Frankenstein

Frankenstein

Frankenstein by Mary Shelley Mary Shelley 1797-1851

Poetry should begin as the spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings. William Wordsworth

The artists feeling is his law. --Casper David

Friedrich Wanderer Above the Sea of Fog 1818

Intellectual Movements The Enlightenment 18th century (1700s) Diderot, Voltaire, Kant, Rousseau

Focused on the use of reason and rationality, questioning of dogma, empiricism, scientific rigor, and freedom based on the

idea of man as a rational being. Romanticism 1790-1850

Byron, Keats, Coleridge, Shelley, Hawthorne, Poe, Dickinson, Whitman, Irving A reaction to the Industrial Revolution and

Enlightenment ideals. Romanticism Believed emotion to be a source of aesthetic expression

Placed importance on the sublimity and beauty of nature Looked to the past, especially medievalism and the chivalric romance Admired the solitary genius, placing prime

importance on original creation from ones own imagination following no prior rules or structures. William Godwin (1756-1836)

Mary Wollstonecraft (1759-1797) Mary Wollstonecraft and William Godwin

Mary W. was an early feminist who wrote A Vindication of the Rights of Women and considered womens lack of political power and narrow role as wives and mothers to be slavery.

She had an illegitimate child with Gilbert Imlay before meeting William Godwin. Mary Wollstonecraft and William Godwin William Godwin was a radical political

philosopher, a proponent of anarchism, and a critic of contemporary social structures, including marriage. He married Mary W. after she conceived Mary S.

Mary Wollstonecraft and William Godwin Mary W. died only 10 days after Mary S. was born. Mary S. very often hung out by her grave. Thats where her relationship with Percy began.

William published a very honest biography about Mary W. that included her many affairs, illegitimate child, and suicide attempts. He was surprised when people were shocked and considered the biography to be heartless.

Mary Wollstonecraft and William Godwin William raised Mary and her half-sister Fanny very lovingly. He remarried (another Mary) with her own

two children. He educated Mary to a greater degree than most girls at the time and immersed her in the intellectual ideas of his circle.

Mary Shelley 1797-1851 Percy Bysshe Shelley 1792-1822

Mary Shelley 1797-1851 Percy Bysshe

Shelley 1792-1822 Claire Clairmont, Marys stepsister Lord Byron,

poet and friend Claire Claremont, Marys stepPercy Bysshe

sister Shelley 1792-1822 Claire Clairmont, Marys stepMary Shelley sister

1797-1851 Mary Shelley 1797-1851 Mary Wollstonecraft Godwin At age 16, 1814, began a relationship with

Percy Bysshe Shelleywho had a pregnant wife and child. Mary and Percy ran off together and married two years laterthree weeks after Percys wife Harriet committed suicide.

Mary Shelley Much of their life was spent travelling throughout Europe with other poets and writers, especially the poet Lord Byron, and

with Marys step-sister Claire, who conceived a child with Byron. Percy continued to have affairs throughout their marriage, probably also with Claire. Mary claims to have agreed that marriage was

oppressive and unnecessarymaybe. Mary Shelley Mary gave birth to four children with Percy, three of whom died as infants or toddlers.

Her only surviving son was Percy Florence Shelley. Mary Shelley Percy died in a boating accident on July 8,

1822. Mary spent much of her life publishing his works and trying to publish his life story. She supported herself with her own writing.

Gothic Literature Gothic Literature First Gothic novel The Castle of Otranto by Horace Walpole

His aim was to find a middle ground between a medieval romance, which he found too fanciful, and a modern (contemporary) novel, which he found to be too confined to strict realism.

Gothic Literature The name comes from its similarities to Gothic architectureunrestrained with grotesque ornamentation putting humans in conflict with

supernatural forces. These traits show an ambition to transcend human limitations and reach the divine. Also a fascination with the mysterious infinite of the universe, including the terror that goes

along with it. Lord Byron: source of the term Byronic hero.

A man proud, moody, cynical, with defiance on his brow and misery in his heart, a scorner of his kind,

implacable in revenge, yet capable of deep and strong affection. --Lord Macaulay

Motifs, Techniques, and Allusions

Solitary genius Byronic hero Satanic hero

Faust Frame or spiral narrative Nature as a mirror, character, or force The conflict of logic and emotion Doppelganger

Paradise Lost Prometheus Galvanism Using an electrical current to make the

muscles of a dead creature contract Monsters Monster Etymology

Originally abnormal or abnormally large animals were considered portentsmonsters, signs. 12th century monster = a repulsive character or object of dread; an abomination

14th century monster = something malformed 1550 monster = a person of inhuman cruelty or wickedness 21 Century Monster

st What would be the worst monster for our day and age? Draw the creature, including details that

reveal what is monstrous about this creature for our world. Label the details to explain why this thing is a modern-day monster.

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