GCSE Physical Education - macphysed

GCSE Physical Education - macphysed

Physical Education Theory 2/25/20 1 Physical Education The Circulatory and Respiratory Systems 2/25/20 2 Circulatory System The human heart is a muscular organ located between the lungs in the middle of your chest. It pumps blood through your body and supplies the cells and tissue with oxygen and nutrients. In order to meet your body's energy demands your heart

must beat more than 100,000 times per day. Inside your heart are four chambers. The upper chambers are called atria and the lower chambers are called ventricles. The ventricles are larger than the atria. These chambers are responsible for pumping over 7500 litres of blood per day. The left side of your heart receives the newly oxygenated blood from your lungs and pumps it through your entire body. The walls of the left ventricle are three times thicker than the walls of the right ventricle. The thickness of the cardiac muscle gives the left ventricle the power needed to pump the blood through your entire body, from head to toe and back. 2/25/20

3 The Heart Each time a blood cell goes around your body, it goes through the heart twice, (double circulation). This happens because there are two circuits: 1. The systemic circuit is the main circuit. It carries oxygenated blood around the body in the arteries, and deoxygenated blood back to the heart along the veins. 2. The pulmonary circuit includes the heart and lungs. It carries deoxygenated blood from the heart to the lungs to be oxygenated. The blood then goes back to the heart to be pumped around the systemic circuit. 2/25/20 4

REMEMBER !!! The ARTERIES carry OXYGENATED blood (blood rich with oxygen) The Veins carry DE-OXYGENATED blood (blood poor with oxygen) The only exception to this is the Pulmonary vein which carries oxygenated blood from the lungs, and the pulmonary artery that carries de-oxygenated blood to the lungs. 2/25/20 5

To work effectively the Heart and Lungs need to work together smoothly The Movement of Blood Around the Body Blood with a poor oxygen supply is pumped to the lungs Once the oxygen has been delivered to the body and waste products have been collected the blood returns to the heart 2/25/20 Oxygen is transferred into the blood and travels to

the heart The heart pumps blood around the body delivering oxygen 6 Remember Oxygen-Loaded blood goes into the Left side of the heart. Oxygen-pooR blood goes into the Right side of the heart. 2/25/20

7 How Blood is Pumped Around the Body 1. The heart pumps blood at high pressure into the arteries. 2. The artery walls are made of muscle and elastic tissue. They stretch when blood is pumped in, then contract, squirting it along. 3. The artery branches into smaller tubes called arterioles. 4. The arterioles branch into tiny tubes called capillaries. The thin walls allow food and oxygen to pass out to body cells, and carbon dioxide

and other waste to pass in. 5. Next the blood flows into larger tubes called venules. It has given up its oxygen. It is deoxygenated. 6. From the venules it flows into a vein, which carries it back to the heart. 2/25/20 8 The Effects of Exercise on the Circulatory system The Heart is a Cardiac Muscle, when we regularly exercise or train muscles they grow and become stronger. This means: 1. The amount of blood pumped from the heart in one beat will increase (Stroke volume) 2. The total amount of blood pumped in one minute will increase

(Cardiac output) 3. Resting heart rate will lower as the heart will pump the blood as required in fewer beats. The more blood that can be pumped the more oxygen it can carry to the muscles that require it. Larger stronger Heart Small Heart Regular exercise 2/25/20 9 Heart Rate The average resting heart rate is between 60 and 80 bpm (beats per minute).

People who exercise regularly have a resting heart of between 50-60 bpm. Steve Redgrave has a resting heart rate of 40-45 bpm Recently retired endurance cyclist Miguel Indurain has a resting heart rate of 27 bpm. Record your heart rate over 15 seconds and multiply it by 4 to find out your resting heart rate. 2/25/20

10 Heart and Lungs The heart pumps blood around the body with rich and poor supply of oxygen. Oxygen gets into the blood from the air that we breathe into the lungs. 2/25/20 11 The Lungs Air is drawn in through the nose or mouth and then on to the trachea. The trachea or windpipe branches into two tubes called bronchi. Each one is called a bronchus, and one goes into each lung. The

bronchi branch into smaller tubes called bronchioles. The bronchioles end in bunches of tiny air sacs or alveoli. Each one is called an alveolus. Their walls are so thin that gas can pass through. 2/25/20 12 Gaseous Exchange The Heart and Lungs form our Circulatory and Respiratory systems. A gaseous exchange involves both these systems. Oxygen (O) and Carbon Dioxide (CO2) are exchanged. Oxygen is put into the blood by the lungs and Carbon Dioxide is taken out of the blood back into the lungs and breathed out

of our mouths. 2/25/20 13 Aerobic or Anaerobic? Depending on what exercise we perform will effect what energy system we use. It also depends of the duration and intensity of the activity being performed. Our respiratory and circulatory system can work to get oxygen to our muscles, this happens in mainly endurance activities. This is known as AEROBIC activity (with oxygen). When we require our muscles to perform explosive activities over a short period of time it is not possible to get enough oxygen (energy) that quickly so the body uses GLYCOGEN instead. This

is called ANAEROBIC activity (without oxygen). But there are consequences 2/25/20 14 How, When and Where is it used? In your exam you will probably be asked to write about how anaerobic and aerobic conditions can effect performance in different sports and activities. You will need to know different examples of them both. Endurance (Aerobic) Running, swimming, cycling. This activity can be continued in line with the persons fitness levels and can be replaced by the circulatory and respiratory systems. Speed and Power (Anaerobic) throwing, jumping, lifting. This

can only last for about 40 seconds and cannot be replaced during anaerobic activity it just simply runs out (hitting the wall) 2/25/20 15 Team Games Activities such as football, rugby, netball, tennis, basketball and hockey require the use of both systems. Why? Answer Because they require steady periods of activity (Jogging), followed by explosive activities (sprinting past player, serving the ball) that cannot be maintained throughout the whole game. But one system can recover while using the other.

2/25/20 16 Lactic Acid When we work anaerobically we can produce explosive activities. We can only do this for a short time. This is because when we exercise without using oxygen we use glycogen. This leaves a waste product called Lactic Acid. Lactic acid is produced when we exercise aerobically and anaerobically but is produced faster when we work out without using oxygen. Lactic acid is a poison that stops the muscles from working effectively. This can only be stopped by using oxygen as an antidote. This means we have to work aerobically using oxygen, which in turn means we have to work out at a lower intensity or slower. 2/25/20

17 Oxygen Debt The process of how effectively we can get oxygen to our muscles can effect our performance. When the muscles require more oxygen than the body can supply it is called the Oxygen Debt. The more training we do the more we can perform and recover from oxygen debt 2/25/20

18 Effects of Exercise on the Respiratory system Our respiratory system will become more efficient at getting oxygen from the lungs to the blood, and also better at getting carbon dioxide from the muscles to the blood then to the lungs to be breathed out. This can be of benefit to the person because: The total volume of air breathed in and out in one breathe will increase (Vital capacity) The amount of air entering and exiting your system at rest will increase (Tidal volume) 2/25/20

19 Blood Blood has THREE main functions 1. Transport Blood transports oxygen from the lungs to the body and brings carbon dioxide to the lungs to be breathed out. It also carries waste products to the kidneys to be filtered and excreted and carries particles of food from the gut to parts of the body. 2. Protection Blood contains clotting agents (Platelets) to help wounds stop bleeding. 3. Regulation Blood also helps to keep the body's temperature

constant. Veins and capillaries will expand to help heat loss, for example red face when just finished exercising. In extreme temperatures the body system cannot perform this properly. 2/25/20 20 What is BLOOD made up of? Blood is made up of several components 1. White Blood Cells - You have far fewer white blood cells than red blood cells but you make extra when you are ill. They fight disease by destroying bacteria using antibodies, toxins using antitoxins, foreign microbes by consuming them. 2.

Red Blood Cells - Red blood cells carry oxygen around the body in red haemoglobin. They have no nucleus and there are millions in each drop of blood. 3. Platelets - Platelets help make the blood clot. They are sticky fragments of cells with no nucleus. They stick together in cuts and make tiny fibres grow. Red cells get trapped in the fibres and form a blood clot. This turns into a scab. 4. Plasma - Plasma is a yellow liquid (water & dissolved substances) that carries everything in the bloodstream. That includes Glucose and other nutrients for cells, hormones, carbon dioxide from cells. 2/25/20 21 RECAP

Can you describe what these are? Circulatory system Respiratory system Veins Arteries Oxygenated blood Deoxygenated blood Aerobic Anaerobic

Lactic acid Oxygen debt Gaseous exchange 2/25/20 22 QUESTIONS What are the upper chambers of the heart called? Whats different about the pulmonary vein and artery? Where does the heart pump oxygen rich blood? What is an effect of regular exercise on the heart?

What is the difference between aerobic and anaerobic activity? What is lactic acid? What are the 3 functions of blood? What is blood made up of? 2/25/20 23 Extra Activities Class heart rate list Complete Handouts Complete recap list 2/25/20 24

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