Health and Social Value Programme

Health and Social Value Programme

Health Inequalities: #PublicHealthHour Dr. Angela Donkin, Deputy Director 1 June 2016 SCALE OF THE PROBLEM Life expectancy, healthy life expectancy and expected years in ill-health indicators (2010-12 and 2011-13) 2010/12 - 2011/13 indicators 2010/12

2011/13 2010/12 2011/13 Life expectancy at birth 79.2 years 79.4 years

83 years 83.1 years Healthy life expectancy at birth 63.4 years 63.3 years 64.1 years 63.9 years

Expected years in ill-health at birth 15.8 years 16.1 years 18.9 years 19.2 years Graphics created by Ozza Okuonghae at the Noun Project

Life expectancy and disability free life expectancy, males - based on 2011 Census Life expectancy and disability-free life expectancy (DFLE) at birth, males by neighborhood deprivation, England, 1999 2003 and 2009-2013 Life expectancy and disability free life expectancy, females - based on 2011 Census Life expectancy and disability-free life expectancy (DFLE) at birth, females by neighbourhood deprivation, England, 1999 2003 and 2009-2013 The gradient in expected years in ill-health,

males, 2010-12 and 2011-13 . Largest increases in East Midlands. As deprivation increases, so does the time men can expect to spend in ill health: 19.4 in Blackpool to 10.3 years in Wokingham. A 9.1 year difference for men. The gradient in expected years in ill-health,

females, 2010-12 and 2011-13 continued . Largest increases in East of England. As deprivation increases, so does the time women can expect to spend in ill health: 21.8 in Blackpool to 14.8 years in Wokingham. A 7 year difference for women. Low well being

10% 0% Most deprived Least deprived 4.8% average in 2014-15, compared to 5.6% 2013/14

Ranged from 2.8% in Bath and North East Somerset, to 8.7% in Wolverhampton. CAUSES OF INEQUALITY SOCIAL DETERMINANTS OF HEALTH Level of development at end of reception Level of development at end of reception Level of development at age 5, 2013/14 England and selected local authority areas

England Hackney Bath and North East Somerset All pupils (%) FSM pupils (%) Gap between all and FSM pupils (percentage point)

60.4 64.9 62.5 44.8 60.7 33 15.6 4.2 29.5 GCSE attainment

Percentage of pupils achieving 5+ GCSEs, England, 2012/13 - 2013/14 70 60.8 60 56.8 Percentage 50 38.1

40 33.7 30 20 10 0 2012/13

2013/14 Year All pupils FSM pupils GCSE attainment continued Only Camden and Portsmouth reduced in-area inequalities 2012/13 2013/14.

5+ GCSEs, 2013/14 England and selected local authority areas England Tower Hamlets York All pupils (%) FSM pupils (%) 56.8 59.8

62.3 33.7 55.2 21.4 Gap between all and FSM pupils (percentage point) 23.1 4.6 40.9

NEETS not in education, employment or training. Proportion of NEETS highest in the North East (around 1 in 5) and lowest in the South West and London (12.9% and 13.5% respectively). Unemployment Unemployment fell significantly across all English regions between 2013 2014, but unemployment highest in Middlesbrough (12.5%), lowest in Hampshire (2.9%) in 2014. Unemployment rates fell more, in more disadvantaged areas, 2013-2014

Long term JSA claimants 2013 Long-term JSA claimants fell more in more disadvantaged areas between 2013 and 2014. But we dont know about the quality and stability of jobs available to those people moving off long-term unemployment benefits. Good quality work In 2014, highest rates of reported work-related ill health in Yorkshire and the Humber. A significant increase in work-related ill-health was reported in the East and West Midlands, and Yorkshire and the Humber between 2011/12 and 2013/14. Minimum income for healthy living (MIHL)

Fuel poverty 25% 0% Most deprived Least deprived In 2013, 10.4% of English households in fuel poverty (low income, high cost), same as in 2010

Use of green space 35% 0% Most deprived Least deprived 17.1% using green space (2013/14), 15.3% (2012/13). 11.8% in London to almost double that in the South West (22.2%).

Further information on what works IHE selection of papers for local authorities that have been commissioned by PHE on various aspects of the SDH education, transition to school, resilience, promoting good work, increasing use of the natural environment, creating impact and scaling up etc. http://www.instituteofhealthequity.org/projects/local -action-on-health-inequalities-series-overview

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