd Continental Congress issued the __________________________________.

This document was written by THOMAS JEFFERSON INDEPENDENCE LOCKE ___________________________________. He based all his ideas on the philosophy of _____________. Using Lockes argument of all people have the right to rebel against an unjust ruler, the declaration of independence held GEORGE III all the colonists grievances against the English king, ______________________. & BILL OF Using other CHECKS Enlightenment ideas, a governing system wasRIGHTS set up using a

BALANCES system of _____________________________. The ____________________________ RELIGION SPEECH was also passed which protected rights such as freedoms of ASSEMBLY PRESS _________________, ________________________________, ________________________________ and _____________________________. French Revolution 1789 French Revolution [C23; S1 & 2]

3 _____ Estates SOCIAL Pre-Revolution France: Divided up into or __________________. 1)1st Estate:CHURCH 2)2nd Estate: NOBILITY 3)3rd Estate: BOURGEOISIE, GROUPS URBAN POOR, What were the causes of the French Revolution? PEASANTS 1)ENLIGHTENMENT

2)ECONOMIC IDEAS ISSUES (DROUGHT, 3)TAXES) WEAK LEADER (KING) Monarchs of France at the time of the Revolution: Louis XVI:DIDNT WANT TO BE KING; WISHYFROM AUSTRIA (ENEMY); GAMBLER; OVERMarie Antoinette: WASHY Revolutionary Government: SPENDER 1)Estates-General 1 ESTATE=1 2)National Assembly EACH PERSON VOTE 3)National Convention VOTES

4)The Directory Once again for fun watch this silly video see if you can figure out what shes saying! Now, serious video for French Revolution. Watch & Learn The BEGINNING Louis calls a meeting of the Estates-General because he needs money. When they gather together and demand change in the voting system problems erupt. RumorsPARIS start flying and in __________, the capital city of France, the citizens began gathering weapons. In doing so, they stormed the _________________. This became symbolic BASTILL and the became ______________________, a French

JULY 14 _________________ BASTILLE E date national holiday. DAY Rebellion has begun. The _____________________ sweeps through GREAT France. This encompasses two areas: 1) The countryside - peasants FEARterrorize them with hired soldiers. hear that the nobles are going They go crazy and start ___________________ & ______________________ & LOOTIN killing nobles. Nobles fleePILLAGIN France en masse. 2) In Paris-a shortage of bread G occurred and theGpeasant women of the town marched to _________________________ and demanded that VERSAILL

the National Assembly provide them with bread. Instead their anger ES turned onto the king and queen and they brought them back to Paris. They locked them up in the palace (called ___________________). TUILLER IES change in These above actions signaled the beginning of extreme France. REIGN OF TERROR MAY 5, 1789 __________________________ is the official beginning date of the French Revolution. Taking a cue from the GLORIOUS REVOLUTION ________________________________________,

and the AMERICAN REVOLUTION __________________________________________ The French people called their document the DECLARATION OF RIGHTS OF ___________________________________________________. Their cry was not PROPERTY LIBERTY LIFE MAN ________________, _________________ and __________________ like Locke, nor LIBERTY LIFE was PURSUIT it ______________, like OF ___________________ and __________________________ LIFE

Jefferson; but _______________, ________________ LIBERTY SECURITY and _____________________. HAPPINESS Not wanting women to be left out ________________________________, CHARLOTTE CORDAY published a declaration of rights NOT for women. It was ___________ adopted. She was later executed as an enemy of France. In order to eradicate the nobility major changes were made: 1) CALENDAR WAS REMADE (SUNDAY CHURCHES WERE CLOSED DOWN 2) REMOVED) 3) OVERALL LIFE CHANGED: EX: PLAYING CARDS

FINISH IT UP: The Reign of Terror was 132 days of executions by Guillotine - the predominate number of people who were executed came from the RD 3 YES __________________. Was the Revolution started by this estate? ESTATE JACOBINS took control and incited A group of people called the _________________ MOB RULE _______________ rule in Paris. In the meantime - France is also fighting a war with Great Britain, Holland, Spain, Prussia and Austria.

ROBESPIER ____________________________ is in control of the Reign of Terror - he chooses RE who is an enemy of the state. He gets so out of control with his power - members of the National Convention turn on him, and demand his execution. The Reign of Terror ends with his death. THE A new plan of government is formed - the _______________________ - and the DIRECTORY Reign of Terror and the Revolution is over. Haiti 1791

The French Colony in the Caribbean HISPANIOL In the Caribbean was an island called _______________________. It was named this by Christopher Columbus in A1492, it means THE SPANISH ISLAND ___________________________________. It was controlled entirely by the Spanish until French pirates started to use the western part of the island for bases (Tortuga). Later this part of the island would be given over to control of the FRENCH. It was divided into TWO colonies. The western sideFRENCH was controlled by the __________________ ST.was called ____________________________. After the revolution the and HAITI

western portion of the island was renamed ___________, which DOMINIGUE MOUNTAINOUS means __________________________________. Much later, the eastern side LAND of the island would be in control of the Spanish and be called DOMINICAN ________________________________. Now, answer this: FRENCH What language do they speak in Haiti? _______________________ in the SPANISH (patois) Dominican Republic?___________________ REPUBLIC

Lets talk trade and numbers This colony of the French was one of the most wealthy in the Caribbean. In the beginning their wealth wasSUGAR based on SUGAR _____________ . Then later it was ___________,______________ & COFFEE SLAVES ________________. Lets talk numbers Whites =20,000 (planters and petit blancs) Free Persons of Color =30,000 (most were mulattos) Slaves =500,000 (Domestics, Field Slaves & Maroons) [maroons were field slaves who ran away to the mountains] THE MAP

HISPANIOLA CUBA PUERTO RICO HAITI DOMINICA N REPUBLIC THE REVOLUTION ______________________, AUGUST, 1791 100,000 slaves went into revolt. The leader was ____________________________________. TOUSSAINT

LOUVERTURE His owner taught him how to read; and as he became the leader of the revolution he was became a brilliant general and diplomat. During the French Revolution, slaves were promised their freedom and then because of the Haitian Revolution, slaves were given their freedom. But, when Napoleon took over France, slavery was reinstituted. Napoleon would send 30,000 troops to St. Dominigue to remove Toussaint from power. (By this time Toussaint has withdrawn from the fighting) They tricked him to come to a meeting where he was captured. He was shipped to a prison in the French Alps where he died. The revolution continued with General DESSALINES __________________________________. He declared the colony a free country and became the 1st black colony to free itself from colonial control. It was at this time the country was renamed ____________. HAITI

Cant not have a revolution without a video, now can we? Latin America 1808-1825 BUT BEFORE WE BEGINOUR FAVORITE HISTORIAN! Revisit: What is Latin America? SPANISH SPEAKING LANDS IN THE NEW WORLD To better understand the culture: Society rank in Latin America: >peninsularesPURE BLOODS FROM SPAIN >Creoles SPANISH DESCENDENTS BORN IN THE

AMERICAS SPANISH & AMERICAN INDIAN >Mestizos MIX: >Mulattos MIX: SPANISH & AFRICAN NATIVE >Everyone else; which includes AMERICANS >LAST -SLAVES Enlightenment ideas had spread to Latin America by this time, and were excited about the _________________________ and the AMERICAN ________________________________. They

REVOLUTION FRENCH REVOLUTION knew that if revolution worked for them, it may work for the Latin American colonists too. Venezuela declared its liberty from SPAIN _________________________ in _____________. The 1811 Creole general ____________________ BOLIVA SIMON ___________________________ led over 2000 soldiers on aANDES march through theR

________________ (today, COLOMBI modern ________________) taking the Spanish by surprise. After this victory, heA marched south into Ecuador and hooked up with JOSE DE SAN __________________________, the general who won ARGENTIN independence for ____________________________ MARTIN from Spain. From Ecuador he and Bolivar also A PERU liberatedCHILE ______ and ________.

MEXICO Colonial end in Mexico came through the leadership of a priest named MIGUEL _____________________________ who also believed in theHIDALGO Enlightenment ideals. In 1810, he rang the bells of his church and called for a rebellion against Spain. They started marching towards Mexico City and gathered 80,000 men along the way. The Padre was defeated, but he began the independence movement. Mexico gained their 1821 independence by _________________________. THE REST OF LATIN AMERICA.

Central America also declared their independence from Spain in that same year. Brazils independence from _______________________ PORTUGA was a little different. It was a completely nonL violent change. Because of Napoleon, the Portuguese royal family fled Europe and came to Brazil to live. When they left, years later the people of Brazil signed a petition to be set free from colonial rule and by _______________their 1821 wish was granted. LATIN AMERICA VENEZUAL A 1821 MEXICO

1821 PERU 1824 CHILE 1817 BRAZIL 1822 WHATS IMPORTANT The legacy of all these revolutions is NATIONALISM which means a _________________________ belief that peoples greatest loyalty should not be to a king or an empire but to a nation of people who share a common culture and history.

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