+ Managing Business Ethics Chapter 2 Trevio & Nelson 5th Edition + Chapter 2 Overview Ethical Dilemmas Prescriptive Approaches Focus on consequences (consequentialist theories)
Focus on duties, obligations, principles (deontological theories) Focus on integrity (virtue ethics) Eight steps to making sound ethical decisions Practical preventive medicine + What is an Ethical Dilemma?
A situation where values are in conflict Two or more values you hold dear - or Personal value conflicts with organizational value Value Value + The Layoff Youre the plant manager in one of ABC Companys five plants. Youve worked for the company for 15 years, working your way up from the factory floor after the company sent you to college. Your boss just told you in complete confidence that the company will have to lay
off 200 workers. Luckily, your job wont be affected. But a rumor is circulating in the plant, and one of your workers (an old friend who now works for you) asks the question. Well, Pat, whats the word? Is the plant closing? Am I going to lose my job? The closing on our new house is scheduled for next week. I need to know. What will you say? + Prescriptive Approaches Focus on consequences (consequentialist theories) Focus on duties, obligations, principles (deontological theories)
Focus on integrity (virtue ethics) + Focus on Consequences (Consequentialist Theories) Utilitarianism - best known consequentialist theory Identify alternative actions and consequences to stakeholders Best decision yields greatest net benefits to society Worst
decision yields greatest net harms to society + Focus on consequences classic Trolley example A runaway trolley is hurtling down the tracks toward 5 people who will be killed if it proceeds on its present course. You can save these 5 by diverting the trolley onto a different set of tracks, one that has only 1 person on it, but if you do this that person will be killed. Question: Should you turn the trolley to prevent 5 deaths at the cost of 1? +
Consequentialist Questions Can I indentify all the stakeholders? Immediate, distant? What are the potential actions I could take? What are the harms and benefits for stakeholders given potential decisions/actions?
What decision will produce the most benefit (and least harm) for the greatest number of people, and for society at large? Consequentialist Analysis Stakeholder Option 1 - Costs Option 1 -Benefits Option 2Costs Option 2 Benefits #1 #2 #3 #4
.etc. Bottom line = action that produces the greatest good for the greatest number of people, for society overall! + Focus on Consequences (Consequentialist Theories) Advantages Practical Already underlies business thinking Challenges Difficult to evaluate all consequences
Rights of minorities can be sacrificed + Focus on Duties, Obligations, Principles (Deontological Theories) Decisions based upon abstract universal principles: honesty, promise-keeping, fairness, rights, justice, respect Focus on doing whats right (consistent with these principles) rather than doing what will maximize societal welfare (as in utilitarianism) + Ethical rules (simplified) Kants categorical imperative
What kind of world would it be if everyone behaved this way? Would I want to live in that world? Rawls fair What would decision be if decision makers knew nothing about their identities or status? Golden veil of ignorance for deciding whats Rule Treat others as you would have them treat you (Assumption is that both parties are ETHICAL! An ethical person wouldnt expect someone else to be unethical for him/her.)
+ Deontological Questions Which values or principles apply? Which are most important and why? What are my ethical duties, obligations? Have I treated others as I would want to be treated? (Golden Rule) Have I assumed that the other(s) is ethical and responsible? If everyone behaved this way, would that be acceptable? Would I want to live in that world? (Kants categorical imperative) What would be a fair action if identities were unknown? (Rawls veil of ignorance) +
Focus on Duties, Obligations, Principles (Deontological Theories) Advantages Rights approach found in public policy debates (e.g., abortion) Challenges Determining rule, principle, or right to follow: Golden rule, Kants maxim
Deciding which takes precedence Reconciling deontological and consequentialist approaches when they conflict + Focus on Integrity (Virtue Ethics) Focus on integrity of moral actor rather than the act Considers character, motivations, intentions
Character defined by ones community Need to identify relevant community Disclosure rule + Virtue Ethics Questions What does it mean to be a person of integrity in this situation, profession, etc.? What ethical community would hold me to the highest ethical standards? Do carefully developed community standards exist? What would the broader community think if this were disclosed? New York Times test? What would my harshest moral critic expect me to do? What would my ethical role model expect?
What do I want my professional reputation to be? + Virtue Ethics Management as a Profession The proposed Hippocratic Oath Managers as agents of society serve public interest, enhance long-term value for society
Enterprise well-being over self-interest Obedience to letter/spirit of law and other contracts Behavior of integrity self and others Accuracy and transparency in reporting outcomes & processes Treat others with respect/fairness re: others, the powerless Knowledge/fact-based decision making Accept responsibility as a professional manager Would this have made a difference in the financial crisis??? + Focus on Integrity (Virtue Ethics) Advantages
Can rely upon community standards Challenges Limited agreement about community standards Many communities havent done this kind of thinking Community may be wrong + Eight Steps to Sound Ethical Decision Making
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Gather the facts Define the ethical issues Identify the affected parties Identify the consequences Identify the obligations Consider your character and integrity 7. Think creatively about potential actions 8. Check your gut + Practical Preventive Medicine
(When Asked to Make a Snap Decision) Pay attention to your gut Ask for time Find out about organizational policy Ask manager or peers for advice Use New York Times test (disclosure rule)
+ The Cost to Society of Dying in a Pinto (in 1971 dollars) equals $200,7 25 The benefit and cost of an $11 safety improvement would have been: benefit = $49.5 million cost = $137 million
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