Hole's Human Anatomy & Physiology

Hole's Human Anatomy & Physiology

Chapter 02 Lecture Outline See separate PowerPoint slides for all figures and tables preinserted into PowerPoint without notes. McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. Authorized only for instructor use in the classroom. No reproduction or further distribution permitted without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. 2.1: The Importance of Chemistry in Anatomy and Physiology Why study chemistry in Anatomy & Physiology? Chemistry is concerned with composition of substances and how they change in chemical reactions Human body, food, and medications are all composed of

chemicals All anatomical structures are chemicals, and all physiological processes are based on chemical reactions Biochemistry helps explain physiological and disease processes McGraw-Hill Education. 2.2: Structure of Matter Matter: Anything that takes up space and has mass. Matter is composed of elements. Solids, liquids, and gases are matter. Elements: Simplest types of matter with certain

chemical properties. 98 naturally occurring elements. Atoms: Smallest particles of an element that have properties of that element McGraw-Hill Education. Structure of Matter Different elements are required by the body in different amounts: Bulk elements: required by the body in large amounts (C, O, H) Trace elements: required by the body in small

amounts (Fe, I) Ultratrace elements: required by the body in very minute amounts (As) McGraw-Hill Education. Structure of Matter Table of major and trace elements in the human body McGraw-Hill Education.

Atomic Structure Atoms: Composed of subatomic particles: Proton: Carries a single positive charge Neutron: Carries no electrical charge Electron: Carries a single negative charge Nucleus:

Central part of atom Composed of protons and neutrons Electrons move around the nucleus McGraw-Hill Education. Atomic Structure

McGraw-Hill Education. Atomic Number & Atomic Weight Atomic Number: Number of protons in the nucleus of an atom of a specific element Each element has a unique atomic number Number of protons is equal to the number of electrons in the atom; atoms are electrically neutral Atomic Weight: The number of protons plus the number of neutrons in one atom

Electrons do not contribute to the weight of the atom McGraw-Hill Education. Isotopes Isotopes: All atoms of a certain element have same atomic number Isotopes are atoms with the same atomic numbers but with different atomic weights Isotopes contain different numbers of neutrons, but same number of protons & electrons Oxygen often forms isotopes (O16, O17, and O18, with numbers

representing atomic weights) Radioactive isotopes are unstable, releasing energy or atomic fragments (atomic radiation) until they gain stability; some are used to detect and treat disease. For any element, the atomic weight is often considered the average of the atomic weights of all of its isotopes. McGraw-Hill Education. From Science to Technology 2.1 Radioactive Isotopes Reveal Physiology Radioactive iodine-131 can be used to destroy cancerous thyroid gland tissue. This is very effective, because the

thyroid gland is the only part of the body that actively transports and metabolizes iodine. Radioactive isotopes have many medical uses: detecting coronary blood vessel disorders, evaluating kidney function, measuring hormone concentrations in body fluids, and assessing changes in bone density. McGraw-Hill Education. From Science to Technology 2.2 Ionizing Radiation: From the Cold War to Yucca Mountain

Radiation (alpha, beta, and gamma) is called ionizing radiation, because its energy can remove electrons from atoms, resulting in the formation of ions. The free electrons can damage nearby atoms. Ionizing radiation sources include X rays, naturally occurring radioactive elements in the crust of the earth, and nuclear weapons. McGraw-Hill Education. Molecules and Compounds Molecule: particle formed when two or more atoms chemically

combine Compound: particle formed when two or more atoms of different elements chemically combine Molecular formulas: depict the elements present and the number of each atom present in the molecule H2 = a molecule of hydrogen C6H12O6 = a molecule of glucose H2O = a molecule of water McGraw-Hill Education. Molecules and Compounds

Molecules of hydrogen or oxygen form when 2 identical atoms combine chemically. McGraw-Hill Education. When 2 atoms of hydrogen combine with 1 atom of oxygen, the compound water is formed. Bonding of Atoms

Chemical bonds form when atoms combine with other atoms. They result from interactions between the electrons of the atoms. Electrons of an atom occupy regions of space called electron shells (energy shells), which circle the nucleus For atoms with atomic numbers of 18 or less, the following rules apply: The first shell can hold up to 2 electrons The second shell can hold up to 8 electrons The third shell can hold up to 8 electrons Lower energy shells / inner orbits are filled first, and are stable with a certain number of electrons in the outermost

shell (2, 8 or 18in larger atoms) McGraw-Hill Education. Bonding of Atoms McGraw-Hill Education. Bonding of Atoms: Ions Ion: An atom that gains or loses electrons to become stable An electrically charged atom

Cation: A positively charged ion Formed when an atom loses electrons Anion: A negatively charged ion Formed when an atom gains electrons McGraw-Hill Education.

Bonding of Atoms: Ionic Bonds Ionic Bonds: Formed when electrons are transferred from one atom to another atom The attraction between a cation and an anion forms a very strong bond between the ions, called an ionic bond. McGraw-Hill Education. Bonding of Atoms: Covalent Bonds Covalent Bonds: Strong chemical bonds, formed between atoms that share electrons

Two atoms of hydrogen (H) have combined to form a hydrogen molecule (H2). Both atoms in the molecule become stable. McGraw-Hill Education. Bonding of Atoms: Covalent Bonds Hydrogen molecules (H2) often combine with oxygen (O2) molecules to form water molecules (H2O). McGraw-Hill Education.

Bonding of Atoms: Structural Formulas Structural formulas show how atoms bond and are arranged in various molecules. One line between atoms means that 1 pair of electrons are being shared (forming single bonds), while two lines indicate that 2 pairs are being shared (forming double bonds). McGraw-Hill Education.

Bonding of Atoms: Polar Molecules Polar Molecules: Molecules with a slightly negative end & a slightly positive end Results from unequal sharing of electrons in covalent bonds Water is an important polar molecule In this water molecule, the O nucleus pulls the electrons more strongly than the H nuclei, since it contains more positively

charged protons. McGraw-Hill Education. Bonding of Atoms: Hydrogen BondsBond: Hydrogen A weak attraction between the slightly positive (H) end of one polar molecule and the slightly negative (N or O) end of another polar molecule

Formed between adjacent water molecules Important for protein and nucleic acid structure McGraw-Hill Education. Chemical Reactions Chemical reactions occur when chemical bonds form or break between atoms, ions, or molecules. Reactants are the starting materials of a chemical reaction: the atoms, ions, or molecules.

Products are substances formed at the end of the chemical reaction. NaCl Na+ + Cl (Reactant) (Products) The above reaction involves the dissociation of N aCl in water to form Na+ and Cl ions. McGraw-Hill Education. Types of Chemical Reactions Synthesis Reaction: more complex chemical structure is formed A + B AB

Decomposition Reaction: chemical bonds are broken to form a simpler chemical structure AB A + B Exchange Reaction: chemical bonds are broken and new bonds are formed AB + CD AD + CB Reversible Reaction: the products can change back to the reactants A + B AB McGraw-Hill Education. Acids, Bases, and Salts

Electrolytes: Substances that release ions in water. The solution can conduct an electric current, so it is called an electrolyte. NaCl Na+ + Cl Acids: Electrolytes that dissociate to release hydrogen ions in water HCl H+ + Cl Bases: Substances that release ions that can combine with hydrogen ions NaOH Na+ + OH Salts: Electrolytes formed by the reaction between an acid and a base

HCl + NaOH H2O + NaCl McGraw-Hill Education. Acids, Bases, and Salts When an ionically bonded substance is put into water, the charged ions are attracted to the slightly charged ends of the polar water molecules. This dissociates the substance, and the ions become surrounded by water

molecules. The substance is now called an electrolyte, since it can now carry an electric current. McGraw-Hill Education. Acid and Base Concentrations Concentrations of acids and bases affect chemical reactions in living organisms. H+ ion concentration is measured in g/L of body fluid pH scale is used as shorthand for H+ ion concentration;

it is based on the number of decimal places in the concentration If H+ ion concentration = 0.01 g/L, the pH = 2 If H+ ion concentration = 0.000000001 g/L, the pH =9 pH scale runs from 0 14; each number represents a tenfold difference in H+ ion concentration Acids have a pH <7, and bases have a pH >7 A pH of 7 is neutral McGraw-Hill Education. Acid and Base Concentrations

The higher the H+ concentration, the lower the pH, and the higher the acidity. The lower the H+ concentration, the higher the pH, and the lower the acidity (which corresponds to higher alkalinity). McGraw-Hill Education.

Acid and Base Concentrations pH Scale: Indicates the concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution Neutral: A pH of 7 indicates equal concentrations of H+ and OH. This is the pH of water. Acidic: A pH of <7 indicates a greater concentration of H+ than OH Basic (alkaline): A pH >7 indicates a higher concentration of OH than H+ McGraw-Hill Education.

Acid and Base Concentrations Normal range of blood pH is 7.35 7.45 Acidosis occurs when blood pH drops to 7.0 7.3 Makes a person feel disoriented, fatigued Caused by vomiting of alkaline intestinal contents, diabetes, lung disease with impaired CO2 exhalation Alkalosis occurs when blood pH rises to 7.5 7.8 Makes a person feel dizzy and agitated Caused by high altitude breathing, vomiting of acidic stomach contents, high fever, taking excess antacids Homeostatic mechanisms help regulate pH

Buffers are chemical systems which act to resist pH changes; bind and release H+ ions to regulate pH McGraw-Hill Education. 2.3: Chemical Constituents of Cells Organic vs. Inorganic Molecules Organic molecules: Contain C and H Dissolve in water and organic liquids Water-soluble organic compounds do not release ions, and are non-electrolytes Carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids

Inorganic molecules: Generally do not contain C and H Usually dissolve in water and dissociate, forming ions, and are electrolytes Water, oxygen, carbon dioxide, and inorganic salts McGraw-Hill Education. Inorganic Substances Water: Most abundant compound in living material Two-thirds of the weight of an adult human Major component of all body fluids

Medium for most metabolic reactions Important role in transporting chemicals in the body Absorbs and transports heat Water balance exists when gains equal losses Oxygen (O2): Used by organelles to release energy from nutrients in order to drive cells metabolic activities Necessary for survival McGraw-Hill Education. Inorganic Substances

Carbon dioxide (CO2): Waste product released during metabolic reactions Must be removed from the body through exhaling Inorganic salts: Abundant in body fluids Sources of necessary ions (Na+, Cl, K+, Ca+2, etc.) Play important roles in metabolism Help control H2O concentration, pH, blood clotting, nerve and muscle processes Electrolyte balance exists when gains equal losses McGraw-Hill Education.

Organic Substances: Carbohydrates Main source of cellular energy Supply materials to build cell structures Water-soluble Contain C, H, and O Ratio of H to O close to 2:1 (C6H12O6 = glucose) Size classification of carbohydrates: Monosaccharides (single sugars): glucose, fructose Disaccharides (double sugars): sucrose, lactose Polysaccharides (complex carbohydrates: starch,

glycogen, cellulose McGraw-Hill Education. Organic Substances: Carbohydrates McGraw-Hill Education. Organic Substances: Carbohydrates McGraw-Hill Education.

Organic Substances: Lipids Insoluble in water, but soluble in organic solvents Include triglycerides (fats), phospholipids, steroids Important component of cell membranes, and have several functions in cells Most abundant lipids are triglycerides (fats): a. Used for cellular energy b. Contain more energy per gram than carbohydrates c. Contain C, H, and O, but less O than carbohydrates Consist of 1 molecule of glycerol and 3 fatty acids

McGraw-Hill Education. Organic Substances: Lipids Saturated fatty acids have only single carbon-carbon bonds. Most are solid at room temperature, and of animal origin. Unsaturated fatty acids have one or more carboncarbon double bond. Most are liquid at room temperature, and are of plant origin. McGraw-Hill Education. Organic Substances: Lipids

A triglyceride is composed of 1 glycerol molecule and 3 fatty acids. McGraw-Hill Education. Organic Substances: Lipids Phospholipids: Consist of 1 glycerol, 2 fatty acids, and 1 phosphate Have hydrophilic and hydrophobic ends Major component of cell membranes McGraw-Hill Education.

Organic Substances: Lipids Steroids: 4 connected rings of carbon Widely distributed in the body, various functions Component of cell membranes Used to synthesize adrenal and sex hormones Cholesterol is the main steroid in the body McGraw-Hill Education. Organic Substances: Proteins

Proteins are used as structural materials, energy source, hormones, receptors, enzymes, antibodies Consist of building blocks called amino acids An amino acid contains an amino (NH2) group, a carboxyl (COOH) group, and a unique R (side chain) group McGraw-Hill Education. Organic Substances: Proteins Amino acids are bound to each other by peptide bonds:

Peptide bonds form between the amino group of one amino acid, and the carboxyl group of the adjacent amino acid. McGraw-Hill Education. Organic Substances: Proteins 4 Levels of Protein Structure: Primary: Amino acid sequence Secondary: Pleated or twisted structure formed by hydrogen bonding between nonadjacent

amino acids Tertiary: Unique 3-dimensional folded shape of the protein Quaternary: Structure formed by some proteins, when 2 or more polypeptide chains are connected to become 1 protein. McGraw-Hill Education. Organic Substances: Nucleic Acids Carry genetic code (DNA) or aid in protein synthesis (RNA)

Encode amino acid sequences of proteins Building blocks are called nucleotides, which consist of a sugar (S), a phosphate group (P), and an organic base (B). DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid): a double chain of nucleotides RNA (Ribonucleic acid): a single chain of nucleotides McGraw-Hill Education. Organic Substances: Nucleic Acids McGraw-Hill Education.

Organic Substances: Nucleic Acids Two major types of nucleic acids: DNA and RNA DNA: Stores the genetic code Contains the sugar deoxyribose Structuredouble helix Composed of nucleotides RNA: Interacts with DNA to conduct protein synthesis Contains the sugar ribose Structuresingle strand Composed of nucleotides

McGraw-Hill Education. From Science to Technology 2.3 CT Scanning and PET Imaging Computerized Tomography (CT) imaging: Used to visualize internal anatomy Uses X-ray emitting device to create 3-dimensional image of soft tissues Differentiates tissues with slightly different densities, tumors Positron Emission Tomography (PET) imaging: Uses radioactive isotopes that emit positrons (unusual positively charge electrons) to detect biochemical activity

Used to detect various brain disorders, blood flow, normal brain physiology McGraw-Hill Education.

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