LATE MODERN ENGLISH / Today (c. 1800 - c. Today) p. 23 - p. 28

LATE MODERN ENGLISH / Today (c. 1800 - c. Today) p. 23 - p. 28

Industrial and Science Revolution British Imperialism American Dialect Britains Other Colonies Language Reform 20th Century Present Day LATE MODERN ENGLISH / TODAY (C. 1800 C. TODAY) P. 23 P. 28 01/28/2020 1

Industrial Science The main distinction between Early Modern and Late Modern English (or just Modern English as it is sometimes referred to) lies in its vocabulary 01/28/2020 2 Industrial Science Late Modern English accumulated many

words A result of two main historical factors: the Industrial Revolution and the rise of the British Empire Discuss: Why would these two historical factors necessitate word accumulation? 01/28/2020 3 Industrial Revolution

British inventions: Harnessing of steam to drive heavy machinery, Development of new materials, techniques and equipment in a range of manufacturing industries Emergence of new means of transportation (e.g. steamships, railways). 01/28/2020 4 Industrial Revolution At least half of the influential scientific and technological

output between 1750 and 1900 was written in English. 01/28/2020 5 Industrial Revolution The USA Continued English language dominance of new technology and innovation Inventions like electricity, the telegraph, the telephone, the phonograph, the

sewing machine, the computer, etc. Discuss: Are there any technology or machine words that YOUR native language borrowed from01/28/2020 English? 6 Industrial Revolution The industrial and scientific advances of the Industrial Revolution created a need for neologisms to describe the new creations and discoveries.

Mostly relied on the classical languages, Latin and Greek What is a neologism? 01/28/2020 7 Industrial Revolution Although words like oxygen, protein, nuclear and vaccine did not exist in the classical languages, they could be (and were) created from Latin and Greek

roots. 01/28/2020 8 Industrial Revolution Some new words created by fusing existing English words into a descriptive combination (e.g. railway, horsepower, typewriter, cityscape, airplane, etc). 01/28/2020

9 British Imperialism At the end of the 16th Century, mother-tongue English speakers numbered just 5-7 million, almost all of them in the British Isles. 01/28/2020 10 British Imperialism

Over the next 350 years, this increased almost 50-fold, 80% of them living outside of Britain. In the late 19th and early 20th Century, Britain ruled almost one quarter (25%) of the earths surface, from Canada to Australia to India to the Caribbean to Egypt to South Africa to Singapore. 01/28/2020 11 British Imperialism

Land masses in red were the British Empire 01/28/2020 12 British Imperialism John Adams predicts the future! In 1780, he was confident enough to claim that English was, Destined to be in the next and succeeding centuries more generally the language

of the world than Latin was in the last or French is in the present age. 01/28/2020 13 British Imperialism Discuss: What does it mean to take something for granted in the below context? For example: British colonialists took for granted that exporting their language and

culture to the backwards cultures of Asia and Africa was a DESIRABLE thing. 01/28/2020 14 British Imperialism Two-way phenomenon of colonialism Britains dealings with exotic countries, as well as the increase in world trade, led to the introduction of many foreign loanwords into English. Australia gave us a set of words (not particularly useful outside the context of Australia itself)

like boomerang, kangaroo, etc. India gave us such everyday words as pyjamas, thug, bungalow, cot, jungle, loot, bangle, shampoo, candy 01/28/2020 15 American dialect Thomas Jefferson, 1813 A letter: "The new circumstances under which we are placed call

for new words, new phrases, and for the transfer of old words to new objects. An American dialect will therefore be formed." 01/28/2020 16 American dialect Westward expansion from the eastern seaboard saw

many American neologisms or Americanisms 01/28/2020 17 American dialect Some fun American neologisms lickety-split He cleaned his room lickety- split. meaning? humdinger Superman could save anyone and do amazing things. He was a humdinger! meaning?

ShenanigansThe students were being naughty by hitting each other and shouting. They caused shenanigans! meaning? 01/28/2020 18 American dialect lickety-split Humdinger Shenanigans Work: With a partner, write a short story about a trip you took last weekend with your

friends or family. Use the Americanisms above. You will share with the class after if time. Time: 5 minutes 01/28/2020 19 American dialect During the expansion and settlement of the Spanish-influenced American West, including words. We got: guitar, mosquito, tobacco, tornado

French words, from the French presence in the Louisiana area and in Canada: gopher, prairie, depot, cache, cent and dime, as well as French-derived place names like Detroit, Illinois, Des Moines, 01/28/2020 20 American dialect Today, some 4,000 words are used

differently in the USA and Britain Try: for more resources 01/28/2020 21 American dialect In a backwards move, American spelling is

also becoming more commonplace in Britain (e.g. jail for gaol, wagon for waggon, reflection for reflexion, 01/28/2020 22 American dialect - final thoughts Remember: a language or dialect of said languages current status in the world does not make it superior

Any language at any time could take its place in history as a dominate player and change the course of communication globally 01/28/2020 23 Britains Other Colonies In 1788, less than twenty years after James Cooks initial landing, Britain established its first penal colony in Sydney, Australia

01/28/2020 24 Britains Other Colonies About 130,000 prisoners were transported there over the next 50 years, followed by other free settlers. 01/28/2020 25

Britains Other Colonies Most settlers were from London and Ireland, resulting in a very distinctive and egalitarian accent and a basic English vocabulary supplemented by some Aboriginal words and expressions (e.g. boomerang, kangaroo, koala, 01/28/2020 26 Britains Other Colonies

New Zealand began to be settled by European whalers and missionaries in the 1790s, although an official colony was not established there until 1840. Modern New Zealanders are cheerfully known as kiwis today guess WHY? 01/28/2020 27 Britains Other Colonies British settlement in South

Africa began in earnest in 1820, and nearly half a million (500,000) Englishspeaking immigrants moved there during the last quarter of the 19th Century, eager to take advantage of the discoveries of gold and diamonds. 01/28/2020 28 Britains Other Colonies (S. Africa) The Dutch had been in South Africa since the

1650s, but the wave of British settlers soon began to anglicize the Afrikaans (Dutch) and black population. 01/28/2020 29 Britains Other Colonies (S. Africa) English was made the official language in 1822 and, as in Australia, a distinctive homogeneous accent developed over time,

drawing from the various different groups of settlers. What does the S. African accent sound like? Lets watch! v=kL1BfnUJD6k 01/28/2020 30 Britains Other Colonies (S. Africa) Although English was always - and remains - a minority language, spoken by less than 10%

of South Africans, Afrikaans was seen by the 80% black majority as the language of authority and repression (apartheid; ) - NOT ENGLISH which was an equal language of opportunity! 01/28/2020 31 Britains Other Colonies Liberia, founded in 1822 as a

homeland for former American slaves (similar to the way in which Sierra Leone had been established by the British in the 1780s), is the only African country with an American influence. v=LQj66Sa56uk Liberian English 01/28/2020 32

Britains Other Colonies Six modern East African states with a history of 19th Century British imperial rule (Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, Malawi, Zambia and Zimbabwe) Gave English official language status on achieving independence in the 1960s. English is widely used in government, civil service, courts, schools, media, road signs, stores and business correspondence in these countries. 01/28/2020

33 British India During the period of British sovereignty in India (the Raj), from 1765 until partition and independence in 1947, English became the medium of administration and education throughout the Indian sub-continent The British East India Company established its first trading station in India in 1612 at first Britons learned local languages 01/28/2020

34 01/28/2020 35 British India Welcomed by some who preferred English as a lingua franca to the Hindi alternative) A particularly florid and ornate version of English, incorporating an extreme formality and politeness, sometimes referred to as Babu

English, grew up among Indian administrators, clerks and lawyers. Continues to be lingua franca in legal system 01/28/2020 36 Language Reform England and America are two countries separated by a common language, -unknown (or George Bernard Shaw arguable) 01/28/2020

37 Language Reform Part of the reason for the differences between the two versions of English lies in the American proclivity for reform and simplification COLOR (AE); COLOUR (BE) 01/28/2020 38

Language Reform Both Thomas Jefferson and Noah Webster were totally convinced that American English would evolve into a completely separate language. (L Jefferson; R Webster) 01/28/2020 39 Language Reform Towards the end of the 19th Century, English linguist Henry

Sweet predicted that, within a century, England, America and Australia will be speaking mutually unintelligible languages, owing to their independent changes of pronunciation. But, with the development of instantaneous global communications, the different dialects seem likely to converge rather than diverge. Vocabulary: Converge and diverge (What do these 2 words mean?) 01/28/2020 40

Language Reform Noah Webster is often credited with single- handedly changing American spelling, particularly through his dictionaries: The American Spelling Book (first published in 1788, although it ran to at least 300 editions over the period between 1788 and 1829, Websters dictionary may be the best selling book in American history after The Bible 01/28/2020 41

Language Reform Such spelling shifts were already underway, but Webster is still largely credited color and honor (instead of the British colour and honour), traveler and jeweler (for traveller and jeweller),check and mask (for cheque and masque), defense and offense (for defence and offence), plow for plough 01/28/2020

42 American Patriotism (Language Reform) For many Americans, like Webster, taking ownership of the language and developing what would become known as American Standard English was seen as a matter of honour (honor) for the newly independent nation. 01/28/2020

43 Language Reform Reforms were fiercely criticized in Britain, and even in America a so-called "Dictionary War" ensued between supporters of Webster's Americanism and the more conservative British-influenced approach of Joseph Worcester and others. 01/28/2020

44 20th century to present The 20th Century was a century of world wars, technological transformation, and globalization Each has provided a source of new additions to the lexicon like blockbuster, nosedive, shell-shocked. All the above are military terms (although blockbuster has come to mean a hit movie). What do they mean? 01/28/2020

45 20th century to present Winston Churchills We shall fight on the beaches speech A famous resistance speech of WW2, using mostly Anglo-Saxon words Heres an excerpt: v=MkTw3_PmKtc 01/28/2020

46 20th century to present (Churchill Speech 1/3) 4 June 1940 I have, myself, full confidence that if all do their duty, if nothing is neglected, and if the best arrangements are made, as they are being made, we shall prove ourselves once again able to defend our Island home, to ride out the storm of war, and to outlive the menace of tyranny, if necessary for years, if necessary alone. At any rate, that is what we are going to try to do. That is the resolve of His Majestys Government-every man

of them. That is the will of Parliament and the nation. 01/28/2020 47 20th century to present (Churchill Speech 2/3) The British Empire and the French Republic, linked together in their cause and in their need, will defend to the death their native soil, aiding each other like good comrades to the utmost of their strength. Even though large tracts of Europe and many

old and famous States have fallen or may fall into the grip of the Gestapo and all the odious apparatus of Nazi rule, we shall not flag or fail. 01/28/2020 48 20th century to present (Churchill speech 3/3) We shall go on to the end, we shall fight in France, we shall fight on the seas and oceans, we shall fight with growing confidence and growing strength in the air, we shall defend our Island, whatever the cost may be,

we shall fight on the beaches, we shall fight on the landing grounds, we shall fight in the fields and in the streets, we shall fight in the hills; we shall never surrender, and even if, which I do not for a moment believe, this Island or a large part of it were subjugated and starving, then our Empire beyond the seas, armed and guarded by the British Fleet, would carry on the struggle, until, in Gods good time, the New World, with all its power and might, steps forth to the rescue and the liberation of the old. 01/28/2020 49

20th century to present Feminists called into question the underlying sexism in language (e.g. mankind, chairman, mailman, etc.) and some have even gone to the lengths of positing herstory as an alternative to history. 01/28/2020 50

20th century to present Internet it gave rise to (the word Internet itself is derived form Latin, as are audio, video, quantum, etc) generated its own set of neologisms (e.g. online, noob, flamer, spam, phishing, download, blog, vblog, blogosphere, emoticon , podcast, trolling, hashtag, wifi, bitcoin, selfie, etc). 01/28/2020

51 Present Day One recent estimate says the English language expanding by over 8,500 words a year 01/28/2020

52 Present Day Verbification Nounification Think about the above two terms. Guess about their meaning with a partner. 01/28/2020 53

Present Day Verbification to use nouns as verbs To google I dont know the answer, google it! To parrot (a bird noun) He was parroting the behavior of his older brother. 01/28/2020 54 Present Day Nounification verbs become nouns

Especially in business context A sell - Congratulations! Our new salesman made the sell! A fail I have some bad news. Your presentation was a fail. 01/28/2020 55 Present Day If time, work alone or together to find other

examples of verbification or nounification. Try to write some sentences with your examples. 01/28/2020 56

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