Kaupapa Māori and Q Methodology - University of Auckland
Kaupapa Mori Research and Q Methodology Emerald Muriwai (Te Whakathea) Researcher, Te Rp Whriki, Massey University Todays talk Kaupapa Mori Research Q Methodology Setting up the study Creating a Q-set Forced Choice Distribution Analysis
What does Q-method offer Mori Research? A sensible fit for Mori research Q-methodology and uncomfortable research topics Acknowledgements The research featured in this talk is drawn from the project Mori Health Identities (2014-2017). This research was funded by the Health Research Council, Reference ID: 13/490 We also wish to acknowledge the 12 interviewers and 116 participants who took part in the study across Aotearoa
Image source: http:// karthur.org/2016/teaching-the-q-method-urb an-sustainability.html Kaupapa Mori Research Mori have a well-documented history of being subjects of non-Mori research (e.g. Bishop, 1996; Cram, 2001; Smith, 1991; Borell, 2014) Quantitative research in particular has been weaponised against Mori for colonising research agendas Much of the available literature on Mori is imperialist, racist and inaccurate (Mikaere, 2011)
Over the past four decades Mori researchers have reclaimed mana over our research through using a Kaupapa Mori approach and working alongside our people Kaupapa Mori Research A Kaupapa Mori approach is critical to understanding Mori subjectivities and conducting research with and alongside Mori communities Kaupapa Mori research is decolonising; it acknowledges the ongoing effects of colonisation Kaupapa Mori Research
Kaupapa Mori captures both the ordinariness (i.e. Mori are ordinary not other) and diversity (Mori are not a homogenous people) of tangata whenua (indigenous people of the land; Moewaka Barnes, 2000; 2009) Kaupapa Mori embodies Mori epistemology and approaches to research within our own contexts in ways that are culturally appropriate and safe Mori Women in Solidarity with Idle No More Robyn Kahukiwa Kaupapa Mori Research Kaupapa Mori Theory is guided by eight principles, as outlined by Linda Tuhiwai Smith and Fiona Cram:
Tino rangatiratanga Self Determination Taonga Tuku Iho Cultural Aspirations Ako Mori Culturally Preferred Pedagogy Kia piki ake I nga Socioeconomic Mediation rauraru o te kainga Whnau Extended Whnau Kaupapa Collective Philosphy Te Tiriti o Waitangi Treaty of Waitangi Ata Respectful Relationships Q-Methodology Founded by William Stephenson (1902-1989) as
an interpretive turn away from positivist methods Representative of between objectivity and subjectivity Q-method has its origins in assessing the thinking patterns of individuals experiencing psychological issues Q-method is less interested in generalising from a representative sample, instead examining different clusters of perspectives Q-Methodology Q-methodology has been described as qualiquantological (Ramlo & Newman, 2011) due to its hybrid blending of qualitative
and quantitative methods Q-methodology is not about testing difference, instead looking at similarities (clustering) between individual viewpoints Image source: http:// karthur.org/2016/teaching-the-q-method-urb an-sustainability.html Q-Methodology: Setting up the study From Stone & Turale (2015) Q Methodology: An Introduction
Q-Methodology: Setting up the study Multiple-participant design whose perspectives are we interested in? What are the general research questions? How do they matter and who would they matter to? Is the research drawing on issues of representation? (i.e. something commonly represented and understood in different ways) How many possible statements can be drawn from the research topic creating a concourse Will your Q-set be structured (statements asked in a specific order) or unstructured?
Q-Methodology: Creating a Q-set Q-sets often range between 40-80 statements Size of Q-set is usually dependent on the topic Should aim for a large concourse initially Refined through pilot testing Mori Health Identities Round One interviews 95 statements (concourse)
40 statements (Q-set) Forced Choice Distribution Easier to read data for data entry purposes Less ambiguous to analyse alongside other Q-sorts Forced Choice Distribution: Issues Some participants will still refuse the forced choice distribution Researchers have to make decisions on which way to read the data Semi-structured interview and recording of audio
responses to the sorting task are essential to understanding the choices made by participants Q-methodology: Analysis Free software purpose-built (PQMethod) Two types of data collected: Quantitative Q-sort placement of cards transferred to a rank value Qualitative semi-structured interview accompanying Q-sort task Factor analysis: quantitative significant factor loadings, factors chosen based on criteria
qualitative - interpretive process based on research expertise Q-methodology: Mori Health Identities N = 116 Research questions: How do Mori and health service providers construct and perceive Mori health identities? How do these identities emerge in relation to health settings and responses to health initiatives and messages? How can this provide an evidence base for better aligning services with Mori needs and expectations?
Findings: Factor Factor Factor Factor 1: 2: 3: 4: resisting the deficit ambivalence and defeat critical insights
reinforcing the stereotypes. Q-methodology: Mori Health Identities Significant Factor Loadings Determining the level of significance required for an individual Q-sort to match onto a factor. Formula= 2.58 x (1 n.o items in Q-set) Factor Arrays Factor arrays indicate the most commonly placed position of statements according to each factor
Q-Methodology in New Zealand Q-method has mostly been used in tourism, agricultural and environmental studies research in NZ Swaffield and Fairweather have led this research Q-method has been used with visual prompts Only one other instance of Q-method being used with Mori in Sheed (2014) Mori political agency : a q-method study of Mori political attitudes in New Zealand. What does Q-methodology offer
for Mori research? Q-methodology does not seek hypotheses to be answered - instead looking at clusters of possible perspectives Q-methodology relies on participant perspectives to centre the analysis rather than following an imposed agenda Q is exploratory, seeking to understand complexities Q is now used across a variety of disciplines and is characteristically adaptable to and interested in different epistemologies Q-method the Marginalised method for studying the Marginalised. Browns (2006) acknowledges power differentials between researcher and participant Q has been recognised as a feminist methodology for its potential to address intersectionality and multiplicity (Capedevila & Lazard, 2008; Roper, Capedevila, Lazard & Roberts, 2015)
The sensible fit for Mori research Sheed (2014) describes Q-methodology as a sensible fit for Mori research because it is not hypothesis driven, it looks for understanding complexity over solutions and includes participant voice in the research agenda Mori science has existed for centuries and its critical advancement requires the use of innovative ways to explore research topics relevant to modern Mori lives Q-methodology is about giving voice to a range of perspectives on a topic, which is in line with Mori autonomy and aspirations for self-determination
I dont think I could ever do this comfortably Q Methodology and uncomfortable research topics Q-methodology is a good tool for assessing peoples perspectives on topics which could otherwise be considered emotionally, politically, culturally difficult to respond to Q-method gives participants a unique opportunity to simultaneously absolve and reclaim responsibility for their perspectives on a given topic Through the sorting task participants often respond with one of the following affective responses: Ive never thought about this topic before so its interesting to see what my perspective on this is
Some of the statements were difficult to respond to but I just put the cards there because I had to for the task Where to from here? Q-method can expand our understanding of complex topics through looking at clusters of perspectives Through turning away from wanting generalisations and representative samples we may be able to see nuances in perspectives which are often overlooked Q-method also enhances our ability to articulate perspectives on uncomfortable topics, though we must always consider and abide by ethical
principles Mori knowledge continues to surface in many different forms through research and this adds to a list of innovations in Mori science Ng mihi nui Thank you for listening Emerald Mary Muriwai McPhee (MSc, CPT) Te Rp Whriki, Te Kura Hauora Tangata, Te Kunenga ki Prehuroa SHORE & Whriki Research Centre, College of Health, Massey University E: [email protected] P: 09 366 6136 ext 41321 A: PO Box 6137, Wellesley Street, Auckland 1141
Bishop, R. (1996). Addressing issues of self-determination and legitimation in Kaupapa Maori research. Research perspectives in Maori education, 143-60. Borrel, B (2014). When the marginalised research the privileged: One Mori groups experience. International Journal of Critical Indigenous Studies. 7 (2), 1-11. Brown, S. R. (2006). A match made in heaven: A marginalized methodology for studying the marginalized. Quality & Quantity, 40(3), 361382. Capdevila, R., & Lazard, L. (2008). 'Is it just me...?': Q methodology and representing the marginal. Operant Subjectivity, 32, 70-84. Cram, F. 2001. Rangahau Mori: Tona Tika Tona Pono. In Research ethics in Aotearoa: concepts, practice, critique, Edited by: Tolich, M. 3552. Auckland: Longman. Mikaere, A. (2011). Colonising myths-Maori realities: He rukuruku whakaaro. Huia Publishers. Moewaka Barnes, H. M. (2000). Kaupapa maori: explaining the ordinary. Pacific Health Dialog, 7(1), 13-16. Moewaka Barnes, H. M. (2009). Arguing for the spirit in the language of the mind: a Maori practitioner's view of research and science: a thesis submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosphy at Massey University.
Ramlo, S. E., & Newman, I. (2011). Q methodology and its position in the mixed methods continuum. Operant Subjectivity, 34(3), 172191. Roper, S., Capdevila, R., Lazard, L., & Roberts, A. (2015). How is this feminist again? Q as a feminist methodology. Psychology of Women Section Review, 17, 3-12. Sheed, T. M. (2014). Mori political agency: a q-method study of Mori political attitudes in New Zealand. Smith, G. H. (1991). Reform and Maori educational crisis: A grand illusion. Auckland: Research Unit for Maori Education, University of Auckland. Stone, T., & Turale, S. (2015). Q methodology: An introduction. Pacific Rim International Journal of Nursing Research, 19(3), 183-186. Watts, S., & Stenner, P. (2012). Doing Q methodological research: Theory, method & interpretation. Sage.
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