IRC Wall Bracing - MBOIA

IRC Wall Bracing - MBOIA

2009 IRC Wall Bracing MBOIA Maine Building Officials and Inspectors Association Mark Halverson First Last Manager Field Services Division APA The Engineered Wood Assn. Bracing Topics c o e h T n E n i g n o i t ia s s A www.iccsafe.org d Item no. 7102S09 A o P A Wo d e r e e Bracing Topics Introduction Getting Started

Load Path BWP vs. Shear Walls Bracing History Quiz n E n i g s s A Connections Lateral Forces e h T Bracing Basics d A o P A Wo d e r e e n o i t ia c o Other Topics Introduction: Lateral Forces on ti Wind Speed

e h T n E n i g d A o P A Wo d e r e e o s s A a i c Introduction: Lateral Forces on ti Wind Speed USA 85 Special d A o P A Wo d e r e e o s s

A a i c 90 Special Wind 85 90 100 Special e h T n E n i g 100 110 Hurricane Prone Region 120 130 140 150 110 Hurricane Prone Region 120 130 140 150 Introduction: Lateral Forces on ti Wind Speed New England d A

o P A Wo d e r e e 90 n i g Special e h T n E 100 o s s A a i c Special Wind 85 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 Introduction: Lateral Forces on ti Earthquake e h T n E

n i g d A o P A Wo d e r e e o s s A a i c Introduction: Lateral Forces on ti SDC United States e h T n E n i g d A o P A Wo d e r e e o s s A

a i c 117 83 67 50 33 17 0 E D2 D1 D0 C B A Introduction: Lateral Forces on ti SDC Northeast USA C B D0 C n E B A e h T d A o P A Wo d e r e e C n i

g C o s s A a i c 117 83 67 50 33 17 0 E D2 D1 D0 C B A Introduction: Lateral Forces on ti Wind e n i g Force = Pressure x Area e h T n E a i Seismic c o s s dA A o P

A Wo d e r e Force = Mass x Acceleration Introduction: Lateral Forces on ti Effects of Forces Base Shear Racking n E Resisted by Bracing e h T n i g d A o P A Wo d e r e e Resisted by Anchors a i c o s s Overturning A Resisted by hold-downs & Dead Load Introduction: Lateral Forces on

ti Anchors e h T n E n i g d A o P A Wo d e r e e s A a i c hold-down so Bracing Topics Introduction Getting Started Load Path BWP vs. Shear Walls Bracing History Quiz n E n i g

s s A Connections Lateral Forces e h T Bracing Basics d A o P A Wo d e r e e n o i t ia c o Other Topics Introduction: Load Path Vertical (Gravity) Load Path Load Load Load s s A 1. Ridge Beam d A

o P A Wo d e r e e 2. Post 3. Header 4. Jack Studs e h T n E n i g 5. Sill Plate 6. Foundation 7. Ground c o n o i t ia Introduction: Load Path Lateral (Sideways) Load Path Load e h T n E n i g Load

Load d A o P A Wo d e r e e s s A c o n o i t ia Introduction: Load Path Load s s R301.1 Application A d The construction A o of buildings P o A shall result in a Braced W complete load path Wall d for the transfer of all loads Panel e to the foundation. r

e e n i g 3.7 e h T n E c o n o i t ia Foundation Bracing Topics Introduction Getting Started Load Path BWP vs. Shear Walls Bracing History Quiz n E n i g s s A Connections Lateral Forces e h

T Bracing Basics d A o P A Wo d e r e e n o i t ia c o Other Topics n Introduction: BWP vs. Shear Walls o BWP (Prescriptive) s s A c o i t ia Shear Walls (Engineered) Applications d A o 3-Stories Maximum P Any building size/shape o AVS.W Wind no limit Wind 110 mph

SDC A-D SDC no limit d Calculations required Others (see IRC Chap. 3) e r Typically with Typically without ee hold-downs n hold-downs i g n E e h T Limitations (1) 2 (1) Wind 100 mph in hurricane-prone regions. n Introduction: BWP vs. Shear Walls o Prescribed material & nailing Calculated load, material & nailing Braced Wall Panel (BWP) e h T n E n i g d A o P

AVS.Wo d e r e e s s A c o Shear Wall Hold-down capacity calculated i t ia n Introduction: BWP vs. Shear Walls o R602.10 Wall Bracing s s A c o i t ia "Where a building, or portion thereof, does not comply with d A o one or more of the bracing requirements in this section, P o A W those portions shall be designed and constructed in accordance with Section R301.1. d e r

e e n i g n E e h T n Introduction: BWP vs. Shear Walls o Wall Framing e h T n E n i g d A o P A Wo d e r e e s s A Hinge c o i t ia Hinge n Introduction: BWP vs. Shear Walls o

Wall Framing Panel resistance imparted to wall framing (Prevents hinging) e h T n E n i g d A o P A Wo d e r e e s s A c o i t ia n Introduction: BWP vs. Shear Walls o Wall Framing Braced Wall Panel (Prevents hinging) e h T n

E n i g d A o P A Wo d e r e e Gypsum Sheathing s s A Hinge c o i t ia Hinge Bracing Topics Introduction Getting Started Load Path BWP vs. Shear Walls Bracing History Quiz n E n i g s s

A Connections Lateral Forces e h T Bracing Basics d A o P A Wo d e r e e n o i t ia c o Other Topics Introduction: Bracing History on ti o s s A History of Wall Bracing Uniform Building Code 1927 d A o P Uniform Building Code 1952 A Wo d

e r e e n i g n E e h T a i c All exterior walls and partitions shall be thoroughly and effectively angle braced. All exterior walls and partitions shall be thoroughly and effectively angle braced or sheathed with approved panels adequately nailed along all edges. Introduction: Bracing History on ti History of Wall Bracing e h T n E n i g d A o P A Wo d e r e e o s s A a i

c Introduction: Bracing History on ti o s s A History of Wall Bracing Uniform Building Code 1970 d A o P A Wo d e r e e a i c All exterior walls and main cross stud partitions shall be effectively and thoroughly braced at each end, or as near thereto as possible, and at least every 25 feet of length by on of the following methods: A. B. C. D. E. F. Nominal 1-inch by 4-inch Wood boards of 5/8-inch Plywood sheathing Fiberboard sheathing Gypsum sheathing Particleboard sheathing e h T n E n i g

Introduction: Bracing History on ti History of Wall Bracingso d A o P International Residential Code 2000 o A W d e 2006 International Residential Code r e e n i g n E e h T Uniform Building Code - 1994 s A a i c 32-inch alternate braced wall panel added Bracing percentage requirement added Continuous wood structural panel bracing method added Alternate braced wall panel adjacent to door or window opening added Continuous sheathing 4:1 and 6:1 aspect ratio panels at garage door added Introduction: Bracing History on ti History of Wall Bracing International Residential Code 2009 d A o P A Wo d

e r e e o s s A a i c Methods renamed from number designation to abbreviation Wall bracing length determined by the greater length requirement from separate wind and seismic bracing length tables Intermittent portal frame at garage added Continuous sheathing with structural fiberboard added Table of effective braced length for braced panels less than 48 in. long added Braced panel end distance limit of 12.5 ft cumulative for SDC A-C with intermittent bracing Additional bracing requirements for structures with masonry veneer moved to wall bracing section Anchorage for masonry foundations with short wall lengths added Angled wall lines added Imaginary braced wall lines added e h T n E n i g Introduction: Bracing History on ti History of Wall Bracing e h T n E n i g d

A o P A Wo d e r e e o s s A a i c Bracing Topics Introduction Getting Started Load Path BWP vs. Shear Walls Bracing History Quiz n E n i g s s A Connections Lateral Forces e h T Bracing Basics d

A o P A Wo d e r e e n o i t ia c o Other Topics Introduction: Quiz c o 1. What is the maximum offset in a BWL? 4' per side, 8' total d B A o P A A Wo d e r e e 2. What is the maximum spacing between the centers of BWP's within a BWL? 25 e h T n E n i g

Line Spacing sC s A Line Spacing n o i t ia Introduction: Quiz c o 3. What is the minimum length of a Method WSP BWP? 4' 4. What is the minimum length of a continuous BWP? 5. d B A o P o A A W 24" (or 16") What is the max. spacing d e between centers of BWL's? r Wind Design = e 60'e n= 25' (or 35') Seismic Design i g n E e h

T Line Spacing s C s A Line Spacing n o i t ia Introduction: Quiz c o 6. Can a bracing panel be less than 48 long? Yes. 36 7. Most intermittent - d B A o P CS-WSP - 16 o A Is more bracing needed for A W d steeper roofs? e r Yes e > 10 < 15 ridge =e+ 15% n= + 30% i > 15 < 20 ridge g n E e

h T Line Spacing s C s A Line Spacing n o i t ia Introduction: Quiz 8. Are the BWP placement requirements the same for interior and exterior BWL's? SDC A-C = Yes Int. Ext. e h T c o d B A o = 12.5' end dist. P = 12.5' end dist. A A Wo d e r e e n i g n E Line Spacing

s C s A Line Spacing n o i t ia Bracing Topics Introduction Getting Started Terminology Bracing Basics Irregular Buildings Wind Exposure n i g Connecting the systems e h T n E d A o P A Wo d e r e e

Loads & Limits s s A Connections n o i t ia c o Other Topics Getting Started: Terminology on c Co s s A BWP, BWL & Spacing Braced Wall Line (BWL) A e h T d A o P A A Wo d e r e e B BWL Spacing Braced Wall Panel (BWP)

n E BWL Spacing n i g BWP Spacing BWP Spacing R202 i t ia Getting Started: Terminology on 4' 21' unbraced length 4' n E 2' e h T n i g d A o P A Wo d e r e e s s

A 2' 25' R602.10.1.4 c o i t ia Getting Started: Terminology on 6' 21' unbraced length 4' BWP n E 2' e h T n i g s s A 10' d A o P A Wo d e r e e 4' BWP 2' 25' R602.10.1.4

c o i t ia Getting Started: Terminology on Length 2 RESISTANCE Width 1 e h T n E n i g d A o P A Wo d e r e e LOAD c o B s s A R602.10.1 RESISTANCE

A i t ia Getting Started: Terminology on Length RESISTANCE Width 1 2 e h T n E n i g d A o P A Wo d e r e e c o B s s A LOAD A i t ia

RESISTANCE R602.10.1 n Getting Started: Terminologyio t a i Wind Speed Seismic Riskoc s s dA A o P A Wo d e r e e n i g Both wind speed and seismic risk must be considered n when defining required wall bracing. The required bracing E length is the greater of the two bracing lengths. e h T Special Wind 85 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 E 117 83 67 50 33 17 0 D2

D1 D0 C B A Getting Started: Terminology on i t a When considering whether wind or seismic requirements i control, a number of factors must be considered.oc s s dA A o P A Wo Wind Requirements Seismic Requirements d Wall bracing length e Wall bracing length r Braced wall line spacing Braced wall line spacing e Wall height e Hold-downs Eave to ridge height n Material weight limits i Roof ties g n E e h T Wall bracing length - either wind or seismic requirements may control. Use the longest required length. Hold-downs, Roof Ties, Limits if wind or seismic requirements require additional connections or limits, they must be applied regardless of which requirement set controls. Getting Started: Terminology on c o

BWL Spacing = 60' max. d A o P A Wo d e r e e SDC C (only applies to townhouses) BWL Spacing = 35' max. Permitted to be = 50' max. SDC D0, D1, & D2 (all dwellings) BWL Spacing = 25' max. Permitted to be = 35' max. to accommodate one room not exceeding 900 ft2 L/W < 3:1 Increase bracing by factor of 1.4 e h T n E n i g Width 1 s s Length A RESISTANCE Seismic A B RESISTANCE

Wind i t ia 2 LOAD Tables R602.10.1.2(1),(2),(3), Table R602.10.1.5, & R602.10.1.5 Bracing Topics Introduction Getting Started Terminology Bracing Basics Irregular Buildings Wind Exposure n i g Connecting the Systems e h T n E d A o P A Wo d e r e e Loads & Limits

s s A Connections n o i t ia c o Other Topics Getting Started: Loads & Limitson 10' = Max. Stud Height 16" = Max. Floor Framing Height(2) (1) (Joist Depth) (1)R301.3 Item 1, Exception permits the stud height to be 12' provided bracing length is increased by a factor of 1.2. n E n i g A P A Wo d e r e e 16" Max Floor Framing d o s s A Stud Height

(2)R301.3 Permits floor framing depths greater than 16 when maximum story height is 11'-7 or less. e h T c o R301.3 i t ia Story Height Story Height Getting Started: Loads & Limitson s s A Table R602.3(5) Size, Height and Spacing of Wood Studs BEARING WALLS Stud Size (Inches) Laterally unsupported stud height (feet) 2x3 -- -- 2 x4 10 24 3x4

10 2x5 10 2x6 e h T 10 d A o P A Wo d e r e e Maximum Maximum Maximum spacing when spacing when spacing when Maximum supporting supporting supporting spacing when roof-ceiling one floor, plus two floors, a supporting assembly or a roof-ceiling roof-ceiling one floor habitable assembly or assembly or height attic, only habitable attic habitable attic (inches) (inches) (inches) (inches) c o i t

ia NONBEARING WALLS Laterally unsupported stud height (feet) Maximum spacing (inches) -- -- -- 10 16 16 -- 24 14 24 24 24 16 24 14 24 24 24 -- 24 16 24

24 24 16 24 20 24 n E n i g Getting Started: Loads & Limitson c o i t ia Table R602.3.1 Maximum Allowable Length of Wood Wall Studs Exposed to Wind Speeds of 100 mph or Less in SDC A-D2 Height (feet) d A o P A Wo d e r e e s s A On-Center Spacing (inches) 24 16

12 8 2x4 2x4 2x4 2x4 2x4 2x4 2x6 2x6 2x4 2x6 2x6 2x4 2x6 2x6 2x6 N/A 2x6 2x6 N/A N/A 2x6 Supporting a roof only >10 2x4 12 2x6 14

2x6 16 2x6 18 n E 20 24 N/A e h T N/A N/A n i g Getting Started: Loads & Limitson Table R602.3.1, footnote b Two Point Truss 12' Max. e h T n E n i g Three Point Truss d A o P A Wo d e r e

e Tall walls s s A c o i t ia 12' Max. Table R602.3.1 Getting Started: Loads & Limitson Stud Extends Two Stories s s A c o d A o Stud Story Height P Height A Wo Lateral d Support e r e Story Height Stud e Height in g n E Balloon Framing Platform Framing

e h T R301.1.2 i t ia Getting Started: Loads & Limitson R301.2.2 Seismic provisions. s s A The seismic provisions of this code shall apply to SDC C, D0, D1 and D2 c o d A o Exception: P o A Detached one- and two-family dwellings located in W Seismic Design Category C are exempt from the d seismic requirements of this code. e r e e n i g n E e h T i t ia Getting Started: Loads & Limitson s

s A c o i t ia Wind Requirements Only Seismic Design One- and twoTownhouses Category family A&B C D0 D1 D2 e h T g n d A o N/A N/A P o AExemptW Seismic Req. Apply d eReq. Apply Seismic Req. Apply Seismic r e e Seismic Req. Apply Seismic Req. Apply in Seismic Req. Apply Seismic Req. Apply EWind and Seismic Requirements R301.2.2 Getting Started: Loads & Limitson R202 TOWNHOUSE

Three or more attached units d A o P Open space on at least A Wo two sides d e r e e n i g n E e h T Units extend from foundation to roof s s A R301.2.2 c o i t ia Open two sides Getting Started: Loads & Limitson R202 TOWNHOUSE Three or more attached units d A o P o A

W Open space on at least two sides d e r e e n i g n Not open two sides E (therefore, not a townhouse) e h T Units extend from foundation to roof s s A R301.2.2 c o i t ia Getting Started: Loads & Limitson R301.2.2.2.1 Weight of Materials Average dead loads shall not exceed: 15 or 25 psf for roofs/ceiling assemblies 10 psf for floor assemblies 15 psf for exterior wall assemblies s s A c o i t ia d

A o P A Wo d Wind Seismic e Requirements er Requirements Weight of materialse Weight of materials n provisions do noti apply provisions apply g n E Force = Mass x Acceleration e h T Getting Started: Loads & Limitson Irregular building definitions 1 2 3 4 5 i t ia c o 6 s s R301.2.2.2.5 Irregular buildings be usedd forAirregular Prescriptive construction shall not A structures located in Seismic Design Categories C, D , D , and D . o P Irregular portions of structures shall beo designed with accepted

A Wremainder of the building engineering practice; design of the shall be permitted to use the provisions of this code. d e r Wind Seismic Requirementsee Requirements n Irregular building provisions i Irregular building provisions g do not apply apply n E e h T 0 1 2 7 Getting Started: Loads & Limitson e h T s s A c o i t ia d A o P o A

W Snow Load, R301.2.3 d e Design Method Load r e e < 70 n psf Prescriptive i g > 70 psf Engineered n E R301.2.3 Getting Started: Loads & Limitson s s A c o i t ia TABLE R301.2(1) CLIMATIC AND GEOGRAPIC DESIGN CRITERIA Ground Snow Load Wind Speed (mph) Seismic Design Category Subject to Damage From Weathering 70

<110 (1) d A o P A Wo d e r e e A-D2 n E n i g Frost Line Depth Termite (1) Wind 100 mph in hurricane-prone regions. e h T Winter Design Temp Ice Barrier Underlayment Required Flood Hazards Air Freezing Index Mean Annual Temp Bracing Topics Introduction

Getting Started Terminology Bracing Basics Irregular Buildings Wind Exposure n i g Connecting the Systems e h T n E d A o P A Wo d e r e e Loads & Limits s s A Connections n o i t ia c o Other Topics

n Getting Started: Irregular Buildings o Irregular building definitions 1 2 3 4 5 i t ia c o 6 7 s s R301.2.2.2.5 Irregular buildings A Prescriptive construction shall not be usedd for irregular structures A located in Seismic Design Categories C, D , o D , and D . Irregular P owith accepted engineering portions of structures shall beA designed practice; design of the remainder ofW the building shall be permitted to use the provisions of this code." d e r Wind Seismic e e Requirements Requirements n i Irregular buildingg provisions Irregular building provisions do not apply n apply

E e h T 0 1 2 Additional building shape and structural requirements apply n Getting Started: Irregular Buildings o X 4X Setback e h T n E n i g d A o P A Wo d e r e e s s A c o X 1 i

t ia 4X Cantilever R301.2.2.2.5 n Getting Started: Irregular Buildings o 1 Summary Setback or Cantilever 1. 2" x 10" Joists @ 16" Max. 2. Back span to cantilever = 2:1 3. Doubled joists at BWP ends 4. Continuous rim or approved splice 5. Uniform load & 8' max header e h T n E n i g i t a i Cantilever c o s s A d A o P o BW B A

W W P P d e r e e R301.2.2.2.5 n Getting Started: Irregular Buildings o Unsupported roof or floor 2 e h T n E n i g d A o P A Wo d e r e e s s A 6' Max. Ex R301.2.2.2.5 c o

i t ia n Getting Started: Irregular Buildings o 2 Lateral Support: >6' d A o P A Wo d e r e e When a section of floor or roof is not laterally supported by shear walls or braced wall lines on all edges. e h T n E n i g s s A R301.2.2.2.5 c o i t ia n Getting Started: Irregular Buildings o 3

1' Max. BWP d A o P A Wo d e r e e s s A e h T n E n i g R301.2.2.2.5 c o i t ia n Getting Started: Irregular Buildings o 3 Entire BWP length shall not occur over opening below 5 5 e h T n

E A P A Wo d e r e e d o Header s s requirement A BWP Okay; BWP & window in line c o n i g i t ia 8' Max. R301.2.2.2.5 1 2 3 4 n Getting Started: Irregular Buildings o 3 c o

s s A Maximum Minimum d Opening length Header Requirements A o P Qtyo1 2" x 12" A 4' 2 W Qty 2 2" x 10" d Qty 2 2" x 12" e 6' 3 r Qty 3 2" x 10" e e Qty 3 2" x 12" 8' 4 n Qty 4 2" x 10" i g n E e h T Header Requirements Per Table R502.5(1) R301.2.2.2.5 1 i t ia n Getting Started: Irregular Buildings o 4

L d A o P o A Floor or W roof d opening e r e e in W/2 12' max. s s A W/2 12' max. e h T E g n c o i t ia W Least dimension R301.2.2.2.5 n Getting Started: Irregular Buildings o 4 Floor or Roof Opening:

e h T n E n i g d A o P A Wo d e r e e When an opening in a floor or roof exceeds the lesser of 12 feet or 50% of the least floor dimension it must be engineered in high seismic regions. s s A R301.2.2.2.5 c o i t ia n Getting Started: Irregular Buildings o c o 5 s Vertical offset permitted if: s A dVertically 1

offset A o P o A W 2 d e r e e 2 n i 1 g n E e h T 1. Floor framing supported over continuous foundation at building perimeter, or 2. Floor framing lapped or connected per R502.6.1 R301.2.2.2.5 i t ia n Getting Started: Irregular Buildings o 6 Not perpendicular e h T n E n i g d A

o P A Wo d e r e e s s A R301.2.2.2.5 c o i t ia n Getting Started: Irregular Buildings o 7 Masonry or Concrete: d A o P o A Exception: W d Fireplaces, chimneys, and masonry e r veneer are permitted by this code. e Bracing requirements are defined in e section R602.12. n i g n E e h T

When stories above-gradeinclude masonry or concrete construction. s s A R301.2.2.2.5 c o i t ia Bracing Topics Introduction Getting Started Terminology Bracing Basics Irregular Buildings Wind Exposure n i g Connecting the Systems e h T n E d A o P A Wo d e r e e

Loads & Limits s s A Connections n o i t ia c o Other Topics Getting Started: Wind Exposureon R301.2.1.1 Design Criteria s s A c o i t ia Wind speeds greater than: 100 mph in hurricane-prone regions(1), or 110 mph elsewhere to be designed using one of the following: d A o WFCM P o ICC 600 A W ASCE-7 d AISI S230 (steel) e r e e n

i g n E e h T (1) R202 Areas vulnerable to hurricanes, defined as the U.S. Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico coasts where the basic wind speed is greater than 90 mph, and Hawaii, Puerto Rico, Guam, Virgin Islands, and America Samoa. Getting Started: Wind Exposureon R301.2.1 Wind limitations s s A c o i t ia Component and cladding loads for wall coverings, windows, etc. per Table R301.2(2) and adjusted per Table R301.2(3) shall be used 3 5 e h T n E 2 n i g4 d A 3 2 o2 P A1 Wo 2 1 d e 2 r

2e e 3 5 4 5 3 5 Getting Started: Wind Exposureon R301.2.1 Wind limitations e h T n E n i g d A o P A Wo d e r e e Cladding Failure s s A c o i t ia Getting Started: Loads & Limitson R301.2.4 Exposure Category. s

s A c o i t ia 1. Exposure A. Large city centers 2. Exposure B. Urban, suburban and wooded areas with numerous, closely spaced obstruction. Exposure B is assumed unless the site clearly meets other category types 3. Exposure C. Open terrain with scattered obstructions 4. Exposure D. Flat areas exposed to wind flowing over large bodies of water n i g d A o P A Wo d e r e e Table R301.2.3 Height and Exposure Adjustments for Table R301.2(2). e h T n E Getting Started: Wind Exposureon Exposure A: s s A c o i t

ia Large city centers with at least 50 percent of the buildings having a height in excess of 70 feet for a distance of 0.5 mile upwind from the structure being designed. 70' Average e h T n E n i g d A o P A Wo d e r e e 1/2 Mile R301.2.1.4.1 Getting Started: Wind Exposureon Exposure B: s s A c o i t ia Urban and suburban areas, wooded areas or other terrain with many closely spaced obstructions having the size of single family dwellings or larger. e

h T n E n i g d A o P A Wo d e r e e R301.2.1.4.2 Getting Started: Wind Exposureon Exposure C (1 of 2): s s A c o Open with scattered obstructions or undulations generally less that 30 feet in height extending for 1,500 feet in any direction. >30' e h T n E n i g d A o P A Wo d

e r e e R301.2.1.4.3 i t ia Getting Started: Wind Exposureon Exposure C (2 of 2): s s A c o i t ia Within Exposure B terrain, but located directly adjacent to open areas of Exposure C for a distance of more than 600 ft. d A o P o More than A W 600' d e r e e n i g n E Exposure C terrain e h T Exposure B terrain

R301.2.1.4.3 Getting Started: Wind Exposureon Exposure D: s s A c o i t ia Flat, unobstructed areas exposed to wind flowing over open water for at least 1 mile. Extends inland 1,500 feet. e h T E g n d A 1 Mile 1,500' o P A Wo d e r e e in R301.2.1.4.4 Getting Started: Wind Exposureon Lateral (Sideways) Load Path Load e h T n E

n i g Load Load d A o P A Wo d e r e e s s A c o i t ia Getting Started: Wind Exposureon c o i t ia Outward and Inward Wind Pressure Loads e h T n E n i g d

A o P A Wo d e r e e s s A Getting Started: Wind Exposureon R301.2.1 Wind limitations. e h T n E n i g d A o P A Wo d e r e e s s A c o i t ia Cladding failures have been more common than bracing failures in recent events

Getting Started: Wind Exposureon c o i t ia Table R301.2.(2) Component and Cladding Loads. s s A Provides values for both positive and negative pressures Negative values for leeward side always higher than windward side, nature of wind Code does not provide information on capability of products to resist wind pressures especially suction loads. e h T n E n i g d A o P A Wo d e r e e Getting Started: Wind Exposureon R301.2.1 Wind limitations. e h T n E

n i g d A o P A Wo d e r e e s s A c o i t ia Bracing Topics Introduction Getting Started Terminology Bracing Basics Irregular Buildings Wind Exposure n i g Connecting the Systems e h T n E

d A o P A Wo d e r e e Loads & Limits s s A Connections n o i t ia c o Other Topics Connecting the Systems e h T n E n i g d A o P A Wo d e r e e s

s A c o n o i t ia Connecting the Systems e h T n E n i g d A o P A Wo d e r e e s s A c o n o i t ia Connecting the Systems s s A

c o n o i t ia Vertical (Gravity) Loads e h T n E n i g d Lateral (Wind) Loads A o P A Wo d Wind Loads Normal e r to Walls e e Uplift Wind Loads APA Document M310 Connecting the Systems s s A c o n o i t ia Nail roof sheathing with 8d ring shank nails 4 and 6 on center.

Tie gable end walls back to the structure. d A o P A Wo d e r e e Sheath gable ends with structural wall sheathing. Use framing anchors to tie wall system to roof system. Nail upper story and lower story structural wall sheathing to common structural rim board. Nail wall sheathing with 8d common nails 4 and 6 on center. e h T n E n i g Use continuous structural sheathing over all exterior wall surfaces. Extend structural wall sheathing to lap over the sill plate. Space anchor bolts 32 to 48 on center with 3x3 plate washers Connecting the Systems e h T n E n i g d A o

P A Wo d e r e e s s A c o n o i t ia Connecting the Systems e h T n E n i g d A o P A Wo d e r e e s s A c o n o i

t ia Connecting the Systems e h T n E n i g d A o P A Wo d e r e e s s A c o n o i t ia Bracing Topics Introduction Getting Started c Other Connections o Topics s s dA A o

P A Wo d e r e Bracing Basics Braced Panel Construction Intermittent Bracing Methods Intermittent Bracing Continuous Methods Bracing Methods Continuous Bracing BWP Placement Methods e h T n E e n i g n o i t ia Mixing BWL Spacing Bracing Methods Required BWP Bracing Placement Length BWL Spacing Required Bracing Length Bracing Basics: Braced Panel n

o Construction i t o s s A Interior Finish (Gypsum) Required d A o P A Wo d e r e BWP Material R602.10.2.1 Braced Wall Panel Interior Finish Material " thickness min e n i g Exceptions: 1. Wall panels braced with Methods GB, ABW, PFG and PFH. 2. When an approved interior finish material with an in-plane shear resistance equivalent to gypsum board is installed. 3. For Methods DWB, WSP, SFB, PBS, PCP and HPS, omitting gypsum wall board is permitted when the length of bracing in Tables R602.10.1.2(1) and R602.10.1.2(2) is multiplied by a factor of 1.5. e h T n E a i c Bracing Basics: Braced Panel n o Construction i t All vertical panel joints shall occur

over studs 48" 48" n E n i g o s s A a i c d A o P A Wo d 48" e r e e Gypsum Wood Structural Panel Method GB Method WSP e h T R602.10.8 Bracing Basics: Braced Panel n o Construction i t

n E n i g o s s A Horizontal Blocking d A o P o A W BWP d e r e e R602.10.8 Panel joints e h T a i c Blocking required at horizontal edges of BWP's. Infill Sheathing Bracing Basics: Braced Panel n o Construction i t o s s A a i c

Blocking is required at horizontal edges of BWP's Horizontal Blocking d A o P A Wo d e r e e Exceptions: 1. Blocking at horizontal joints is not required in wall segments that are not counted as braced wall panels. Infill Sheathing 2. Where the bracing length provided is 2x the minimum length required (Tables R602.10.1.2(1) and R602.10.1.2(2)) blocking at horizontal joints shall not be required in BWP braced wall panels constructed using Methods WSP, SFB, GB, PBS or HPS. 3. When Method GB panels are installed horizontally, blocking of horizontal joints is not required. e h T n E n i g R602.10.8 Bracing Topics Introduction Getting Started c Other Connections o Topics s s dA A o

P A Wo d e r e Bracing Basics Braced Panel Construction Intermittent Bracing Methods Intermittent Bracing Continuous Methods Bracing Methods Continuous Bracing BWP Placement Methods e h T n E e n i g n o i t ia Mixing BWL Spacing Bracing Methods Required BWP Bracing Placement Length BWL Spacing Required Bracing Length Bracing Basics: Intermittent n o

Bracing i t Intermittent Bracing Methods: LIB DWB WSP SFB GB PBS PCP HPS ABW PFH PFG o s s A a i c - Let-in diagonal brace - 3/4" Diagonal wood boards - 3/8" Wood structural panel - 1/2" Structural fiberboard - 1/2" Interior gypsum wallboard or gypsum sheathing particleboard - 3/8" Particleboard sheathing - Portland cement plaster on studs - 7/16" Hardboard panel siding - Alternate braced wall - Intermittent portal frame - Intermittent portal frame at garage door openings in SDC A-C e h T n E n i g d A o P A Wo d e

r e e R602.10.2 Bracing Basics: Intermittent n o Bracing i t Method LIB Let-in Brace Angled 45 to 60 degrees from horizontal Extends continuously from bottom plate to top plate 1x4 lumber or approved metal strap Application limited d A o P A W8' oto 12' d e r e e 1st and 2nd story in SDC A & B 1st story in SDC C Not permitted in SDC D0-D2 e h T n E n i g o s s A a i c

55" to 144" R602.10.2 Bracing Basics: Intermittent n o Bracing i t Method LIB Let-in Brace e h T n E n i g d A o P A Wo d e r e e o s s A R602.10.2 a i c Bracing Basics: Intermittent n o Bracing i t Method LIB Let-in Brace d A

o P o A Must extend W continuously from d bottom plate to top plate e r e e n i g n E e h T o s s A a i c Bracing Basics: Intermittent n o Bracing i t Method DWB Diagonal Wood Boards Wood boards 3/4" (1" nominal) thick applied diagonally Studs spaced 24" max. e h T n E n i g d A o

P A Wo 8' to 12' d e r e e o s s A 4' min. R602.10.2 a i c Bracing Basics: Intermittent n o Bracing i t Method WSP Wood Structural Panel 3/8" min. thickness Wood structural panel defined in R604 e h T n E n i g d A o P o A 8'W to 12' d e r e e

o s s A 4' min. R602.10.2 a i c Bracing Basics: Intermittent n o Bracing i t Method WSP Wood Structural Panel 48" e h T n E n i g d A o P A Wo d e r e e 48" o s s A a i c 48"

Bracing Basics: Intermittent n o Bracing i t a i c Method SFB Structural Fiberboard Sheathing o 1/2" or 25/32" thick s s Studs spaced 16" o.c. max. A Must conform to ASTM C 208 d A o P A Wo 8' to 12' d e r e e n i g n 4' min. E e h T R602.10.2 Bracing Basics: Intermittent n o Bracing i t Method GB Gypsum Board 1/2" min. thick for studs spaced 24" o.c. max. 8' length for 1-sided 4' length for 2-sided e h T n E

n i g d A o P A Wo 8' to 12' d e r e e o s s A a i c 8' min. R602.10.2 Bracing Basics: Intermittent n o Bracing i t Method PBS Particleboard Sheathing Installed in accordance with Tables R602.3(2) & R602.3(4) e h T n E n i g d A o

P A Wo 8' to 12' d e r e e o s s A 4' min. R602.10.2 a i c Bracing Basics: Intermittent n o Bracing i t Method PCP Portland Cement Plaster On studs spaced 16" o.c. max. Installed in accordance with R703.6 e h T n E n i g d A o P A Wo 8' to 12' d e r e e o s

s A a i c 4' min. R602.10.2 Bracing Basics: Intermittent n o Bracing i t Method HPS Hardboard Panel Siding Installed in accordance with Table R703.4 e h T n E n i g d A o P A Wo 8' to 12' d e r e e o s s A 4' min. R602.10.2 a i c Bracing Basics: Intermittent n

o Bracing i t Minimum Braced Panel Length Table R602.10.3 Effective length of braced panels less than 48" a i c BWP Length d A o P o For Methods A BWP DWB, WSP, SFB, PBS, PCP, HPS W Height d Effective Length of BWP Actual e r Length 8' 9' 10' e 48" 48" 48" e 48" n i 42" 36" 36" N/A g 36" 27" n N/A N/A E e h T R602.10.3

o s s A 27" to 48" BWP Bracing Basics: Intermittent n o Bracing i t Method PFG Intermittent Portal Frame at Garage For use in SDC A-C only Length of the panel is multiplied by 1.5 e h T n E n i g o s s A a i c Minimum 24" length Header 6' min. to 18' max. d A o P A Wo d e r e e R602.10.3.4

Bracing Basics: Intermittent n o Bracing i t a i c Method PFG Intermittent Portal Frame at Garage o s s 1 or 2-Story A d Min. A Height o P length o A W 8' 24" d 9' 27" e r 10' 30" e e n i Limited to 10' height maximum g Including header height n E e h T R602.10.3.4 Bracing Basics: Intermittent n o Bracing i t a

i Method PFG Intermittent Portal Frame at Garage c o s s A Extended header d A o #1,000 Strap o capacity P A W 10' Max. 3" o.c. nailing d e Min. 7/16" thick wood r e structural panel e n i No hold-downs required g n (2) 1/2" anchor bolts E e h T (opposite side) R602.10.3.4 Bracing Basics: Intermittent n o Bracing i t a i c Method PFG Intermittent Portal Frame at Garage Extended header d A o

P o Min. #1,000 A strap W d e r e e n i g n E e h No hold-downs required T o s s A (opposite side) R602.10.3.4 Bracing Basics: Intermittent n o Bracing i t Other bracing methods per code report Prefabricated units Laminated Kraft-paper board Fiberboard in various thicknesses e h T n E n i g d A o P

A Wo d e r e e o s s A R602.10.2 a i c Bracing Basics: Intermittent n o Bracing i t Bracing Per Code Report e h T n E n i g d A o P A Wo d e r e e o s s A a i c

Bracing Topics Introduction Getting Started c Other Connections o Topics s s dA A o P A Wo d e r e Bracing Basics Braced Panel Construction Intermittent Bracing Methods Continuous Bracing Methods e h T n E e n i g n o i t ia Mixing Bracing Methods BWP Placement BWL Spacing Required Bracing

Length n Bracing Basics: Continuous Method o Main Concepts Allows for narrow BWP's without hold-downs BWL's must be fully sheathed with wood structural panel or structural fiberboard sheathing (continuously sheathed) Continuous sheathing with WSP is described in R602.10.4 Continuous sheathing with SFB is described in R602.10.5 e h T n E n i g d A o P A Wo d e r e e s s A c o R602.10.4 & R602.10.5 i t ia n Bracing Basics: Continuous Method o

Sheathing Requirements: s s A 1. Sheath full height areas 2. Sheath above and below openings 3. Adjacent openings determine minimum BWP length n i g e h T d A o P A Wo d e r e e n E Too Narrow R602.10.4.2 & R602.10.5 c o i t ia n Bracing Basics: Continuous Method o e h T n E n i g

s s A c o d A o P A Wo Opening d Height e r Opening e e Height R602.10.4 & R602.10.5 i t ia n Bracing Basics: Continuous Method o Aspect Ratio: The ratio of the height of a bracing unit to its length. Aspect Ratio = Height Length Aspect Ratio = 8' n E 4' e h T n i g =2

d A o P AHeight Wo d e r e e s s A Length R602.10.4 & R602.10.5 c o i t ia n Bracing Basics: Continuous Method o 25' Max. e h T n E n i g d A o P A Wo d e r e e s

s A c o 25' Max. BWP Infill Sheathing R602.10.4 & R602.10.5 i t ia n Bracing Basics: Continuous Method o c o i t ia Method CS-WSP Continuous Sheathing with Wood Structural Panel s s Area above and below openings fully sheathed A Min 3/8 wood structural panel sheathingd A o P A Wo Method CS-SFB d eStructural Fiberboard Sheathing Continuous Sheathing with r e Area above and beloweopenings fully sheathed n Min 1/2" structuralifiberboard sheathing g n E e h T R602.10.4 & R602.10.5

n Bracing Basics: Continuous Method o Method CS-WSP c o i t ia s s A of the adjacent andd height Wall minimum length is based on wall height clear opening. A o P A Wo d e r e e n i g n E Too Narrow e h T Full-height sheathed wall segments having a width equal or greater than Table R602.10.4.2 are counted toward the total bracing length. R602.10.4.2 n Bracing Basics: Continuous Method o c o Method CS-WSP Braced Panel Minimum Length Minimum Length of BWP (inches) s s A i t

ia 8-ft wall 9-ft wall 10-ft wall Maximum Opening Next to the BWP (% of wall height) 48 54 60 100% 32 36 40 85% 24 27 30 67% H = 8 e h T n E 32" n i g 85% H d A

o P A Wo d e r e e 100% H 67% H Table R602.10.5.2 48" 24" n Bracing Basics: Continuous Method o Method CS-WSP s s A c o i t ia Braced Panel Length Requirements for Continuously Sheathed Wall Lines (in) Method CS-WSP Adjacent Clear Opening Height (ft) 64 68 72 76 80 84 88 92 96 100 104 108

112 116 120 e h T Wall Height (ft) 8 9 24 26 27 30 32 35 38 43 48 27 27 27 29 30 32 35 37 41 44 49 54 n E n i g Adjacent Clear Method Opening Height (ft) d A o P A Wo d

e r e e 10 11 12 30 30 30 30 30 32 33 35 38 40 43 46 50 55 60 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 35 36 38 40 43 45 48 52 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 38 39 a. 41 43 45 48

CS-WSP CS-G CS-PF 124 128 132 136 140 144 a <120 8 24 16 Wall Height (ft) 9 27 18 10 30 20 11 12 56 61 66 51 54 58 62 66 72 36 24 33 22 Garage opening adjacent to method CS-G panel shall have header. Max opening height includes header height. Table R602.10.4.2

n Bracing Basics: Continuous Method o Method CS-WSP All panel centers with 25' center-to-center Too narrow to be counted 8' 24" 24" n E < 25' e h T n i g d A o P A Wo d e r e e 108" 24" < 25' c o i t ia s s A

32" < 25' 36' R602.10.4.2 & Table R602.10.4.2 24" < 25' n Bracing Basics: Continuous Method o i t a Method CS-G Wood structural panel adjacent to garage iopening c o s s dA A o P A Wo d e r e Garage e 10' Max Opening n i g n E e H/4 h T Full-height sheathed wall segments to either side of garage openings Roof covering dead loads of 3 psf or less Applied to one wall only 4:1 aspect ratio Table R602.10.4.1 n Bracing Basics: Continuous Method o Method CS-G Garage only, supporting roof with 3 psf covering.

Standard Header e h T n E n i g d A o P A Wo d e r e e s s A 4:1 Aspect Ratio (24" min.) c o Table R602.10.4.1 i t ia n Bracing Basics: Continuous Method o Method CS-PF Continuous portal frame s s A c o i t ia

Walls on either or both sides of openings in garage may have wall segment with a maximum 6:1 height-to-length ratio. 10' Max Garag Garage e Opening Openi ng e h T H/6 n E n i g d A o P A Wo d e r e e Fully sheathed dwelling R602.10.4.1.1 n Bracing Basics: Continuous Method o Method CS-PF Garage only, story above permitted. Extended Header e h T n

E n i g d A o P A Wo d e r e e 6:1 Aspect Ratio (16" min.) s s A c o R602.10.4.1.1 i t ia n Bracing Basics: Continuous Method o Method CS-PF Figure R602.10.4.1.1 e h T n E n i g d

A o P A Wo d e r e e s s A c o i t ia APA Portal Frame Test e h T n E n i g d A o P A Wo d e r e e s s A c o n o i

t ia n Bracing Basics: Continuous Method o Method CS-PF s s A c o i t ia Table R602.10.4.1.1: Tension Strap Capacity Required for Resisting Wind Pressures Perpendicular to 6:1 Aspect Ratio Walls d A o P A Wo d e r e e 85 MINIMUM WALL STUD FRAMING NOMINAL SIZE AND GRADE MAXIMUM PONY WALL HEIGHT (feet) MAXIMUM TOTAL WALL HEIGHT (feet) 0

1 24 No. 2 Grade e h T 2 n i g 10 n E 10 10 BASIC WIND SPEED (mph) MAXIMUM OPENING WIDTH (feet) 90 100 85 Exposure B 90 100 Exposure C Tension strap capacity required (lbf) 18 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000

1000 9 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1275 16 1000 1000 1750 1800 2325 3500 18 1000 1200 2100 2175 2725 DR 9 1000 1000 1025 1075 1550 2500

16 1525 2025 3125 3200 3900 DR 18 1875 2400 3575 3700 DR DR 9 1000 1200 2075 2125 2750 4000 n Bracing Basics: Continuous Method o Method CS-PF s s A c o i t

ia Table R602.10.4.1.1 cont.: Tension Strap Capacity Required for Resisting Wind Pressures Perpendicular to 6:1 Aspect Ratio Walls d A o P A Wo d e r e e 85 MINIMUM WALL STUD FRAMING NOMINAL SIZE AND GRADE MAXIMUM PONY WALL HEIGHT (feet) 24 No. 2 Grade 4 e h T 2 26 Stud Grade MAXIMUM TOTAL WALL HEIGHT (feet) n E n i

g 12 12 BASIC WIND SPEED (mph) 90 100 85 Exposure B MAXIMUM OPENING WIDTH (feet) 90 100 Exposure C Tension strap capacity required (lbf) 9 1775 2350 3500 3550 DR DR 16 4175 DR DR DR DR DR 9

1000 1000 1325 1375 1750 2550 16 1650 2050 2925 3000 3550 DR 18 2025 2450 3425 3500 4100 DR 9 1125 1500 2225 2275 2775 3800 n Bracing Basics: Continuous Method

o c o Method CS-PF d A o P A Wo Plan View d e r e e Garage Door e h T n E n i g R602.10.4.1.1 i t ia s s A Door Garage n Bracing Basics: Continuous Method o CS-G CS-PF e h T

n E n i g d A o P A Wo d e r e e s s A c o 4 i t ia APA Whole House Bracing Test on e h T n E n i g d A o P A Wo d e r e e

s s A c o i t ia n Bracing Basics: Continuous Method o 12000 3d 5b 6b 100% 2d 10000 Load (lbf) 8000 6000 4000 2000 0 0 e h T n E 0.5 s s A n i g d A o

P A Wo d e r e e c o i t ia 10,000 lbf 8,000 lbf 6,000 lbf 4,000 lbf 2,000 lbf 1 1.5 Displace me nt (in.) 2 2.5 3 n Bracing Basics: Continuous Method o c o i t ia Method CS-SFB Continuous Sheathing with Structural Fiberboard s s A of adjacent Wall minimum length based on wall height

and height d clear opening A o Maximum wall height = 10 P o A Length requirements for braced wall panels in Table R602.10.5.2 W d e r e e n i g n E e h T R602.10.5 n Bracing Basics: Continuous Method o c o Continuous Sheathing Corner Requirements Gypsum s s A i t ia Gypsum d A o 16d nail at 12"P o.c. A Wo 16d nail at 12" o.c. d e

Plywood/OSB r e or Structural e Fiberboard Plywood/OSB or Structural n i Fiberboard g n Outside Corner Inside Corner Detail E Detail e h T R602.10.4.4 & R602.10.5.3 n Bracing Basics: Continuous Method o Continuous Sheathing Corner Requirements 9' R602.10.4.4 & R602.10.5.3 24" Corner e h T n E 84" n i g s s A CS-WSP = 24" CS-SFB = 32" d A

o P A Wo 32" 32" 36" d 36" e BWP BWP BWP BWP r e e 18' 84" 24" Corner Minimum required corner detail c o i t ia Bracing Topics Introduction Getting Started c Other Connections o Topics s s dA A o P A Wo d e r e Bracing Basics Braced Panel Construction

Intermittent Bracing Methods Continuous Bracing Methods e h T n E e n i g n o i t ia Mixing Bracing Methods BWP Placement BWL Spacing Required Bracing Length Bracing Basics: Mixing Bracing Methods c R602.10.1.1.2 Braced Wall Panels o BWP method variation permitted from BWL to BWL within a story for intermittent and continuous sheathing n i g d A o P A Wo d e r e e

For continuous sheathing, this variation may only be used in SDC A-C with winds < 100 mph e h T n E s s A n o i t ia Bracing Basics: Mixing Bracing Methods c R602.10.1.1.3 Braced Wall Panels o e h T n E n i g d A o P A Wo d e r e e BWP method variation within a BWL permitted ONLY in

SDC A-B and for detached houses in SDC C with intermittent bracing Not applicable for use with continuous sheathing or dwellings in SDC D0-D2 s s A n o i t ia Bracing Topics Introduction Getting Started c Other Connections o Topics s s dA A o P A Wo d e r e Bracing Basics Braced Panel Construction Intermittent Bracing Methods Continuous Bracing Methods e h T n E e

n i g n o i t ia Mixing Bracing Methods BWP Placement BWL Spacing Required Bracing Length Bracing Basics: BWP Placementon c o Overview i t ia s CS-SFB s Wall A Wind & SDC Bracing SDC SDC Wind & Wind & d SDC A-C D -D Parameter SDC A-C D -D D -D A SDC A-C o P A Wo d e r e e n i g

n E e h T Intermittent 0 Panel end distance Corner return length 12.5' Combined CS-WSP 2 0' or 8' (a) Not required 0 12.5' 8' 24" Min. (b) 2 0 12.5' 2 Not Permitted 32" Min. (b) (a) 8' with 24" panel at corner or 1,800 lb hold down per R602.10.1.4.1, exception items 1 & 2. (b) In lieu of a corner return, an 800 lb hold-down may be fastened to the side of the BWP closest to the corner per R602.10.5.3, exception item 2. Bracing Basics: BWP Placementon i t a i

R602.10.1.4 Braced Wall Panel Location c o (Intermittent Bracing Methods) s Placement Requirements s dA A o P A Wo d e Wind Seismic r e "X" = 12.5' "X" = 0' Method WSP only: e Combined distance for in 1. 8' w/1,800# hold-down both ends of wall line g 2. 24" panel at corner n Permitted at both ends E e h T BWP to begin no more than "X" feet from the end of a BWL. Total combined distance of the end panels to each wall end shall not be more than "X" feet. BWP located not more than 25' o.c. BWP minimum length in accordance with its method. R602.10.1.4 Bracing Basics: BWP Placementon i t a i R602.10.4.4 Braced Wall Panel Location c Continuous Sheathing with Wood Structuralo Panel s Methods CS-WSP, CS-G, CS-PFs dA o Placement Requirements PA o

BWPs to begin at each end Aof a BWL. W BWP located not more than 25' o.c. d A minimum 24" corner return e at each end of the braced wall r line. e e n i g n E e h T In lieu of a corner return, an 800 lb hold-down may be fastened to the corner stud. R602.10.4.4 Bracing Basics: BWP Placementon Does this meet code? No, BWP required to begin no more than 12'-6" from the end of the wall. 13' e h T E g n d A o P A Wo d e r 48"e e in s s A

c o i t ia Wind 25' Centers "X" End BWP Width 48" 36' R602.10.1.4 Bracing Basics: BWP Placementon Does this meet code? No, width requirement not met. e h T n E n i g Wind & Seismic 25' Centers "X" End BWP Width s s A d A o P A Wo d 48" e r e e

3.7 48" c o i t ia 18' R602.10.1.4 Bracing Basics: BWP Placementon Does this meet code? 11' e h T n E n i g d A o P A Wo d e r e e 4' R602.10.1.4 s s A c o i t

ia Wind 25' Centers "X" End BWP Width 4' Bracing Basics: BWP Placementon How many BWL's? Start n i g A e h T n E d A o P A Wo d e C r B e e s s A c o i t ia End Bracing Basics: BWP Placementon Offset Limitations

s s A c o i t ia BWP that are counted as part of a BWL must be in line. Offsets out-of-plane up to 4' shall be permitted such that the total out-to-out offset is not more than 8 feet. e h T n E n i g d A o P A Wo d e r e e R602.10.1.4 Bracing Basics: BWP Placementon A 1 3' BWP e h T n E

n i g d A o P A Wo d e r e e 24' s s A c o BWP R602.10.1.4 i t ia B Bracing Basics: BWP Placementonn 1 i io t aiat i c c o o s s s s A d A A d o A

P o o P AA W o BWL 4' W d d e r e r e e e e n i n i g g n EEn e e h Th R602.10.1.4 Bracing Basics: BWP Placementon How many BWL's? d A o P A Wo d e r e e 1 e h T n E n i

g s s A c o i t ia Bracing Basics: BWP Placementon 1 BWL Spacing e h T n E 2 2 BWL Spacing n i g d A o P A Wo d e r e e s s A 3 c o i

t ia Locating BWL 2 here makes distance between BWL's less. Bracing Topics Introduction Getting Started c Other Connections o Topics s s dA A o P A Wo d e r e Bracing Basics Braced Panel Construction Intermittent Bracing Intermittent Methods Bracing Methods Continuous Continuous Bracing Bracing MethodsMethods e h T n E e n i g n

o i t ia Mixing BWP Bracing Methods Placement BWP Placement BWL Spacing BWL Spacing Required Bracing Length Required Bracing Length Bracing Basics: Required Bracingn o Length i t e h T n E e n i g a i This section will answer the yet c o unanswered question: s s How much bracing d A is needed? A o P A Wo d e r e

4' 4' 20' Bracing Basics: Required Bracingn o Length i t Bracing Length Tables 2009 Two bracing length tables o s s A d A o P o A W of the two tables Required bracing length is the maximum d bracing length x all adjustment factors e r e e n i g n E e h T Wind Table R602.10.1.2(1) Seismic Table R602.10.1.2(2) R602.10.1.2, Table R602.10.1.2(1), Table R602.10.1.2(2) & Table R602.10.1.2(3) a i c Bracing Basics: Required Bracingn o Length i t

a i c Bracing Requirements Based on Wind Speed o s Wind Bracing Table based on Required bracing length is s these assumptions: Aby: determined d Wind exposure category B A Wind speed o P oStory location Mean roof height of 30 ftA Eave to ridge height of 10 ft W Wall line spacing Wall height of 10 ft Bracing method d Two braced wall lines re e e n i g n E e h T Table R602.10.1.2(1) Bracing Basics: Required Bracingn o Length i t a i c Bracing Requirements Based on Wind Speed o s Adjustment Factors s A of Table

Wind bracing adjustment factors foundin the footnotes d R602.10.1.2(1) A o P o A Footnote: W a)Wind exposure category d b)Mean roof height e r c)Eave-to-ridge height e d)Wall height e e)Number of braced n wall lines i f)Application of gypsum board finish g g)Single sidedn Method GB factor E gypsum finish board requirement h)Method LIB i)Reduction factor for tie downs added to each braced wall panel e h T Table R602.10.1.2(1) Bracing Basics: Required Bracingn o Length i t o s s A a i c Adjustment Factor Wind Exposure Category, Mean Roof Height d Table R602.10.1.2(1), footnote a, b

A o P o Factor Exposure/Height A W Number of Exposure B Exposure C Exposure D Stories d e r 1 1.0 e 1.2 1.5 e 2 1.0 1.3 1.6 n i 3 1.0 1.4 1.7 g n E e h T Bracing Basics: Required Bracingn o Length i t Adjustment Factor o s s Roof Eave-to-Ridge Height dA Support Condition A o P A Wo d

e r e e n i g n E Roof Eave-to-Ridge Height < 5' 10' 15' 20' Roof only 0.7 1.0 1.3 1.6 Roof + floor 0.85 1.0 1.15 1.3 Roof 2 floors NP Not+Permitted 0.9 1.0 1.1 NP a i c Eave-to-ridge height

e h T Roof sail area that contributes to total structure sail area Table R602.10.1.2(1), footnote c Bracing Basics: Required Bracingn o Length i t Adjustment Factor Wall Height d A o P A Wo d e r e e Table R602.10.1.2(1), footnote d Wall Height (ft) Adjustment Factor 10' 1.0 9' 0.95 8' 12' e h T n E 0.9

n i g 1.1 o s s A a i c Bracing Basics: Required Bracingn o Length i t a i c Adjustment Factor Number of Braced Wall Lines o s s Table R602.10.1.2(1), footnote e dA A o P A Wo d e r e e n i g n E e h T Number of Braced Wall Lines Adjustment Factor 3 1.30

4 1.45 >5 1.60 x x Braced wall line x Braced wall line spacing x x x x Bracing Basics: Required Bracingn o Length i t a i c Adjustment Factor No gypsum finish board applied to o s interior of wall line s dA A o Table R602.10.1.2(1), footnote f P A Wo d e r e e n i g n E e h

T Bracing Method Adjustment Factor Method LIB 1.8 Methods DWB, WSP, SFB, PBS, PCP, and HPS 1.4 Bracing Basics: Required Bracingn o Length i t a i c Adjustment Factors Footnotes g, h, and i o s s A Table R602.10.1.2(1) Footnote Methods g GB Single sided gypsum 2.0 GB Double sided gypsum when fastened 4 o.c. at panel edges and blocked at horizontal joints 0.7 h

LIB Gypsum board must be attached to at least one side using Section R602.10.2 Method GB fastening requirements 1.0 i DWB, WSP, SFB, PBS, PCP, and HPS In one story buildings and top of two or three story buildings, when 800 lb minimum uplift hold-downs are fastened to end studs of each braced wall panel in the braced wall line and to the framing or foundation below. 0.8 g e h T n E Requirements n i g d A o P A Wo d e r e e Adjustment Factor

Bracing Basics: Required Bracingn o Length i t a i Building Type: All Dwellings Wind Requirements: All c o None SDC Zone: A&B Seismic Requirements: s s Tabled A Adjustment Description R602.10.1.2(1) A o Factor P Footnote o A WR602.10.1.2(1) Minimum Total Length of B.W.P.s Table NA d Wind Exposure a 1.0 - 1.7 e r Roof Eave to Ridge Height e b, c 0.7 - 1.6 e Wall Height d 0.9 1.1 n i Number of Braced Wall Lines e 1.3 1.6 g No gypsum finish n f 1.4 1.8 E Approved hold-down added

i 0.8 e h T Table R602.10.1.2(1) George H.W. Bush Vacation Home Bracing Basics: Intermittent n o Bracing i t Bracing Per Code Report e h T n E n i g d A o P A Wo d e r e e o s s A a i c Adjustment Factors Description Wind Exposure 1.0 - 1.7

Roof Eave to Ridge Height 0.7 - 1.6 Wall Height 0.9 1.1 Number of Braced Wall Lines 1.3 1.6 No gypsum finish 1.4 1.8 0.8 d A Total multiplier = 1.52 o P A Wo d e r e e Approved hold-down added < 15 ridge height 8 wall 8 wall n E e Perpendicular wall = 42 h T n i g n o 1.3 (<15) ti .9 (8) ia c 1.3 (3) o

s 1.0 (No) s A 1.0 (No) 1.0 (B) Bracing Basics: Required Bracingn o Length i t Basic Wind Speed (mph) Story Location < 90 (mph) e h T n E Braced Wall Line Spacing (ft) n i g Minimum Total Length of Braced Wall Panels Required Along Each Braced Wall Line Methods Method GB Method DWB, WSP, Continuous (double LIB SFB, PBS, Sheathing sided) PCP, HPS 3.5 3.5 2 2 7 7 4 3.5 9.5 9.5

5.5 5 12.5 12.5 7.5 6 15.5 15.5 9 7.5 18.5 18.5 10.5 9 7 7 4 3.5 13 13 7.5 6.5 18.5 18.5 10.5 9 24 24 14 12 29.5 29.5 17 14.5 35 35 20 17 d A o P A Wo d e r e e 10 20 30 40 50

60 10 20 30 40 50 60 o s s A a i c Table R602.10.1.2(1) 46 0 22 0 s s A c o n o i t ia d A o P A Wo d 22 0 e r e 9.0 6.5 = 2.5; 2.5 x 20% =e0.5; 6.5 + 0.5 = 7.0; 7.0 x 1.52 = 10.6 n i g n E e h T

Bracing Basics: BWP Placementon 28 24 28 25 e h T n E 88 n i g 18 d A o P A Wo d e r e e 22 18 17.5 s s A 24 c o i t ia 26 17.5

Bracing Basics: Required Bracingn o Length i t Method CS- WSP 2' CS-WSP Bottom 1Story 90 mph SDC A ? NA 4' d A o P A Wo d e r e e o s s A a i c 40' 18" 9' e h T 18" n

E n i g 27" 27" Table R602.10.1.2(1) Bracing Basics: Required Bracingn o Length i t Basic Wind Speed (mph) Story Location < 90 (mph) e h T n E Braced Wall Line Spacing (ft) n i g Minimum Total Length of Braced Wall Panels Required Along Each Braced Wall Line Methods Method GB Method DWB, WSP, Continuous (double LIB SFB, PBS, Sheathing sided) PCP, HPS 3.5 3.5 2 2

7 7 4 3.5 9.5 9.5 5.5 5 12.5 12.5 7.5 6 15.5 15.5 9 7.5 18.5 18.5 10.5 9 7 7 4 3.5 13 13 7.5 6.5 18.5 18.5 10.5 9 24 24 14 12 29.5 29.5 17 14.5 35 35 20 17 d A o P A Wo d e r e e

10 20 30 40 50 60 10 20 30 40 50 60 o s s A a i c Table R602.10.1.2(1) Bracing Basics: Required Bracingn o Length i t Method CS- WSP 2' CS-WSP 1 Bottom Story 4' 90 mph SDC A 12' NA o s s A a i c Total Bracing Length = 11.5 vs. 12 Required

Bracing is insufficient d A o P A Wo d e r e e (From Table 40 BWL) 40' 21" 9' e h T 21" n E n i g 48" 48" Table R602.10.1.2(1) Bracing Basics: Required Bracingn o Length i t Method CS- WSP 2' CS-WSP 1 Bottom Story 4' 90 mph SDC A

o s s A a i c Total Bracing Length = 11.5 vs. 11.4 Required Bracing is OK d o A P o A Footnote d. = 9 walls 95% multiplier; 12.0 x 95% = 11.4 W d e r e e n i g n E e Portal Frames h T 11.4' NA 0.95 x 12 = 11.4 40' 21" 9' 21" 48" 48" Table R602.10.1.2(1)

Bracing Basics: Required Bracingn o Length i t Method CS-WSP CS-G One Story 90 mph SDC C ? NA e h T n E 2' n i g d A o P A Wo d e r e e Garage o s s A Light frame roof 3 psf max. dead load 8' Opening

16' a i c 2' Table R602.10.1.2(1) Bracing Basics: Required Bracingn o Length i t Basic Wind Speed (mph) Story Location < 90 (mph) e h T n E Braced Wall Line Spacing (ft) n i g Minimum Total Length of Braced Wall Panels Required Along Each Braced Wall Line Methods Method GB Method DWB, WSP, Continuous (double LIB SFB, PBS, Sheathing sided) PCP, HPS 3.5 3.5 2 2 7 7 4

3.5 9.5 9.5 5.5 5 12.5 12.5 7.5 6 15.5 15.5 9 7.5 18.5 18.5 10.5 9 7 7 4 3.5 13 13 7.5 6.5 18.5 18.5 10.5 9 24 24 14 12 29.5 29.5 17 14.5 35 35 20 17 d A o P A Wo d e r e e 10 20

30 40 50 60 10 20 30 40 50 60 o s s A a i c Table R602.10.1.2(1) Bracing Basics: Required Bracingn o Length i t a i c Method CS-G CS-G One Story 105 mph SDC C 3.5' NA Light frame roof 3 psf max. dead load e h T n E 2' o

s s A is OK Bracing Total Bracing Length = 4 vs. 3.5 Required n i g d A o P A Wo d e r e e Garage 8' Opening 16' R602.10.1.2 & Table R602.10.1.2(1) 2' Bracing Basics: Required Bracingn o Length i t Method CS-PF CS-PF One Story 105 mph SDC B ? NA 29' 20" e h T

Double portal and single portal configuration d A o P A Wo d e r e Garage Garage e Opening Opening n i g 20" n E o s s A a i c 20" 6:1 Aspect Ratio R602.10.1.2 & Table R602.10.1.2(1) 10' Bracing Basics: Required Bracingn o Length i t Braced Basic Wind Story Wall Line Speed Location Spacing (mph) (ft) < 110

(mph) e h T n E 10 20 30 40 50 60 10 20 30 40 50 60 n i g a i c Minimum Total Length of Braced Wall Panels Required Along Each Braced Wall Line Method LIB Method GB (double sided) 5.5 10 14.5 18.5 23 27.5 10.5 19 27.5 36 44 52.5 5.5 10 14.5 18.5 23

27.5 10.5 19 27.5 36 44 52.5 d A o P A Wo d e r e e o s s A Methods DWB, WSP, SFB, PBS, PCP, HPS 3 6 8.5 11 13 15.5 6 11 16 20.5 25.5 30 Continuous Sheathing 3 5 7 9 11.5 13.5 5 9.5 13.5 17.5 21.5 25.5

Table R602.10.1.2(1) Bracing Basics: Required Bracingn o Length i t Method CS-PF CS-PF One Story 105 mph SDC B 7' NA Total Bracing Length = 5 vs. 7 Required Bracing is insufficient e h T d A o P A Wo d e r e Garage e Garage n Opening Opening i g 29' 20" 20" n E o s s

A a i c 20" Table R602.10.1.2(1) 10' Bracing Topics Introduction Getting Started Bracing Basics d A o P A Wo d e r e e Corners & Collectors Above & Below e h T n E n i g s s A Connections n

o i t ia c o Other Topics n Connections: Corners & Collectors o A R602.10.1.3 Angled Corners 24' 1 4' n E n i g d A o P A Wo d e r e e s s A c o B Wall sheathing in a diagonal wall section may be counted for a wall lines bracing length if the diagonal wall line is 8 or less in length. e h T

i t ia n Connections: Corners & Collectors o Braced Panel Starting Location Up to 8' Up to 8' n i g c o Seismic s s A i t ia Up to 8' for Method WSP per illustration below d Method WSP only A o P A Wo d e r e e Up to 8' 2' min. n Segment does E not count as bracing e h

T 2' min. (Unless dwelling is continuously sheathed per R602.10.4) R602.10.1.4.1 n Connections: Corners & Collectors o Engineered Collector s s Splice Length A Upper Top Plate d A o P A Wo d e r e Lower Top Plate e or Header n i g n E e h T (for fastening each side of joint) Reference: APA publication TT-102 Collector Design for Bracing in Conventional Construction c o i t ia Connections: Corners & Collectors Engineered Collector Nail all splices beyond BWP Greater than min. permitted

First bracing panel n Connections: Corners & Collectors o Engineered Collector Reference: e h T n E n i g d A o P A Wo d e r e e Number of nails per designer (each side) APA publication TT-102 Collector Design for Bracing in Conventional Construction s s A c o i t ia Bracing Topics Introduction Getting Started

Bracing Basics s s A Connections d A o P A Wo d e r e e Corners & Collectors Above & Below Foundation e h T n E n i g n o i t ia c o Other Topics Connection: Above & Below on ti

e h T n E n i g o s s A a i c d A o P osole plates and top plates A BWP W connections per Table R602.3(1) d e r e e R602.10.6 Connection: Above & Below on ti BWP BWP R602.10.6 BWP 3.7 e h T n E e n

i g a i When braced c walls are o to joists perpendicular s s above or below, blocking Abe provided above shall d or below and in line with A o P A Wo the BWPs d e r e Connection: Above & Below on ti BWP Perpendicular to Framing 8d nails at 6" o.c. 8d (2-1/2" x 0.113") Connection framing added e h T n E n i g d A o P A Wo

d e r e e o s s A a i c (3) 16d nails at 16" o.c. along BWP 16d (3-1/2" x 0.135") Figure R602.10.6(1) & Table R602.3(1) Connection: Above & Below on ti BWP e h T n E n i g o s s A a i c Blocking (not parallel) d A o P A Wo

Where joists are parallel d e to BWPs above or below r e where a parallel framing e member cannot be located full-depth blocking at 16 inch spacing shall be provided R602.10.6 & Table R602.3(1) Connection: Above & Below on ti BWP Parallel to Framing e h T n E (3) 16d nails at 16" o.c. along BWP n i g d A o P A Wo d e r e e o s s A Figure R602.10.6(2) & Table R602.3(1) a i c

8d nails toenailed at 6"o.c. Connection framing added Connection: Above & Below on ti a i c Top Plate Splice (8) 16d nails each side of splice n E Notes: 1) 16d (3-1/2 x 0.135") e h T n i g Splice d A o P A Wo d e r e e oSeismic s s Intermediate A Connections 2' Min. R602.10.6.1 Bracing Topics

Introduction Getting Started Bracing Basics e h T n E n i g s s A Connections d A o P A Wo d e r e e n o i t ia c o Other Topics Examples Examples s s A BWP Diagonal let-in

dAlternate A Diagonal wood boards Alt. BWP adj. opening o P o A Wood structural panel W Continuous sheathing d Structural fiberboard Continuous 4:1 e r Gypsum wallboard e Continuous 6:1 e Particleboard n Continuous sheathing i g Portlandn cement E Hardboard e h T Symbol LIB DWB WSP SFB GB PBS PCP HBS c o n o i t ia Description Symbol

ABW PFH CSWSP CS-G CS-PF CSSFB Description SFB Top Story Wall Line 90 mph 1, 2 7.5 ft A, B 5.5 ft Upper Story SDC C A 36'-10" N/A 9' 4' 4 SFB 24'-11" 2 4' 4' SFB 4

1 4' n E n i g SFB 4 n o i t ia B d A o P A Wo d e r e e 9' s s A SFB 4 c o 7' SFB 4 4' SFB 4 4' 12' SFB

4 SFB 4 4' 4' e A,B: h 5.5 4.0 = 1.5; 1.5 x 50% = .8; 4.0 + 0.8 = 4.8 T 1,2: 7.5 5.5 = 2.0; 2.0 x 68% = 1..4; 5.5 + 1.4 = 6.9 10' A B C 17'-2" 1 17' 21' x 28'-10" 3'-8" n i g 34'-2" x 31'-8" 27'-8" 3 4 27'-11" E 15'-7" 4' 28'-10"

2 D e h T n E 43'-6" x 28'-10" d A o P A Wo d e r e e Design SDC A Wind 95 mph Method WSP & GB 1 Story 4' 77'-8" s s A c o n o i t ia 8' 64'-6" 15'-7" x 27'-8" George H.W. Bush Vacation Home (2) 40 4

40 2 e h T n E n i g d A o P A Wo d e r e e s s A c o n o i t ia Adjustment Factors Description Wind Exposure 1.0 - 1.7 Roof Eave to Ridge Height 0.7 - 1.6 Wall Height 0.9 1.1 Number of Braced Wall Lines 1.3 1.6

No gypsum finish 1.4 1.8 0.8 d A o P o multiplier = 1.24 Total A W d e r e e Approved hold-down added < 15 Ridge height 8 wall 9 wall e h T n E n i g n o 1.3 (<15) ti a .95 (9) i 1.0c(2) o s 1.0 (No) s A 1.0 (No) 1.0 (B) Perpendicular Wall = 41; First story of 2; 90 mph; CS-WSP 14.5 12.0 = 2.5; 2.5 x 10% = .25; 12.0 + 0.25 = 12.25 x 1.24 = 15.9 68 79.5

66 26 36 e h T n E n i g 41 d A o P 24.5 A Wo d e r e e 24.5 s s A n o i t ia 54 c o 24.5 George H.W. Bush Vacation Home (2) 40 4 20 0 20 2

e h T n E n i g d A o P A Wo d e r e e s s A c o n o i t ia Adjustment Factors Description Wind Exposure 1.0 - 1.7 Roof Eave to Ridge Height 0.7 - 1.6 Wall Height 0.9 1.1 Number of Braced Wall Lines 1.3 1.6 No gypsum finish

1.4 1.8 0.8 d A o P o multiplier = 1.61 Total A W d e r e e Approved hold-down added < 15 Ridge height 8 wall 9 wall e h T n E n i g n o 1.3 (<15) ti a .95 (9) i 1.3c(3) o s 1.0 (No) s A 1.0 (No) 1.0 (B) Perpendicular Wall = 21; First story of 2; 90 mph; CS-WSP 9.0 6.5 = 2.5; 2.5 x 11% = .28; 6.5 + 0.28 = 6.8 x 1.61 = 11.0 79.5 66 68

26 36 e h T n E n i g 41 d A o P 24.5 A Wo d e r e e 24.5 s s A n o i t ia 54 c o 24.5 Questions? Product Support Help Desk E-mail Address: [email protected] Phone: (253) 620-7400

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