Introduction to Valuation: The Time Value of Money
INTRODUCTION TO VALUATION: THE TIME VALUE OF MONEY CHAPTER 5 Key Concepts and Skills Be able to compute the future value of an investment made today Be able to compute the present value of cash to be received at some future date Be able to compute the return on an investment Be able to compute the number of periods that
equates a present value and a future value given an interest rate Chapter Outline Future Value and Compounding Present Value and Discounting More about Present and Future Values Introduction The Time Value of Money Would you prefer to have $1 million now or $1 million 10 years from now? Of course, we would all prefer the money now! This illustrates that there is an inherent monetary
value attached to time. ?What is The Time Value of Money A dollar received today is worth more than a dollar received tomorrow This is because a dollar received today can be invested to earn interest The amount of interest earned depends on the rate of
return that can be earned on the investment Time value of money quantifies the value of a dollar through time Basic Definitions Present Value Future Value earlier money on a time line later money on a time line Interest rate exchange rate between earlier
money and later money Compound Simple Interest - Interest earned on interest. Interest - Interest earned only on the original investment. Basic Definitions Discount rate
Cost of capital Opportunity cost of capital Required return Future Values Suppose you invest $1,000 for one year at 5% per year.
What is the future value in one year? Interest = 1,000(.05) = 50 Value in one year = principal + interest = 1,000 + 50 = 1,050 Future Value (FV) = 1,000(1 + .05) = 1,050
Suppose you leave the money in for another year. How much will you have two years from now? FV = 1,000(1.05)(1.05) = 1,000(1.05)2 = 1,102.50 Future Values Example - Simple Interest Interest earned at a rate of 6% for five years on a principal balance of $100. Today Future Years 1
Value at the end of Year 5 = $130 6 124 6 130 Future Values Example - Compound Interest Interest earned at a rate of 6% for five years on the previous years balance. Interest Earned Per Year =Prior Year Balance x .06
Future Values Example - Compound Interest Interest earned at a rate of 6% for five years on the previous years balance. Today Future Years 1 2 3 4 6 Interest Earned 106 Value 100
5 6.36 6.74 7.15 112.36 119.10 126.25 Value at the end of Year 5 = $133.82 7.57 133.82 Future Values: General Formula FV = PV(1 + r)t
FV = future value PV = present value r = period interest rate, expressed as a decimal t = number of periods
Future value interest factor = (1 + r)t Effects of Compounding Consider the previous example FV with simple interest = 1,000 + 50 + 50 = 1,100 FV with compound interest = 1,102.50
The extra 2.50 comes from the interest of .05(50) = 2.50 earned on the first interest payment Future Values Example Suppose you invest the $1,000 from the previous example for 5 years. How much would you have? FV = 1,000(1.05)5 = 1,276.28 The effect of compounding is small for a small number of periods, but increases as the number of periods increases. (Simple interest would have a
future value of $1,250, for a difference of $26.28.) Future Values Example Suppose you had a relative deposit $10 at 5.5% interest 200 years ago. How much would the investment be worth today? FV = 10(1.055)200 = 447,189.84 What is the effect of compounding? Simple interest = 10 + 200(10)(.055) = 120.00
Compounding added $447,069.84 to the value of the investment Future Value as a General Growth Formula Suppose your company expects to increase unit sales of widgets by 15% per year for the next 5 years. If you currently sell 3 million widgets in one year, how many widgets do you expect to sell in 5 years?
FV = 3,000,000(1.15)5 = 6,034,072 Quick Quiz Part I What is the difference between simple interest and compound interest? Suppose you have $500 to invest and you believe that you can earn 8% per year over the next 15 years. How much would you have at the end of 15 years using compound interest?
How much would you have using simple interest? Present Values How much do I have to invest today to have some amount in the future? FV = PV(1 + r)t
Rearrange to solve for PV = FV / (1 + r)t When we talk about discounting, we mean finding the present value of some future amount. When we talk about the value of something, we are talking about the present value unless we specifically indicate that we want the future value Present Value One Period Example Suppose you need $10,000 in one year for the down payment on a new car. If you can earn 7% annually, how much do you need to invest today?
PV = 10,000 / (1.07)1 = 9,345.79 Present Values Example 2 You want to begin saving for your daughters college education and you estimate that she will need $150,000 in 17 years. If you feel confident that you can earn 8% per year, how much do you need to invest today? PV = 150,000 / (1.08)17 = 40,540.34 Present Values Example 3 Your parents set up a trust fund for you 10 years
ago that is now worth $19,671.51. If the fund earned 7% per year, how much did your parents invest? PV = 19,671.51 / (1.07)10 = 10,000 Present Value Important Relationship I For a given interest rate the longer the time period, the lower the present value
What is the present value of $500 to be received in 5 years? 10 years? The discount rate is 10% 5 years: PV = 500 / (1.1)5 = 310.46 10 years: PV = 500 / (1.1)10 = 192.77 Present Value Important Relationship II For a given time period the higher the interest
rate, the smaller the present value What is the present value of $500 received in 5 years if the interest rate is 10%? 15%? Rate = 10%: PV = 500 / (1.1)5 = 310.46 Rate = 15%; PV = 500 / (1.15)5 = 248.59 Quick Quiz Part II What is the relationship between present value and
future value? Suppose you need $15,000 in 3 years. If you can earn 6% annually, how much do you need to invest today? If you could invest the money at 8%, would you have to invest more or less than at 6%? How much? The Basic PV Equation - Refresher PV = FV / (1 + r)t There are four parts to this equation
PV, FV, r and t If we know any three, we can solve for the fourth Discount Rate Often we will want to know what the implied interest rate is in an investment Rearrange the basic PV equation and solve for r FV = PV(1 + r)t
r = (FV / PV)1/t 1 Discount Rate Example 1 You are looking at an investment that will pay $1,200 in 5 years if you invest $1,000 today. What is the implied rate of interest? r = (1,200 / 1,000)1/5 1 = .03714 = 3.714% Discount Rate Example 2 Suppose you are offered an investment that will allow you to double your money in 6 years. You
have $10,000 to invest. What is the implied rate of interest? r = (20,000 / 10,000)1/6 1 = .122462 = 12.25% Discount Rate Example 3 Suppose you have a 1-year old son and you want to provide $75,000 in 17 years towards his college education. You currently have $5,000 to invest. What interest rate must you earn to have the $75,000 when you need it?
r = (75,000 / 5,000)1/17 1 = .172688 = 17.27% Quick Quiz Part III What are some situations in which you might want to know the implied interest rate? You are offered the following investments: You can invest $500 today and receive $600 in 5 years. The investment is considered low risk. You can invest the $500 in a bank account paying 4%.
What is the implied interest rate for the first choice and which investment should you choose? Finding the Number of Periods Start with the basic equation and solve for t (remember your logs) FV = PV(1 + r)t
t = ln(FV / PV) / ln(1 + r) Number of Periods Example 2 Suppose you want to buy a new house. You currently have $15,000, and you figure you need to have a 10% down payment plus an additional 5% of the loan amount for closing costs. Assume the type of house you want will cost about $150,000 and you can earn 7.5% per year, how long will it be before you have enough money for the down payment and closing costs? Example 2 Continued
How much do you need to have in the future? Down payment = .1(150,000) = 15,000 Closing costs = .05(150,000 15,000) = 6,750 Total needed = 15,000 + 6,750 = 21,750 Compute the number of periods Using the formula
t = ln(21,750 / 15,000) / ln(1.075) = 5.14 years Quick Quiz Part IV When might you want to compute the number of periods? Suppose you want to buy some new furniture for your family room. You currently have $500, and the furniture you want costs $600. If you can earn 6%, how long will you have to wait if you dont add any additional money?
Comprehensive Problem You have $10,000 to invest for five years. How much additional interest will you earn if the investment provides a 5% annual return, when compared to a 4.5% annual return? How long will it take your $10,000 to double in value if it earns 5% annually? What annual rate has been earned if $1,000 grows into $4,000 in 20 years?
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